CN104012284B - Yunnan, summer rain spring drought Dry-hot Valley Area olive early builds method in real high yield garden fast - Google Patents

Yunnan, summer rain spring drought Dry-hot Valley Area olive early builds method in real high yield garden fast Download PDF

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CN104012284B
CN104012284B CN201410272089.7A CN201410272089A CN104012284B CN 104012284 B CN104012284 B CN 104012284B CN 201410272089 A CN201410272089 A CN 201410272089A CN 104012284 B CN104012284 B CN 104012284B
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soil
olive
yunnan
grafting
fertilizer
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CN104012284A (en
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龚发萍
黄佳聪
杨晓霞
尹光顺
杨开保
王保生
尹瑞萍
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Baoshan forestry and grassland Technology Promotion Station
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BAOSHAN FORESTRY TECHNOLOGY EXTENSION CENTER
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/22Improving land use; Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/40Afforestation or reforestation

Abstract

The present invention open a kind of Yunnan, summer rain spring drought Dry-hot Valley Area olive early builds method in real high yield garden fast, and it comprises the following steps: (1) seeding and seedling raising in February; (2) improve the soil wholely; (3) plantation in June; (4) grafting in September; (5) tending management is strengthened.Test and production practices show that the Dry-hot Valley Area that this technology can be rainy season and winter in summer, spring arid is short of rain builds Yunnan olive early real high yield garden fast, shorten the investment time limit, reduce and build garden cost of investment, garden efficiency is built in effective raising, reach the 3rd annual bearing from seeding and seedling raising, within the 5th year, enter the full bearing period.The present invention compares with the afforestation technology adopted at present, have and save seedling cost 71.4%, improve and build garden effect, within 1 year, enter in advance the economic well-being of workers and staff phase and the full bearing period advantage such as additional income, efficiently solve the difficult problems such as summer rain spring drought Dry-hot Valley Area survival rate is low, storage rate is low, restoration of the ecosystem is difficult, have broad application prospects aborning.

Description

Yunnan, summer rain spring drought Dry-hot Valley Area olive early builds method in real high yield garden fast
Technical field
---difficulty afforesting in Dry-hot Valley Area---ecological economy dual-purpose forest Planting Techniques field that the invention belongs to restoration of the ecosystem, is specifically related to Yunnan, the summer rain spring drought Dry-hot Valley Area olive early quick afforestation technique in real high yield garden.
Background technology
Dry-hot valley afforestation area in hardship forest coverage is low, and survival rate is low, storage rate is low, lacks the problems such as ecological economy dual-purpose seeds (breeding), is a difficult problem for this district's restoration of the ecosystem of restriction always.For overcoming this difficult problem, carrying out suitable reproducting tree species in the such as problem restoration of the ecosystem area in hardship and to select and fine-variety breeding work is the problem needing solution at present badly.
Summary of the invention
The invention provides a kind of Yunnan, summer rain spring drought Dry-hot Valley Area olive early quick afforestation technique in real high yield garden, to make up the deficiency of above-mentioned afforestation technology, reach the object increasing income, improve dry-hot valley ecotope.
The present invention realizes by the following technical solutions:
Yunnan, summer rain spring drought Dry-hot Valley Area olive early builds method in comprising the steps: in real high yield garden fast
Step (1), cultivating seedlings: screen large grain full wild Yunnan olive seed, live on plant growing container bag after vernalization process February, cultivate Yunnan olive and to grow directly from seeds a bag seedling;
Step (2), improves the soil: plant and complete whole to plantation plot in first 30 days, farmyard manure is improved the soil, and builds the fish scale pit of high outside and low outside, that mesa width is greater than 1m adverse slope tableland or more than 1m2 wholely;
Step (3), plantation: after entering rainy season, at fine day or cloudy day in June, growth selection is healthy and strong, a bag seed of growing directly from seeds of height of seedling >=20cm is planted, and strengthens fostering managing and protecting; The dead plant of after-culture in strong sprout of the same age of timely preparation, and strengthen management and make it and former nursery stock uniform growth of afforesting;
Step (4), grafting: between 9-10 middle of the month, to the Yunnan olive seedling of plantation in June, adopts Gaoligong mountains glutinous olive breeding fringe bar to carry out grafting renovation with cut-grafting method; Timely benefit connects, and strengthens management and make it and former grafting survival plant uniform growth;
Step (5), tending management: removing stock rudiment in time, holds up straight trunk; Strengthen soil, fertilizer, water, the management of tree body and the extermination of disease and insect pest.
Place of afforesting in technical solution of the present invention is rainy season and winter and spring arid Dry-hot Valley Area short of rain summer.This district's routine techniques afforestation has the advantages that survival rate is low, storage rate is low, restoration of the ecosystem is difficult.
The polyethylene film plant growing container bag of to be thickness be 0.02-0.09mm, high 20-25cm, the broadening 13-14cm of the plant growing container bag described in technical solution of the present invention step (1), after its dress Nutrition Soil, diameter is about 8cm.
During technical solution of the present invention step (1) cultivating seedlings, when height of seedling 3-6cm, there is 2-4 sheet true leaf time, timely thinning, to fill the gaps with seedlings, thinning and water sufficient water after filling the gaps with seedlings once.
It is soak seed sterilization in 0.5% liquor potassic permanganate after 2 hours that vernalization described in technical solution of the present invention step (1) is treated to seed in mass concentration, put into 35-40 DEG C of warm water to soak 1 day, take out and load the mid-warm place of cloth bag, temperature is 24-26 DEG C, every day eluriates once with clear water, can sow when 39-41% seed splits when mouth shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally.
Press seeding row spacing 2m × 5m during technical solution of the present invention step (2) whole ground, dig the pool of the groove of dark, wide each 40-60cm or length and width, dark each 40-60cm along contour; Fluting or after digging pool Exposure to Sunlight 30d, well-rotted farmyard manure 7.5kg, phosphate fertilizer 1kg is executed or well-rotted farmyard manure 15kg, phosphate fertilizer 1kg are executed in every pool by every meter of groove, backfill after mixing with top layer mellow soil, Hui Tu limit, limit is steady and sure, be back to 0.2-0.4m above ground level, and form the fish scale pit of high outside and low outside, that mesa width is greater than 1m adverse slope tableland or more than 1m2.
Technical solution of the present invention is slotted or after digging pool Exposure to Sunlight 30d, is inserted one or more in broad-leaved tree fallen leaves, maize bar and forest humus bottom groove or the pool.
During technical solution of the present invention step (3) plantation, the pool central authorities or central along the field planting groove backfilled by spacing in the rows backfilled, dig the planting pit bigger, slightly darker than seedling-nourishing soil sphere volume, by removing, container bag, solution are tied up, nursery stock with complete nutrition soil puts into planting pit, the size of planting pit is limited with the nursery stock putting into band complete nutrition soil, makes nursery stock uprightly return soil afterwards, limit Hui Tu limit compacting, Hui Tuzhi, higher than Nutrition Soil 1-2cm, exposes grafting part.
Gaoligong mountains glutinous olive breeding fringe bar described in technical solution of the present invention step (4) is the healthy and strong elite stand middle and upper part of the glutinous olive of Gaoligong mountains, a peripheral age permanent branch is that grafting is carried out in scion.
Technical solution of the present invention step (4) described grafting method is the flat bevel cutting long 2-3cm at the scion object bud back side apart from bud 0.3-0.5cm place downwards, object bud positive identity distance object bud 1.9-2.1cm precipitous of cutting long 0.45-0.55cm at 45 °, cut off at 0.45-0.55cm place, scion bud upper end and obtain and budder; Stock is being cut off apart from 6-10cm place, ground, and at the sideband xylem that smooth line is suitable, the 1/4-1/3 place in cross section vertically cuts, the long 2-3cm of tangent plane, and flat bevel is suitable with buddering; The long inclined-plane of buddering cut is leaned on inner, in short bevel outer insertion stock otch, makes the formation layer on long inclined-plane of buddering at least and the formation layer alignment of stock otch, and be close to, tighten with plastic film and obturage.
