CN104003463B - 一种去除畜禽养殖废水中重金属的方法 - Google Patents

一种去除畜禽养殖废水中重金属的方法 Download PDF

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CN104003463B
CN104003463B CN201410267949.8A CN201410267949A CN104003463B CN 104003463 B CN104003463 B CN 104003463B CN 201410267949 A CN201410267949 A CN 201410267949A CN 104003463 B CN104003463 B CN 104003463B
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packing layer
breeding wastewater
livestock breeding
heavy metal
livestock
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CN104003463A (zh
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韩建刚
李萍萍
赵刚
李兰海
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南京林业大学
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Abstract

本发明公开了一种去除畜禽养殖废水中重金属的方法,属于禽畜养殖业废水处理技术领域。本发明通过先将畜禽养殖废水A混合均匀后,再经过填料层充分吸附,充分净化后即得去除禽畜养殖废水中的重金属Cd2+、Cr6+、Cu2+、Mn2+后的畜禽养殖废水。本发明操作简单,不消耗动力,可大大节省运行成本。该方法可用于人工湿地进行畜禽养殖废水的深度处理,可使整个人工湿地污水处理系统更加高效,且占地面积小便于移动,更适用于土地资源紧张的发达地区。

Description

一种去除畜禽养殖废水中重金属的方法
技术领域
[0001]本发明属于禽畜养殖业废水处理技术领域,具体涉及的是一种去除畜禽养殖废水中重金属Cd2+、Cr6+、Cu2+、Mn2+的技术。
背景技术
[0002]畜禽养殖业是我国农业的一大主导产业,每年废水的排放量超过100亿吨。畜禽养殖废水是一类高浓度的有机废水,含有多种污染物,已成为造成我国农业面源污染的主要原因之一。尤其,由于动物饲料中重金属的广泛添加导致废水中含有多种重金属(Cd2+、Cr6+、Cu2+、Mn2+等),尽管总体浓度较低,但对环境生物和人类健康的潜在危害更大。因此,养殖废水中重金属的去除已成为养殖废水净化的当务之急。
[0003]目前,尚未有针对养殖废水重金属去除的专门方法。在去除其他工业废水中重金属的诸多方法中,吸附法由于具有不会产生二次污染和能很好地解决金属和水资源再利用的问题等优势而倍受青睐。一直以来,活性炭被认为是良好的吸附剂,但生产成本高。因此,近年来研究目的主要集中在寻求更为合适的新型廉价吸附材料上。与活性炭相比较,稻壳炭是利用农业废弃物稻壳在低温下燃烧制备而成。我国是世界上最大的水稻种植国,年产超过0.9亿吨稻壳。因此,稻壳炭生产的原料丰富、易获取,并且由于不经过后期物理法、化学法、生物法以及多种方法协同下的活化工艺,因而生产成本低。本发明的目的是为了寻求一种基于稻壳炭并可有效去除畜禽养殖废水中重金属的吸附剂配料及处理方法。该发明成本低、操作方便,尤其在以废水资源再利用为目的的深度净化处理应用中具有广阔前景。
发明内容
[0004]本发明的目的在于提供一种去除畜禽养殖废水中重金属的方法,以有效去除畜禽养殖废水中的重金属,除低成本,并使实施的系统达到可拆卸,更换填料方便,便于移动运输,更适于人工湿地配料的应用场合成为可能。
[0005]为了解决以上技术问题,本发明所采用的具体技术方案如下:
[0006] —种去除畜禽养殖废水中重金属的方法,其特征在于包括以下步骤:
[0007]步骤I,将畜禽养殖废水A混合均匀后得畜禽养殖废水B;
[0008]步骤2,将畜禽养殖废水B从上至下浸没填料层至填料层吸附平衡后,再充分净化得畜禽养殖废水C,排出即得到经过重金属去除处理的畜禽养殖废水即畜禽养殖废水C;
[0009]所述填料层按从下到上的顺序依次包括:填料层A(5_l)、填料层B(5_2)和填料层C(5-3),将填料层依次置于填料柱(5)内;所述填料层A(5-l)、填料层B(5-2)和填料层C(5-3)的材料分别为天然沸石、稻壳炭、天然沸石,且体积比为1:2:1;
[0010] 步骤3,重复步骤1-2,待填料层A(5-l)、填料层B(5-2)和填料层C(5-3)均吸附饱和、失去处理效果后,更换填料层或更换装有所述填料层的填料柱(5);
[0011] 步骤4,重复步骤1-3的过程。
[0012]所述的稻壳炭由稻壳在隔绝氧气条件下经300〜450°C燃烧后制备而成,粒径0.5_9.0_,比表面积148〜390 m2/g;所述天然沸石是一种架状构造的含水硅铝酸盐矿物,粒径
0.5〜10.0mm,平均比表面积为240 m2/g。
[0013] 所述重金属的重金属离子包括Cd2+、Cr6+、CU2+和Mn2+。
[0014]本发明具有有益效果。本发明通过先将畜禽养殖废水混合均匀,然后进入到装有稻壳炭填料层的填料柱中,水力停留至填料层吸附平衡后,有效去除了禽畜养殖废水中的重金属Cd2+、Cr6+、Cu2+、Mn2+。本发明方法操作简单,不消耗动力,运行成本低。在应用到人工湿地时,对畜禽养殖废水中重金属的去除效果较好,特别是对重金属离子Cd2+、Cr6+、Cu2+和Mn2+有较好的吸附效果,经过重金属处理的养殖废水还可再进行二次利用。
附图说明
[0015]图1为实施本发明方法的系统结构示意图。
[0016]图中:1.配水箱,2.流量计,3.进水阀,4.出水阀,5.填料柱,5_1.填料层A,5_2.填料层B,5-3.填料层C。
具体实施方式
[0017]下面结合附图和具体实施例对本发明的技术方案作进一步详细说明。
[0018]以用于人工湿地配料为例。
[0019]本发明的具体工作过程如下:
[0020]将畜禽养殖废水A先在配水箱混合均匀;再通过进水阀均匀进入到填料柱的填料层中,控制一定的水力负荷,水力停留至吸附平衡;再经过充分净化后,打开出水阀,排出。[°021 ]采用的填料层A、填料层B和填料层C分别为1cm天然沸石、20cm稻壳炭和1cm天然沸石,成本低、易获取。天然沸石的平均比表面积为240 m2/g。天然沸石是一种架状构造的含水硅铝酸盐矿物,其晶体内部存在大量排列有序、大小相同、相互贯通的孔隙和通道,具有良好的吸附性能,是良好的吸附剂。
[0022] 实施例一
[0023] 某养殖场废水,pH 8.9,经原子吸收分光光度计测定0(12+、06+、012+和^+的浓度分别为4.6 mg/L、5.1 mg/L、4.1 mg/L和6.4mg/L。实验在室温下进行。先将畜禽养殖废水注入到配水箱I中,如图1所示,然后通过打开的进水阀3均匀进入到圆柱体填料柱5内部的填料层中,填料层从下至上分别为1cm天然沸石、20cm稻壳炭、1cm天然沸石;水力负荷为0.0723m/h,水力停留时间2h,处理后的废水经检测Cd2+、Cr6+、Cu2+、Mn2+的去除率分别为89.6%、86.5%、83.2%和76.8%。
[0024]填料柱距底部5cm处设置出水口,在圆柱体填料柱填料层上方布置进水管;填料层不种植植物。填料柱为有机玻璃制成,内径21 cm、高65cm ο
[0025]稻壳在隔绝氧气下经300°C燃烧后制备成稻壳炭,粒径0.5mm,稻壳炭比表面积为148 1112/〖;天然沸石粒径0.51111]1。
[0026] 实施例二
[0027]某沼气发电厂沼液废水,pH 8.0,经原子吸收分光光度计测定0(12+、(>6+、012+浓度分别为1.9、4.8、1.5mg/L,Mn2+未检出。实验在室温下进行,先将废水注入到配水箱中,然后通过进水阀3均匀进入到填料柱内填料层中。水力负荷为0.0723m/h,水力停留时间2h。处理后的废水经检测Cd2+、Cr6+、Cu2+的去除率分别为85.6%、91.8%和76.1%。
[0028]填料柱距底部5cm处设置出水口,在圆柱体填料柱填料层上方布置进水管;填料层不种植植物。填料柱为有机玻璃制成,内径21 cm、高65cm ο
[0029]稻壳在隔绝氧气下400°C燃烧后制备成稻壳炭,粒径8.0mm,稻壳炭比表面积为300m2/g ;天然沸石粒径10.0mm,比表面积240 m2/g。
[0030] 实施例三
[0031] 某养殖场废水,pH 9.0,经原子吸收分光光度计测定0(12+、06+、012+和^+的浓度分别为5.2 mg/L,4.3 mg/L,4.6 mg/L和8.2 mg/L。实验在室温下进行。先将畜禽养殖废水注入到配水箱I中,然后通过打开的进水阀3均匀进入到圆柱体填料柱5内部的填料层中,填料层从下至上分别为1cm天然沸石、20cm稻壳炭、1cm天然沸石;水力负荷为0.0723m/h,水力停留时间2h,处理后的废水经检测Cd2+、Cr6+、Cu2+、Mn2+的去除率分别为97.4%、95.2%、85.5%和88.7%。
[0032]填料柱距底部5cm处设置出水口,在圆柱体填料柱填料层上方布置进水管;填料层不种植植物。填料柱为有机玻璃制成,内径21 cm、高65cm ο
[0033]稻壳在隔绝氧气下经450°C燃烧后制备成稻壳炭,粒径9.0mm,稻壳炭比表面积为390 m2/g;天然沸石粒径5mm。