Yunnan, summer of the present invention rain spring drought Dry-hot Valley Area olive early builds method in real high yield garden fast, comprises the steps:
Step (1), cultivating seedlings:
One, nursery lot is selected: in olive suitable cultivation region, Yunnan, select traffic convenience, there are good water supply, draining and labour's condition, physical features is smooth, natural grade less than 5 degree, soil thickness more than 50 centimetres, weak acid are to weak base, fertile sandy loam, light loam and loam, as nursery lot, and make rational planning for selection nursery lot in the good plot of soil aggregate;
Two, fruit collection and the production of hybrid seeds: growth selection is healthy and strong, be seed collecting elite stand without damage by disease and insect, the adult Yunnan olive plant of planting benevolence full, in late January seed fully maturation time fruit picking; Fruit makes fruit stone be separated with pulp through rolling or mashing, tan by the sun after elutriation 350 °-65 ° 7 days, eject after seed to fruit stone explosion, sieving separating seed; Screen large grain full seed, after vernalization in the live plant growing container bag installing Nutrition Soil;
Three, nutritive soil preparation: paddy soils is after abundant Exposure to Sunlight rake is thin, and the composite fertilizer being master with appropriate high-quality well-rotted farmyard manure, phosphate fertilizer mixes, and sieves, stack retting more than 20 days;
Four, pack: the Nutrition Soil through stack retting process is loaded the polyethylene film plant growing container bag that thickness is 0.02-0.09mm, high 20-25cm, broadening 13-14cm, banket while jog concussion, pack is enriched, full, and fixing by being close between the seedling bag filling Nutrition Soil, being neatly placed on seedling bed; Nursery bedside 1.0-1.2m, spacing 0.4m, spacing is interim pavement;
Five, presprouting of seeds and sowing: seed is soak seed sterilization in 0.5% liquor potassic permanganate after 2 hours in mass concentration, put into 35-40 DEG C of warm water to soak 1 day, take out and load the mid-warm place of cloth bag, about 24-26, every day eluriates once, when 39-41% seed splits sowing in time when mouth shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally with clear water; During sowing, each Seedling bag sowing 2-3 grain, after planting waters once permeable;
Six, plastic film Small plastic shed and sunshade net are built: after sowing is watered, nutritious bag seedbed is done the adjustable shade net canopy of the plastic film Small plastic shed of sagitta 40-50cm and clear height 1.8-2.0m, sunshade degree 70%, and by adjustment sunshade net, make film encircle temperature of shed and remain on 24-26 DEG C;
Seven, thinning and filling the gaps with seedlings: when height of seedling 3-6cm, tool 2-4 sheet true leaf, retain 1 seedlings by every Seedling bag, carry out thinning in time and fill the gaps with seedlings, thinning and water sufficient water after filling the gaps with seedlings once;
Eight, seedling management: when mid-April, height of seedling was about 12cm, remove plastics Small plastic shed gradually; Mid-May, remove sunshade net gradually; With late April to mid-May, follow a small amount of fertilization principle repeatedly, impose urea 2 times, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 1 time; Intertill and clean tillage before fertilising, pours water after fertilising;
Step (2), improve the soil wholely:
One, selection of land: Yunnan olive drought resisting is barren-resistant, but good planting site is the basis of its high-quality, high and stable yield; Should select height above sea level 700-1500m, more than annual rainfall 700mm, average annual temperature 16.5-21 DEG C, the absolute minimum air temperature is greater than 0 DEG C; Traffic is relatively convenient, preferably has source of irrigation water, and really the phase is without regular strong wind, more than soil thickness 50cm, the tailo of illumination abundance, the gentle slope of half tailo, level land Jian Yuan;
Two, improve the soil: within first 30 days, to complete to afforesting with Withdrawal whole, should not now dig existing cultivation wholely; Press seeding row spacing 2m × 5m during whole ground, dig the pool of the groove of dark, wide each 40-60cm or length and width, dark each 40-60cm along contour; Upper and lower layer soil pile up separately, topsoil is placed on upward slope orientation, subsoil is placed on descending orientation; By the farmyard manure (i.e. every strain 15kg) that 667m2 planting site preparation 1000kg fully becomes thoroughly decomposed; Farmyard manure has improvement soil, promotes the effect of root system development and treelet uniform growth; Fluting or after digging pool Exposure to Sunlight 30d, utilizes broad-leaved tree fallen leaves, maize bar, forest humus etc. inserts channel bottom; Well-rotted farmyard manure 7.5kg, phosphate fertilizer 1kg is executed or well-rotted farmyard manure 15kg, phosphate fertilizer 1kg are executed in every pool by every meter of groove, backfill after mixing with top layer mellow soil, Hui Tu limit, limit is steady and sure, be back to 0.2-0.4m above ground level, and form the fish scale pit of high outside and low outside, that mesa width is greater than 1m adverse slope tableland or more than 1m2;
Step (3), plantation: plant in time after entering rainy season in June.Growth selection is healthy and strong, a bag seed of growing directly from seeds of height of seedling >=20cm is planted, the pool central authorities or central along the field planting groove backfilled by spacing in the rows backfilled, dig the planting pit bigger, slightly darker than seedling-nourishing soil sphere volume, by removing, container bag, solution are tied up, nursery stock with complete nutrition soil puts into planting pit, nursery stock is made uprightly to return soil afterwards, limit Hui Tu limit compacting, Hui Tuzhi, higher than Nutrition Soil 150 ° of-65 ° of 2cm, exposes grafting part; Raining season wooding should select the fine day in rainy season or cloudy day to plant, and avoids afforestation on rainy day, and forbids having peace of mind when cohesive soil territory is planted; Meanwhile, strengthen managing and protecting, to the seedling of plantation in June, timely intertill and clean tillage, imposes mid-July and mid-August 1 Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium respectively; Find dead plant, in time with nursery stock after-culture of the same age;
Step (4), grafting:
One, grafting period: September-mid-October;
Two, fringe bar gathers: at breeding cutting orchard, and selection Gaoligong mountains glutinous olive robust growth scion-seed tree middle and upper part, a peripheral age permanent branch are scion, and scion should with adopting with connecing;
Three, grafting operation: adopt cut-grafting method to carry out grafting: the flat bevel cutting long 2-3cm at the scion object bud back side apart from bud 0.3-0.5cm place downwards, object bud positive identity distance object bud 1.9-2.1cm precipitous of cutting long 0.45-0.55cm at 45 °, cut off at 0.45-0.55cm place, scion bud upper end and obtain and budder; Stock is being cut off apart from 6-10cm place, ground, and at the sideband xylem that smooth line is suitable, the 1/4-1/3 place in cross section vertically cuts, the long 2-3cm of tangent plane, and flat bevel is suitable with buddering; The long inclined-plane of buddering cut is leaned on inner, in short bevel outer insertion stock otch, makes the formation layer on long inclined-plane of buddering at least and the formation layer alignment of stock otch, and be close to, tighten with plastic film and obturage;
Four, in time benefit grafting work is carried out to the dead plant of grafting;
Step (5), tending management technology:
One, to water irrigation: the wooden land having irrigation conditions, should water respectively once January, March; Early March is poured water and can be carried out in conjunction with fertilising; Do not possess irrigation conditions, should adopt the Water-retaining Measures such as covering;
Two, cover: adopt the overlay tree dishes such as straw, stalk, mountain grass, broad-leaved tree fallen leaves, the thickness after general covering compacting should be greater than 6cm, and area is greater than 4m2, and covering Best Times is October;
Three, intercropping: select suitable short-stalked crop in intercropping in the ranks, and make interrow crop and Yunnan olive plant keep suitable spacing, prevent from fighting for nutrient mutually;
Four, intertill and clean tillage and plough deeply soil: intertill and clean tillage in good time, autumn ploughs deeply soil before covering, and noting should be shallow near tree dish, in case hinder root;
Five, apply fertilizer: below the earth's surface that treelet fertilising should be relatively concentrated in tree crown drip around 30-50cm, bearing tree fertilising then should take into account other position within tree crown; Annual fertilising 3 times; Sprout front fertilizer: early March applies urea, pour water after fertilising, earthing, Moisture conservation; The short tip or Tomacon: 5-6 month early and middle ten days applies, and is major-minor nitrogen fertilizer application, in conjunction with fertilizing and weeding with phosphorus, potash fertilizer; Base manure: October applies is major-minor potassium application with fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer; First by weeds and last year covering shovel in dressing furrow and again farmyard manure applied, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields chemical fertilizer, blinding, covering afterwards; How much relevant fertilising quantity is with the age of tree, tree body size and result; Under normal circumstances, annual every strain applies fertilizer quantity and is: 2-3 treelet phase, fertilizer 10kg, nitrogenous fertilizer 0.3-0.5kg, phosphate fertilizer 1-1.5kg, potash fertilizer 0.1-0.2kg; 4-6 contains the fruit phase at initial stage, fertilizer 15kg, nitrogenous fertilizer 0.7-1kg, phosphate fertilizer 2-3kg, potash fertilizer 0.3-0.7kg; More than 7 years age of trees, fertilizer 20-30kg, nitrogenous fertilizer 1-2kg, phosphate fertilizer 3-5kg, potash fertilizer 0.9-1.1kg;
Six, tree-like and structure: main employing becomes then trunk shape tree-shaped; Full tree is selected and remain 5-12 major branch, and each major branch is equidistant along trunk, helical form is evenly distributed on different directions; Adjacent two major branch spacing 50-70cm; First major branch and the second major branch to life, the second major branch and the 3rd major branch angle in 90 °, the 3rd major branch and the 4th major branch to life, and so forth; The angle of major branch and trunk 50 °-65 °, branch is contended decrescence little from bottom to top; Should ensure after plantation that trunk grows vertically upward, the balanced pumping of all directions branch, constantly upwards extending with trunk, major branch of constantly selecting and remain; Major branch select and remain after should by drawing, the method such as support adjustment major branch angle, by lopping, the season of growth is by promoting that major branch increases girth growth when pinching, winter pruning; Meanwhile, maintain the auxiliary support branch of being born in trunk, location-appropriate as far as possible, after weak to its result, more progressively remove;
Seven, pruning technique: Gaoligong mountains growth of glutinous olive treelet phase is fast, should use the logical allotment bar of height 2.4-2.6m to hold up straight trunk after plantation; Select and remain side shoot time, the distance of the first side shoot and trunk should be 30-40cm; The horizontal sextant angle of side shoot and major branch about 45 °, the position on same major branch between each side shoot wants suitably, to select the 2nd side shoot at the offside of the 1st side shoot, and between the two apart from 28-32cm, the 3rd side shoot and the 1st same orientation of side shoot, can suitably reduce with the spacing of the 2nd side shoot; Cultivation results branch group on side shoot; Trimming method mainly contains: cutting back, pinching, retraction, sparse branching, except sprouting, Qu Zhi, draw branch and longly to put;
Eight, flower and fruit management: the growth of Gaoligong mountains glutinous olive is fast, and result early; Adopt this technology to build garden, within the 2nd year, see flower after plantation, within the 3rd year, enter the economic well-being of workers and staff phase; For improve fruit-setting rate, should in full-bloom stage spray 0.2% boron fertilizer or spray 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate add 0.2% urea; After entering fruiting period, improve high quality fruit rate by flower thinning, fruit thinning;
Nine, prevention and elimination of disease and pests in good time.
Through the experimental study of more than 10 years, innovation integrate improves the corresponding cultivation techniques of summer rain spring drought Dry-hot Valley Area Afforestation Effects, select Yunnan olive as suitable reproducting tree species and cultivate series cultivation breeding, one of them is asexual lies in 2013 by high quality tree species validation board of Yunnan Province and assert, the glutinous olive of called after Gaoligong mountains (breeding numbering cloud R-SC-PE-069-2013).The glutinous olive of Gaoligong mountains ( phyllanthusemblica' gaoligongshan ') be Euphorbiaceae Leafflower deciduous tree, tool fast-growing, precocity fruiting, high yield and resistance to pruning characteristic.Bearing tree 1 year average pumping fruit bearing shoot of raw branch 19, every fruit branch average result 1.7, maximum 8.Fruit subcircular, fruit shape index 0.87, counterpoise 15.7g, tool taupe spot after pericarp light green maturation, edible rate 84.1%; Every gram of pulp contains vitamin C 4.7mg, total reducing sugar 5.07%, total acid 2.28%, moisture 84.1%.Nujiang River Basin about 1300m regional culture, the leaf fall period 1-2 month, the florescence 3-4 month, the fructescence 10-11 month.
compared with prior art, its beneficial effect is in the present invention:yunnan, summer of the present invention rain spring drought Dry-hot Valley Area olive early real high yield garden fast the method for building effectively can improve problem restoration of the ecosystem area in hardship survival rate and storage rate, realize ecological construction and Industrial Construction good combination, quick construction Yunnan olive is real garden of getting bumper crops early, shorten the investment time limit, reduce and build garden cost of investment, garden efficiency is built in effective raising, to reach from seeding and seedling raising the 3rd annual bearing, within the 5th year, enters the full bearing period.The afforestation technology of current employing is in April, the 1st seeding and seedling raising, within 2nd year, plant the 6-9 month, 4th annual bearing, within 6th year, enter the full bearing period, the present invention is compared with the afforestation technology adopted at present, the every strain of nursery stock price is reduced to 1 yuan by more than 3.5 yuan, have and save seedling cost 71.4%, survival rate improves, improve and build garden effect, within 1 year, enter in advance the economic well-being of workers and staff phase and the full bearing period advantage such as additional income, to dry-hot valley restoration of the ecosystem area in hardship ecological construction, economic construction, industry restructuring, Increase Income of Peasant Households, rural economy is flourishing and sustainable development is significant.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment, the present invention is described in further detail.
embodiment 1
Yunnan, summer rain spring drought Dry-hot Valley Area olive early builds method in real high yield garden fast, comprises the steps:
Step (1), cultivating seedlings:
One, nursery lot is selected: in olive suitable cultivation region, Yunnan, select traffic convenience, there are good water supply, draining and labour's condition, physical features is smooth, natural grade less than 5 degree, soil thickness more than 50 centimetres, weak acid are to weak base, fertile sandy loam, light loam and loam, as nursery lot, and make rational planning for selection nursery lot in the good plot of soil aggregate;
Two, fruit collection and the production of hybrid seeds: growth selection is healthy and strong, be seed collecting elite stand without damage by disease and insect, the adult Yunnan olive plant of planting benevolence full, in late January seed fully maturation time fruit picking; Fruit makes fruit stone be separated with pulp through rolling or mashing, and tans by the sun 3 days after elutriation, after ejecting seed to fruit stone explosion, and sieving separating seed; Screen large grain full seed, after vernalization in the live plant growing container bag installing Nutrition Soil;
Three, nutritive soil preparation: paddy soils is after abundant Exposure to Sunlight rake is thin, and the composite fertilizer being master with appropriate high-quality well-rotted farmyard manure, phosphate fertilizer mixes, and sieves, stack retting more than 20 days;
Four, pack: the Nutrition Soil through stack retting process is loaded the polyethylene film plant growing container bag that thickness is 0.02mm, high 20cm, broadening 13cm, banket while jog concussion, pack is enriched, full, and fixing by being close between the seedling bag filling Nutrition Soil, being neatly placed on seedling bed; Nursery bedside 1.0m, spacing 0.4m, spacing is interim pavement;
Five, presprouting of seeds and sowing: seed is soak seed sterilization in 0.5% liquor potassic permanganate after 2 hours in mass concentration, put into 35 DEG C of warm water to soak 1 day, take out and load the mid-warm place of cloth bag, temperature is 24 DEG C, every day eluriates once, when 39% seed splits sowing in time when mouth shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally with clear water; During sowing, each Seedling bag sows 2, after planting waters once permeable;
Six, plastic film Small plastic shed and sunshade net are built: after sowing is watered, nutritious bag seedbed is done the adjustable shade net canopy of the plastic film Small plastic shed of sagitta 40cm and clear height 1.8m, sunshade degree 70%, and by adjustment sunshade net, make film encircle temperature of shed and remain on 24 DEG C;
Seven, thinning and filling the gaps with seedlings: when height of seedling 3cm, there is 2 true leaves time, retain 1 seedlings by every Seedling bag, carry out thinning in time and fill the gaps with seedlings, thinning and water sufficient water after filling the gaps with seedlings once;
Eight, seedling management: during height of seedling 11.5cm mid-April, remove plastics Small plastic shed gradually; Mid-May, remove sunshade net gradually; With late April to mid-May, follow a small amount of fertilization principle repeatedly, impose urea 2 times, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 1 time; Intertill and clean tillage before fertilising, pours water after fertilising;
Step (2), improve the soil wholely:
One, selection of land: Yunnan olive drought resisting is barren-resistant, but good planting site is the basis of its high-quality, high and stable yield; Should select height above sea level 700m, more than annual rainfall 700mm, average annual temperature 16.5-21 DEG C, the absolute minimum air temperature is greater than 0 DEG C; Traffic is relatively convenient, preferably has source of irrigation water, and really the phase is without regular strong wind, more than soil thickness 50cm, the tailo of illumination abundance, the gentle slope of half tailo, level land Jian Yuan;
Two, improve the soil: within first 30 days, to complete to afforesting with Withdrawal whole, should not now dig existing cultivation wholely; Press seeding row spacing 2m × 5m during whole ground, dig the pool of the groove of dark, wide each 40cm or length and width, dark each 40cm along contour; Upper and lower layer soil pile up separately, topsoil is placed on upward slope orientation, subsoil is placed on descending orientation; By the farmyard manure (i.e. every strain 15kg) that 667m2 planting site preparation 1000kg fully becomes thoroughly decomposed; Farmyard manure has improvement soil, promotes the effect of root system development and treelet uniform growth; Fluting or after digging pool Exposure to Sunlight 30d, utilizes broad-leaved tree fallen leaves, maize bar, forest humus etc. inserts channel bottom; Well-rotted farmyard manure 7.5kg, phosphate fertilizer 1kg is executed or well-rotted farmyard manure 15kg, phosphate fertilizer 1kg are executed in every pool by every meter of groove, backfill after mixing with top layer mellow soil, Hui Tu limit, limit is steady and sure, is back to 0.2m above ground level, and forms the fish scale pit of high outside and low outside, that mesa width is greater than 1m adverse slope tableland or more than 1m2;
Step (3), plantation: plant in time after entering rainy season in June.Growth selection is healthy and strong, a bag seed of growing directly from seeds of height of seedling >=20cm is planted, the pool central authorities or central along the field planting groove backfilled by spacing in the rows backfilled, dig the planting pit bigger, slightly darker than seedling-nourishing soil sphere volume, by removing, container bag, solution are tied up, nursery stock with complete nutrition soil puts into planting pit, nursery stock is made uprightly to return soil afterwards, limit Hui Tu limit compacting, Hui Tuzhi, higher than Nutrition Soil 1cm, exposes grafting part; Raining season wooding should select the fine day in rainy season or cloudy day to plant, and avoids afforestation on rainy day, and forbids having peace of mind when cohesive soil territory is planted; Meanwhile, strengthen managing and protecting, to the seedling of plantation in June, timely intertill and clean tillage, imposes mid-July and mid-August 1 Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium respectively; Find dead plant, in time with nursery stock after-culture of the same age;
Step (4), grafting:
One, grafting period: September;
Two, fringe bar gathers: at breeding cutting orchard, and selection Gaoligong mountains glutinous olive robust growth scion-seed tree middle and upper part, a peripheral age permanent branch are scion, and scion should with adopting with connecing;
Three, grafting operation: adopt cut-grafting method to carry out grafting: the flat bevel cutting long 2cm at the scion object bud back side apart from bud 0.3cm place downwards, object bud positive identity distance object bud 1.9cm precipitous of cutting long 0.45cm at 45 °, cut off at 0.45cm place, scion bud upper end and obtain and budder; Stock is being cut off apart from 6cm place, ground, and at the sideband xylem that smooth line is suitable, 1/4 place in cross section vertically cuts, the long 2cm of tangent plane, and flat bevel is suitable with buddering; The long inclined-plane of buddering cut is leaned on inner, in short bevel outer insertion stock otch, makes the formation layer on long inclined-plane of buddering at least and the formation layer alignment of stock otch, and be close to, tighten with plastic film and obturage;
Four, in time benefit grafting work is carried out to the dead plant of grafting;
Step (5), tending management technology:
One, to water irrigation: the wooden land having irrigation conditions, should water respectively once January, March; Early March is poured water and can be carried out in conjunction with fertilising; Do not possess irrigation conditions, should adopt the Water-retaining Measures such as covering;
Two, cover: adopt the overlay tree dishes such as straw, stalk, mountain grass, broad-leaved tree fallen leaves, the thickness after general covering compacting should be greater than 6cm, and area is greater than 4m2, and covering Best Times is October;
Three, intercropping: select suitable short-stalked crop in intercropping in the ranks, and make interrow crop and Yunnan olive plant keep suitable spacing, prevent from fighting for nutrient mutually;
Four, intertill and clean tillage and plough deeply soil: intertill and clean tillage in good time, autumn ploughs deeply soil before covering, and noting should be shallow near tree dish, in case hinder root;
Five, apply fertilizer: below the earth's surface that treelet fertilising should be relatively concentrated in tree crown drip around 30cm, bearing tree fertilising then should take into account other position within tree crown; Annual fertilising 3 times; Sprout front fertilizer: early March applies urea, pour water after fertilising, earthing, Moisture conservation; The short tip or Tomacon:: 5-6 month early and middle ten days applies, and is major-minor nitrogen fertilizer application, in conjunction with fertilizing and weeding with phosphorus, potash fertilizer; Base manure: October applies is major-minor potassium application with fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer; First by weeds and last year covering shovel in dressing furrow and again farmyard manure applied, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields chemical fertilizer, blinding, covering afterwards; How much relevant fertilising quantity is with the age of tree, tree body size and result; Under normal circumstances, annual every strain applies fertilizer quantity and is: 2-3 treelet phase, fertilizer 10kg, nitrogenous fertilizer 0.3kg, phosphate fertilizer 1kg, potash fertilizer 0.1kg; 4-6 contains the fruit phase at initial stage, fertilizer 15kg, nitrogenous fertilizer 0.7kg, phosphate fertilizer 2kg, potash fertilizer 0.3kg; More than 7 years age of trees, fertilizer 20kg, nitrogenous fertilizer 1kg, phosphate fertilizer 3kg, potash fertilizer 0.9kg;
Six, tree-like and structure: main employing becomes then trunk shape tree-shaped; Full tree is selected and remain 5 major branches, and each major branch is equidistant along trunk, helical form is evenly distributed on different directions; Adjacent two major branch spacing 50cm; First major branch and the second major branch to life, the second major branch and the 3rd major branch angle in 90 °, the 3rd major branch and the 4th major branch to life, and so forth; The angle of major branch and trunk 50 °, branch is contended decrescence little from bottom to top; Should ensure after plantation that trunk grows vertically upward, the balanced pumping of all directions branch, constantly upwards extending with trunk, major branch of constantly selecting and remain; Major branch select and remain after should by drawing, the method such as support adjustment major branch angle, by lopping, the season of growth is by promoting that major branch increases girth growth when pinching, winter pruning; Meanwhile, maintain the auxiliary support branch of being born in trunk, location-appropriate as far as possible, after weak to its result, more progressively remove;
Seven, pruning technique: Gaoligong mountains growth of glutinous olive treelet phase is fast, should use the logical allotment bar of height 2.4m to hold up straight trunk after plantation; Select and remain side shoot time, the distance of the first side shoot and trunk should be 30cm; The horizontal sextant angle of side shoot and major branch about 45 °, the position on same major branch between each side shoot wants suitably, to select the 2nd side shoot at the offside of the 1st side shoot, and between the two apart from 28cm, the 3rd side shoot and the 1st same orientation of side shoot, can suitably reduce with the spacing of the 2nd side shoot; Cultivation results branch group on side shoot; Trimming method mainly contains: cutting back, pinching, retraction, sparse branching, except sprouting, Qu Zhi, draw branch and longly to put;
Eight, flower and fruit management: the growth of Gaoligong mountains glutinous olive is fast, and result early; Adopt this technology to build garden, within the 2nd year, see flower after plantation, within the 3rd year, enter the economic well-being of workers and staff phase; For improve fruit-setting rate, should in full-bloom stage spray 0.2% boron fertilizer or spray 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate add 0.2% urea; After entering fruiting period, improve high quality fruit rate by flower thinning, fruit thinning;
Nine, prevention and elimination of disease and pests in good time.