Claims (3)

1.一种去除畜禽养殖废水中重金属的方法,其特征在于包括以下步骤: 步骤I,将畜禽养殖废水A混合均匀后得畜禽养殖废水B; 步骤2,将畜禽养殖废水B从上至下浸没填料层至填料层吸附平衡后,再充分净化得畜禽养殖废水C,排出即得到经过重金属去除处理的畜禽养殖废水即畜禽养殖废水C; 所述填料层按从下到上的顺序依次包括:填料层A(5-l)、填料层B(5-2)和填料层C(5-3),将填料层依次置于填料柱(5)内;所述填料层A(5-l)、填料层B(5-2)和填料层C(5-3)的材料分别为天然沸石、稻壳炭、天然沸石,且体积比为1:2:1; 步骤3,重复步骤1-2,待填料层A(5-l)、填料层B(5-2)和填料层C(5-3)均吸附饱和、失去处理效果后,更换填料层或更换装有所述填料层的填料柱(5); 步骤4,重复步骤1-3的过程。
2.根据权利要求1所述的一种去除畜禽养殖废水中重金属的方法,其特征在于:所述的稻壳炭由稻壳在隔绝氧气条件下经300〜450°C燃烧后制备而成,粒径0.5〜9.0mm,比表面积148〜390 m2/g;所述天然沸石是一种架状构造的含水硅铝酸盐矿物,粒径0.5-10.0mm,平均比表面积为240 m2/g。
3.根据权利要求1所述的一种去除畜禽养殖废水中重金属的方法,其特征在于:所述重金属的重金属离子包括Cd2+、Cr6+、Cu2+和Mn2+。
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