embodiment 2
Yunnan, summer rain spring drought Dry-hot Valley Area olive early builds method in real high yield garden fast, comprises the steps:
Step (1), cultivating seedlings:
One, nursery lot is selected: in olive suitable cultivation region, Yunnan, select traffic convenience, there are good water supply, draining and labour's condition, physical features is smooth, natural grade less than 5 degree, soil thickness more than 50 centimetres, weak acid are to weak base, fertile sandy loam, light loam and loam, as nursery lot, and make rational planning for selection nursery lot in the good plot of soil aggregate;
Two, fruit collection and the production of hybrid seeds: growth selection is healthy and strong, be seed collecting elite stand without damage by disease and insect, the adult Yunnan olive plant of planting benevolence full, in late January seed fully maturation time fruit picking; Fruit makes fruit stone be separated with pulp through rolling or mashing, and tans by the sun 7 days after elutriation, after ejecting seed to fruit stone explosion, and sieving separating seed; Screen large grain full seed, after vernalization in the live plant growing container bag installing Nutrition Soil;
Three, nutritive soil preparation: paddy soils is after abundant Exposure to Sunlight rake is thin, and the composite fertilizer being master with appropriate high-quality well-rotted farmyard manure, phosphate fertilizer mixes, and sieves, stack retting more than 20 days;
Four, pack: the Nutrition Soil through stack retting process is loaded the polyethylene film plant growing container bag that thickness is 0.09mm, high 25cm, broadening 14cm, banket while jog concussion, pack is enriched, full, and fixing by being close between the seedling bag filling Nutrition Soil, being neatly placed on seedling bed; Nursery bedside 1.2m, spacing 0.4m, spacing is interim pavement;
Five, presprouting of seeds and sowing: seed is soak seed sterilization in 0.5% liquor potassic permanganate after 2 hours in mass concentration, put into 40 DEG C of warm water to soak 1 day, take out and load the mid-warm place of cloth bag, temperature is 26 DEG C, every day eluriates once, when 41% seed splits sowing in time when mouth shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally with clear water; During sowing, each Seedling bag sows 3, after planting waters once permeable;
Six, plastic film Small plastic shed and sunshade net are built: after sowing is watered, nutritious bag seedbed is done the adjustable shade net canopy of the plastic film Small plastic shed of sagitta 50cm and clear height 2.0m, sunshade degree 70%, and by adjustment sunshade net, make film encircle temperature of shed and remain on 26 DEG C;
Seven, thinning and filling the gaps with seedlings: when height of seedling 6cm, there is 4 true leaves time, retain 1 seedlings by every Seedling bag, carry out thinning in time and fill the gaps with seedlings, thinning and water sufficient water after filling the gaps with seedlings once;
Eight, seedling management: during height of seedling 12.5cm mid-April, remove plastics Small plastic shed gradually; Mid-May, remove sunshade net gradually; With late April to mid-May, follow a small amount of fertilization principle repeatedly, impose urea 2 times, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 1 time; Intertill and clean tillage before fertilising, pours water after fertilising;
Step (2), improve the soil wholely:
One, selection of land: Yunnan olive drought resisting is barren-resistant, but good planting site is the basis of its high-quality, high and stable yield; Should select height above sea level 1500m, more than annual rainfall 700mm, average annual temperature 16.5-21 DEG C, the absolute minimum air temperature is greater than 0 DEG C; Traffic is relatively convenient, preferably has source of irrigation water, and really the phase is without regular strong wind, more than soil thickness 50cm, the tailo of illumination abundance, the gentle slope of half tailo, level land Jian Yuan;
Two, improve the soil: within first 30 days, to complete to afforesting with Withdrawal whole, should not now dig existing cultivation wholely; Press seeding row spacing 2m × 5m during whole ground, dig the pool of the groove of dark, wide each 60cm or length and width, dark each 60cm along contour; Upper and lower layer soil pile up separately, topsoil is placed on upward slope orientation, subsoil is placed on descending orientation; By the farmyard manure (i.e. every strain 15kg) that 667m2 planting site preparation 1000kg fully becomes thoroughly decomposed; Farmyard manure has improvement soil, promotes the effect of root system development and treelet uniform growth; Fluting or after digging pool Exposure to Sunlight 30d, utilizes broad-leaved tree fallen leaves, maize bar, forest humus etc. inserts channel bottom; Well-rotted farmyard manure 7.5kg, phosphate fertilizer 1kg is executed or well-rotted farmyard manure 15kg, phosphate fertilizer 1kg are executed in every pool by every meter of groove, backfill after mixing with top layer mellow soil, Hui Tu limit, limit is steady and sure, is back to 0.4m above ground level, and forms the fish scale pit of high outside and low outside, that mesa width is greater than 1m adverse slope tableland or more than 1m2;
Step (3), plantation: plant in time after entering rainy season in June.Growth selection is healthy and strong, a bag seed of growing directly from seeds of height of seedling >=20cm is planted, the pool central authorities or central along the field planting groove backfilled by spacing in the rows backfilled, dig the planting pit bigger, slightly darker than seedling-nourishing soil sphere volume, by removing, container bag, solution are tied up, nursery stock with complete nutrition soil puts into planting pit, nursery stock is made uprightly to return soil afterwards, limit Hui Tu limit compacting, Hui Tuzhi, higher than Nutrition Soil 2cm, exposes grafting part; Raining season wooding should select the fine day in rainy season or cloudy day to plant, and avoids afforestation on rainy day, and forbids having peace of mind when cohesive soil territory is planted; Meanwhile, strengthen managing and protecting, to the seedling of plantation in June, timely intertill and clean tillage, imposes mid-July and mid-August 1 Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium respectively; Find dead plant, in time with nursery stock after-culture of the same age;
Step (4), grafting:
One, grafting period: mid-October;
Two, fringe bar gathers: at breeding cutting orchard, and selection Gaoligong mountains glutinous olive robust growth scion-seed tree middle and upper part, a peripheral age permanent branch are scion, and scion should with adopting with connecing;
Three, grafting operation: adopt cut-grafting method to carry out grafting: the flat bevel cutting long 3cm at the scion object bud back side apart from bud 0.5cm place downwards, object bud positive identity distance object bud 2.1cm precipitous of cutting long 0.55cm at 45 °, cut off at 0.55cm place, scion bud upper end and obtain and budder; Stock is being cut off apart from 10cm place, ground, and at the sideband xylem that smooth line is suitable, 1/3 place in cross section vertically cuts, the long 3cm of tangent plane, and flat bevel is suitable with buddering; The long inclined-plane of buddering cut is leaned on inner, in short bevel outer insertion stock otch, makes the formation layer on long inclined-plane of buddering at least and the formation layer alignment of stock otch, and be close to, tighten with plastic film and obturage;
Four, in time benefit grafting work is carried out to the dead plant of grafting;
Step (5), tending management technology:
One, to water irrigation: the wooden land having irrigation conditions, should water respectively once January, March; Early March is poured water and can be carried out in conjunction with fertilising; Do not possess irrigation conditions, should adopt the Water-retaining Measures such as covering;
Two, cover: adopt the overlay tree dishes such as straw, stalk, mountain grass, broad-leaved tree fallen leaves, the thickness after general covering compacting should be greater than 6cm, and area is greater than 4m2, and covering Best Times is October;
Three, intercropping: select suitable short-stalked crop in intercropping in the ranks, and make interrow crop and Yunnan olive plant keep suitable spacing, prevent from fighting for nutrient mutually;
Four, intertill and clean tillage and plough deeply soil: intertill and clean tillage in good time, autumn ploughs deeply soil before covering, and noting should be shallow near tree dish, in case hinder root;
Five, apply fertilizer: below the earth's surface that treelet fertilising should be relatively concentrated in tree crown drip around 50cm, bearing tree fertilising then should take into account other position within tree crown; Annual fertilising 3 times; Sprout front fertilizer: early March applies urea, pour water after fertilising, earthing, Moisture conservation; The short tip or Tomacon: 5-6 month early and middle ten days applies, and is major-minor nitrogen fertilizer application, in conjunction with fertilizing and weeding with phosphorus, potash fertilizer; Base manure: October applies is major-minor potassium application with fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer; First by weeds and last year covering shovel in dressing furrow and again farmyard manure applied, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields chemical fertilizer, blinding, covering afterwards; How much relevant fertilising quantity is with the age of tree, tree body size and result; Under normal circumstances, annual every strain applies fertilizer quantity and is: 2-3 treelet phase, fertilizer 10kg, nitrogenous fertilizer 0.5kg, phosphate fertilizer 1.5kg, potash fertilizer 0.2kg; 4-6 contains the fruit phase at initial stage, fertilizer 15kg, nitrogenous fertilizer 1kg, phosphate fertilizer 3kg, potash fertilizer 0.7kg; More than 7 years age of trees, fertilizer 30kg, nitrogenous fertilizer 2kg, phosphate fertilizer 5kg, potash fertilizer 1.1kg;
Six, tree-like and structure: main employing becomes then trunk shape tree-shaped; Full tree is selected and remain 12 major branches, and each major branch is equidistant along trunk, helical form is evenly distributed on different directions; Adjacent two major branch spacing 70cm; First major branch and the second major branch to life, the second major branch and the 3rd major branch angle in 90 °, the 3rd major branch and the 4th major branch to life, and so forth; The angle of major branch and trunk 65 °, branch is contended decrescence little from bottom to top; Should ensure after plantation that trunk grows vertically upward, the balanced pumping of all directions branch, constantly upwards extending with trunk, major branch of constantly selecting and remain; Major branch select and remain after should by drawing, the method such as support adjustment major branch angle, by lopping, the season of growth is by promoting that major branch increases girth growth when pinching, winter pruning; Meanwhile, maintain the auxiliary support branch of being born in trunk, location-appropriate as far as possible, after weak to its result, more progressively remove;
Seven, pruning technique: Gaoligong mountains growth of glutinous olive treelet phase is fast, should use the logical allotment bar of height 2.6m to hold up straight trunk after plantation; Select and remain side shoot time, the distance of the first side shoot and trunk should be 40cm; The horizontal sextant angle of side shoot and major branch about 45 °, the position on same major branch between each side shoot wants suitably, to select the 2nd side shoot at the offside of the 1st side shoot, and between the two apart from 32cm, the 3rd side shoot and the 1st same orientation of side shoot, can suitably reduce with the spacing of the 2nd side shoot; Cultivation results branch group on side shoot; Trimming method mainly contains: cutting back, pinching, retraction, sparse branching, except sprouting, Qu Zhi, draw branch and longly to put;
Eight, flower and fruit management: the growth of Gaoligong mountains glutinous olive is fast, and result early; Adopt this technology to build garden, within the 2nd year, see flower after plantation, within the 3rd year, enter the economic well-being of workers and staff phase; For improve fruit-setting rate, should in full-bloom stage spray 0.2% boron fertilizer or spray 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate add 0.2% urea; After entering fruiting period, improve high quality fruit rate by flower thinning, fruit thinning;
Nine, prevention and elimination of disease and pests in good time.
embodiment 3
Yunnan, summer rain spring drought Dry-hot Valley Area olive early builds method in real high yield garden fast, comprises the steps:
Step (1), cultivating seedlings:
One, nursery lot is selected: in olive suitable cultivation region, Yunnan, select traffic convenience, there are good water supply, draining and labour's condition, physical features is smooth, natural grade less than 5 degree, soil thickness more than 50 centimetres, weak acid are to weak base, fertile sandy loam, light loam and loam, as nursery lot, and make rational planning for selection nursery lot in the good plot of soil aggregate;
Two, fruit collection and the production of hybrid seeds: growth selection is healthy and strong, be seed collecting elite stand without damage by disease and insect, the adult Yunnan olive plant of planting benevolence full, in late January seed fully maturation time fruit picking; Fruit makes fruit stone be separated with pulp through rolling or mashing, and tans by the sun 5 days after elutriation, after ejecting seed to fruit stone explosion, and sieving separating seed; Screen large grain full seed, after vernalization in the live plant growing container bag installing Nutrition Soil;
Three, nutritive soil preparation: paddy soils is after abundant Exposure to Sunlight rake is thin, and the composite fertilizer being master with appropriate high-quality well-rotted farmyard manure, phosphate fertilizer mixes, and sieves, stack retting more than 20 days;
Four, pack: the Nutrition Soil through stack retting process is loaded the polyethylene film plant growing container bag that thickness is 0.07mm, high 23cm, broadening 13.5cm, banket while jog concussion, pack is enriched, full, and fixing by being close between the seedling bag filling Nutrition Soil, being neatly placed on seedling bed; Nursery bedside 1.1m, spacing 0.4m, spacing is interim pavement;
Five, presprouting of seeds and sowing: seed is soak seed sterilization in 0.5% liquor potassic permanganate after 2 hours in mass concentration, put into 38 DEG C of warm water to soak 1 day, take out and load the mid-warm place of cloth bag, temperature is 25 DEG C, every day eluriates once, when 40% seed splits sowing in time when mouth shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally with clear water; During sowing, each Seedling bag sows 2, after planting waters once permeable;
Six, plastic film Small plastic shed and sunshade net are built: after sowing is watered, nutritious bag seedbed is done the adjustable shade net canopy of the plastic film Small plastic shed of sagitta 45cm and clear height 1.9m, sunshade degree 70%, and by adjustment sunshade net, make film encircle temperature of shed and remain on about 25 DEG C;
Seven, thinning and filling the gaps with seedlings: when height of seedling 5cm, there is 3 true leaves time, retain 1 seedlings by every Seedling bag, carry out thinning in time and fill the gaps with seedlings, thinning and water sufficient water after filling the gaps with seedlings once;
Eight, seedling management: when mid-April, height of seedling was about 12cm, remove plastics Small plastic shed gradually; Mid-May, remove sunshade net gradually; With late April to mid-May, follow a small amount of fertilization principle repeatedly, impose urea 2 times, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 1 time; Intertill and clean tillage before fertilising, pours water after fertilising;
Step (2), improve the soil wholely:
One, selection of land: Yunnan olive drought resisting is barren-resistant, but good planting site is the basis of its high-quality, high and stable yield; Should select height above sea level 1000m, more than annual rainfall 700mm, average annual temperature 16.5-21 DEG C, the absolute minimum air temperature is greater than 0 DEG C; Traffic is relatively convenient, preferably has source of irrigation water, and really the phase is without regular strong wind, more than soil thickness 50cm, the tailo of illumination abundance, the gentle slope of half tailo, level land Jian Yuan;
Two, improve the soil: within first 30 days, to complete to afforesting with Withdrawal whole, should not now dig existing cultivation wholely; Press seeding row spacing 2m × 5m during whole ground, dig the pool of the groove of dark, wide each 50cm or length and width, dark each 50cm along contour; Upper and lower layer soil pile up separately, topsoil is placed on upward slope orientation, subsoil is placed on descending orientation; By the farmyard manure (i.e. every strain 15kg) that 667m2 planting site preparation 1000kg fully becomes thoroughly decomposed; Farmyard manure has improvement soil, promotes the effect of root system development and treelet uniform growth; Fluting or after digging pool Exposure to Sunlight 30d, utilizes broad-leaved tree fallen leaves, maize bar, forest humus etc. inserts channel bottom; Well-rotted farmyard manure 7.5kg, phosphate fertilizer 1kg is executed or well-rotted farmyard manure 15kg, phosphate fertilizer 1kg are executed in every pool by every meter of groove, backfill after mixing with top layer mellow soil, Hui Tu limit, limit is steady and sure, is back to 0.3m above ground level, and forms the fish scale pit of high outside and low outside, that mesa width is greater than 1m adverse slope tableland or more than 1m2;
Step (3), plantation: plant in time after entering rainy season in June.Growth selection is healthy and strong, a bag seed of growing directly from seeds of height of seedling >=20cm is planted, the pool central authorities or central along the field planting groove backfilled by spacing in the rows backfilled, dig the planting pit bigger, slightly darker than seedling-nourishing soil sphere volume, by removing, container bag, solution are tied up, nursery stock with complete nutrition soil puts into planting pit, nursery stock is made uprightly to return soil afterwards, limit Hui Tu limit compacting, Hui Tuzhi, higher than Nutrition Soil 1.5cm, exposes grafting part; Raining season wooding should select the fine day in rainy season or cloudy day to plant, and avoids afforestation on rainy day, and forbids having peace of mind when cohesive soil territory is planted; Meanwhile, strengthen managing and protecting, to the seedling of plantation in June, timely intertill and clean tillage, imposes mid-July and mid-August 1 Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium respectively; Find dead plant, in time with nursery stock after-culture of the same age;
Step (4), grafting:
One, grafting period: early October;
Two, fringe bar gathers: at breeding cutting orchard, and selection Gaoligong mountains glutinous olive robust growth scion-seed tree middle and upper part, a peripheral age permanent branch are scion, and scion should with adopting with connecing;
Three, grafting operation: adopt cut-grafting method to carry out grafting: the flat bevel cutting long 2.3cm at the scion object bud back side apart from bud 0.4cm place downwards, object bud positive identity distance object bud 2.0cm precipitous of cutting long 0.50cm at 45 °, cut off at 0.5cm place, scion bud upper end and obtain and budder; Stock is being cut off apart from 8cm place, ground, and at the sideband xylem that smooth line is suitable, 7/24 place in cross section vertically cuts, the long 2.5cm of tangent plane, and flat bevel is suitable with buddering; The long inclined-plane of buddering cut is leaned on inner, in short bevel outer insertion stock otch, makes the formation layer on long inclined-plane of buddering at least and the formation layer alignment of stock otch, and be close to, tighten with plastic film and obturage;
Four, in time benefit grafting work is carried out to the dead plant of grafting;
Step (5), tending management technology:
One, to water irrigation: the wooden land having irrigation conditions, should water respectively once January, March; Early March is poured water and can be carried out in conjunction with fertilising; Do not possess irrigation conditions, should adopt the Water-retaining Measures such as covering;
Two, cover: adopt the overlay tree dishes such as straw, stalk, mountain grass, broad-leaved tree fallen leaves, the thickness after general covering compacting should be greater than 6cm, and area is greater than 4m2, and covering Best Times is October;
Three, intercropping: select suitable short-stalked crop in intercropping in the ranks, and make interrow crop and Yunnan olive plant keep suitable spacing, prevent from fighting for nutrient mutually;
Four, intertill and clean tillage and plough deeply soil: intertill and clean tillage in good time, autumn ploughs deeply soil before covering, and noting should be shallow near tree dish, in case hinder root;
Five, apply fertilizer: below the earth's surface that treelet fertilising should be relatively concentrated in tree crown drip around 40cm, bearing tree fertilising then should take into account other position within tree crown; Annual fertilising 3 times; Sprout front fertilizer: early March applies urea, pour water after fertilising, earthing, Moisture conservation; The short tip or Tomacon: 5-6 month early and middle ten days applies, and is major-minor nitrogen fertilizer application, in conjunction with fertilizing and weeding with phosphorus, potash fertilizer; Base manure: October applies is major-minor potassium application with fertilizer and phosphate fertilizer; First by weeds and last year covering shovel in dressing furrow and again farmyard manure applied, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields chemical fertilizer, blinding, covering afterwards; How much relevant fertilising quantity is with the age of tree, tree body size and result; Under normal circumstances, annual every strain applies fertilizer quantity and is: 2-3 treelet phase, fertilizer 10kg, nitrogenous fertilizer 0.4kg, phosphate fertilizer 1.2kg, potash fertilizer 0.15kg; 4-6 contains the fruit phase at initial stage, fertilizer 15kg, nitrogenous fertilizer 0.85kg, phosphate fertilizer 2.4kg, potash fertilizer 0.6kg; More than 7 years age of trees, fertilizer 25kg, nitrogenous fertilizer 1.5kg, phosphate fertilizer 4kg, potash fertilizer 1kg;
Six, tree-like and structure: main employing becomes then trunk shape tree-shaped; Full tree is selected and remain 8 major branches, and each major branch is equidistant along trunk, helical form is evenly distributed on different directions; Adjacent two major branch spacing 60cm; First major branch and the second major branch to life, the second major branch and the 3rd major branch angle in 90 °, the 3rd major branch and the 4th major branch to life, and so forth; The angle of major branch and trunk 55 °, branch is contended decrescence little from bottom to top; Should ensure after plantation that trunk grows vertically upward, the balanced pumping of all directions branch, constantly upwards extending with trunk, major branch of constantly selecting and remain; Major branch select and remain after should by drawing, the method such as support adjustment major branch angle, by lopping, the season of growth is by promoting that major branch increases girth growth when pinching, winter pruning; Meanwhile, maintain the auxiliary support branch of being born in trunk, location-appropriate as far as possible, after weak to its result, more progressively remove;
Seven, pruning technique: Gaoligong mountains growth of glutinous olive treelet phase is fast, should use the logical allotment bar of height 2.5m to hold up straight trunk after plantation; Select and remain side shoot time, the distance of the first side shoot and trunk should be 35cm; The horizontal sextant angle of side shoot and major branch about 45 °, the position on same major branch between each side shoot wants suitably, to select the 2nd side shoot at the offside of the 1st side shoot, and between the two apart from 30cm, the 3rd side shoot and the 1st same orientation of side shoot, can suitably reduce with the spacing of the 2nd side shoot; Cultivation results branch group on side shoot; Trimming method mainly contains: cutting back, pinching, retraction, sparse branching, except sprouting, Qu Zhi, draw branch and longly to put;
Eight, flower and fruit management: the growth of Gaoligong mountains glutinous olive is fast, and result early; Adopt this technology to build garden, within the 2nd year, see flower after plantation, within the 3rd year, enter the economic well-being of workers and staff phase; For improve fruit-setting rate, should in full-bloom stage spray 0.2% boron fertilizer or spray 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate add 0.2% urea; After entering fruiting period, improve high quality fruit rate by flower thinning, fruit thinning;
Nine, prevention and elimination of disease and pests in good time.
Case 1:2010, adopts this technology to roll the pool greatly in villager group of the Dai nationality of the Lushui River Jiang Zhencong hilllock village, Longyang District, builds pilot forest 127 mu.Wetlands place east longitude rolls greatly 98 ° 50 in villager group of the Dai nationality of the Lushui River Jiang Zhencong hilllock village, Longyang District /15 ", north latitude 25 ° 11 /14 "; Height above sea level 1250m, red soil, soil thickness is about 50cm, and soil is barren, the gradient 15 degree, non-irrigated condition.2012, plant mean height 3.88m, leading thread 4.2cm, hat width 5.7m 2, on average every mu of fruit yield 281kg, the output value more than 1400 yuan; 2013, plant mean height 5.1m, leading thread 5.4cm, hat width 8.3m 2, on average every mu of fruit yield 1005kg, the output value more than 5000 yuan.
Case 2:2011, adopts this technology being located in east longitude 98 ° 50 /16 ", north latitude 25 ° 5 /20 ", on vexed village, Lu Jiang town, Longyang District third field, the Kun Hong villager group river bank sandy land of height above sea level 680m, pilot forest 35 mu is built.2013, plant mean height 4.22m, leading thread 4.91cm, hat width 6.5m 2, on average every mu of fruit yield 474kg, the output value more than 2370 yuan.
Case 3:2011, adopts this technology being located in east longitude 98 ° 56 /46 ", north latitude 25 ° 2 /14 ", on the degeneration arable land of height above sea level 1450m, Li Ma street, Ma Jie village, Pu Piao town, the Longyang District villager group Ma Qiaohe of the gradient 17 degree, pilot forest 15 mu is built.2013, plant mean height 4.09m, leading thread 4.92cm, hat width 6.2m 2, on average every mu of fruit yield 342kg, the output value more than 1700 yuan.

Claims (4)

1. Yunnan, summer rain spring drought Dry-hot Valley Area olive early builds method in real high yield garden fast, it is characterized in that comprising the steps:
Step (1), cultivating seedlings: screen large grain full wild Yunnan olive seed, live on plant growing container bag after vernalization process February, cultivate Yunnan olive and to grow directly from seeds a bag seedling;
Step (2), improves the soil: plant and complete whole to plantation plot in first 30 days, farmyard manure is improved the soil, and builds high outside and low outside, that mesa width is greater than 1m adverse slope tableland or 1m wholely 2above fish scale pit;
Step (3), plantation: after entering rainy season, at fine day or cloudy day in June, growth selection is healthy and strong, a bag seed of growing directly from seeds of height of seedling >=20cm is planted, and strengthens fostering managing and protecting; The dead plant of after-culture in strong sprout of the same age of timely preparation, and strengthen management and make it and former nursery stock uniform growth of afforesting;
Step (4), grafting: between 9-10 middle of the month, to the Yunnan olive seedling of plantation in June, adopts Gaoligong mountains glutinous olive breeding fringe bar to carry out grafting renovation with cut-grafting method; Timely benefit connects, and strengthens management and make it and former grafting survival plant uniform growth;
Step (5), tending management: removing stock rudiment in time, holds up straight trunk; Strengthen soil, fertilizer, water, the management of tree body and the extermination of disease and insect pest; Wherein:
The polyethylene film plant growing container bag of to be thickness be 0.02-0.09mm, high 20-25cm, the broadening 13-14cm of the plant growing container bag described in step (1);
During step (1) cultivating seedlings, when height of seedling 3-6cm, there is 2-4 sheet true leaf time, timely thinning, to fill the gaps with seedlings, thinning and water sufficient water after filling the gaps with seedlings once;
It is soak seed sterilization in 0.5% liquor potassic permanganate after 2 hours that vernalization described in step (1) is treated to seed in mass concentration, put into 35-40 DEG C of warm water to soak 1 day, take out and load the mid-warm place of cloth bag, temperature is 24-26 DEG C, every day eluriates once with clear water, sows when 39-41% seed splits when mouth shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally;
Press seeding row spacing 2m × 5m during step (2) whole ground, dig the pool of the groove of dark, wide each 40-60cm or length and width, dark each 40-60cm along contour; Fluting or after digging pool Exposure to Sunlight 30d, well-rotted farmyard manure 7.5kg, phosphate fertilizer 1kg is executed or well-rotted farmyard manure 15kg, phosphate fertilizer 1kg are executed in every pool by every meter of groove, backfill after mixing with top layer mellow soil, Hui Tu limit, limit is steady and sure, be back to 0.2-0.4m above ground level, and form high outside and low outside, that mesa width is greater than 1m adverse slope tableland or 1m 2above fish scale pit;
During step (3) plantation, the pool central authorities or central along the field planting groove backfilled by spacing in the rows backfilled, dig planting pit, by removing, container bag, solution are tied up, nursery stock with complete nutrition soil puts into planting pit, the size of planting pit is limited with the nursery stock putting into band complete nutrition soil, makes nursery stock uprightly return soil afterwards, limit Hui Tu limit compacting, Hui Tuzhi, higher than Nutrition Soil 1-2cm, exposes grafting part;
Step (4) described grafting, cut the flat bevel of long 2-3cm downwards apart from bud 0.3-0.5cm place at the scion object bud back side, object bud positive identity distance object bud 1.9-2.1cm precipitous of cutting long 0.45-0.55cm at 45 °, cut off at 0.45-0.55cm place, scion bud upper end and obtain and budder; Stock is being cut off apart from 6-10cm place, ground, and at the sideband xylem that smooth line is suitable, the 1/4-1/3 place in cross section vertically cuts, the long 2-3cm of tangent plane, and flat bevel is suitable with buddering; The long inclined-plane of buddering cut is leaned on inner, in short bevel outer insertion stock otch, makes the formation layer on long inclined-plane of buddering at least and the formation layer alignment of stock otch, and be close to, tighten with plastic film and obturage.
2. Yunnan, summer according to claim 1 rain spring drought Dry-hot Valley Area olive early builds method in real high yield garden fast, and the place that it is characterized in that afforesting is rainy season and winter and spring arid Dry-hot Valley Area short of rain summer.
3. Yunnan, summer according to claim 1 rain spring drought Dry-hot Valley Area olive early builds method in real high yield garden fast, it is characterized in that fluting or after digging pool Exposure to Sunlight 30d, bottom groove or the pool, insert one or more in broad-leaved tree fallen leaves, maize bar and forest humus.
4. Yunnan, summer according to claim 1 rain spring drought Dry-hot Valley Area olive early builds method in real high yield garden fast, it is characterized in that the Gaoligong mountains glutinous olive breeding fringe bar described in step (4), be at breeding cutting orchard, the healthy and strong elite stand middle and upper part of the glutinous olive of selection Gaoligong mountains, a peripheral age permanent branch are that grafting is carried out in scion.
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