CN103993922B - A kind of low temperature exhaust heat CO 2rankine cycle system - Google Patents

A kind of low temperature exhaust heat CO 2rankine cycle system Download PDF

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CN103993922B
CN103993922B CN201410240295.XA CN201410240295A CN103993922B CN 103993922 B CN103993922 B CN 103993922B CN 201410240295 A CN201410240295 A CN 201410240295A CN 103993922 B CN103993922 B CN 103993922B
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temperature
heat
low
rankine cycle
plant condenser
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CN201410240295.XA
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CN103993922A (en
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王顺森
白昆仑
邸娟
刘观伟
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西安交通大学
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of low temperature exhaust heat CO 2rankine cycle system, described system is with the steam turbine steam discharge of coastal waters coal fired power plant or nuclear power station for thermal source, with the coastal waters Mare Frigoris water of deep-sea cold water or high latitude area for low-temperature receiver, with CO 2for working medium, by Asia/Trans-critical cycle CO 2rankine cycle realizes recovery and the heat to power output of low-temperature steam exhaust waste heat.Height presses through cold CO 2liquid changes overheated CO into after thermal source heat absorption 2gas, then enters CO 2turbine expansion does work, and its weary gas, by low-temperature receiver condensation and suction booster supercharging, completes a circulation.In essence, this system is equivalent to the temperature sink temperature in power station being reduced to Mare Frigoris water, but without the need to increasing the steam discharge flow area of former power station steam turbine, thus improve net power output and the generating efficiency of coal fired power plant and nuclear power station at lower cost, there is huge economic benefit and wide application prospect.

Description

A kind of low temperature exhaust heat CO 2rankine cycle system

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of low temperature exhaust heat CO 2rankine cycle system, be specifically related to a kind of utilize coastal waters coal fired power plant or nuclear power station steam turbine steam exhaust and the low temperature seawater temperature difference to carry out heat to power output Asia (across) critical CO 2rankine cycle method, belongs to mechanical engineering and low temperature exhaust heat reclaims field.

Background technique

At present, the heat to power output efficiency of the large-scale coal fired power plant of sophistication is about 40 ~ 48%, and the efficiency of conventional compressed water reactor nuclear power is only 30 ~ 36%, remaining energy enters air, river and ocean via turbine condenser and cooling medium mostly, be called as cold end loss, not only waste energy, and serious thermo-pollution can be caused.How to reduce cold end loss is the focus that power industry is paid close attention to always.

Reducing sink temperature is reduce the most effectual way of steam Rankine cycle cold end loss.In power station, inland, sink temperature depends primarily on air dry-bulb temperature (air cooling) or wet-bulb temperature (water-cooled), limit by geographical position and weather conditions, and steam-condensation temperature is mostly at 32 ~ 50 DEG C.And in power station, coastal waters, general adopt top layer or the direct condensing turbine exhaust steam of shallow layer sea water, condensing temperature mostly at 30 ~ 40 DEG C, slightly lower than power station, inland.

As everyone knows, the temperature of top layer or shallow layer sea water is subject to solar radiation and climatic influences comparatively large, and in high latitude area, as Bohai Sea and north Yellow Sea, about have 6 months water temperatures every year below 12 DEG C, year, the highest water temperature was generally no more than 25 DEG C.In addition, water temperature reduces along with sea water advanced increase, and the water temperature when the degree of depth 500 meters will drop to 5 ~ 6 DEG C.The seashore in a lot of region such as the Southern Coast of China, Hainan Island and the island of Taiwan east is precipitous, and offshore nearby sea water advanced just can reach 500 meters.Obviously, the heat to power output efficiency of unit can be significantly improved as low-temperature receiver with these low temperature water.But for steam turbine, along with the reduction of condensing temperature, the volume flowrate of exhaust steam sharply increases.Research shows, exhaust steam volume flowrate when condensing temperature is 15 DEG C is about 2.8 times when 33 DEG C, and correspondingly, the low pressure (LP) cylinder quantity of large steam turbine and length also will increase in proportion, not have feasibility technically.

In recent years, with CO 2rankine cycle for working medium receives increasing concern.From above-mentioned analysis, because Mare Frigoris coolant-temperature gage is far below CO 2critical temperature (31.1 DEG C), and exhaust steam in steam turbine temperature is close to or higher than CO 2critical temperature, be very easy to realize sub-(across) critical cycle.If with steam turbine steam discharge or vapour condenser warm water discharge for thermal source, with Mare Frigoris water for low-temperature receiver, with CO 2for working medium, utilize the temperature difference of thermal source and low-temperature receiver to generate electricity, in essence, be just equivalent to the temperature sink temperature of coal fired power plant and pressurized-water reactor nuclear power plant being reduced to Mare Frigoris water.Due to CO 2the exhaust gas density of circulation is 1000 ~ 2000 times of water vapor circulation, and therefore its exhaust steam volume flowrate is very little, and turbine structure is very compact.In addition, CO 2belong to pure natural working medium, wide material sources, cost is low, has good Security and chemical stability, environmental sound, and has excellent transient flow zone characteristic, and overcritical heat exchange does not exist pinch point temperature problem, CO 2triple point is-56.6 DEG C, and Mare Frigoris water can not make it solidify, and these features make CO 2rankine cycle becomes the optimal selection being similar to this low temperature exhaust heat of power station exhaust steam and reclaiming.

Because large-scale coal fired power plant and nuclear power station need to consume a large amount of cooling waters, be more prone to build seashore in.If there is available Mare Frigoris water, just CO can be passed through 2exhaust steam residual heat is recycled in Rankine cycle.By to literature search relevant both at home and abroad and analysis, claimant does not find the technological scheme close with feature of the present invention.

Summary of the invention

The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of low temperature exhaust heat CO 2rankine cycle system, can utilize the temperature difference of coastal waters coal fired power plant or nuclear power station steam turbine exhausted spare heat and low temperature seawater to carry out heat to power output.

To achieve these goals, present invention employs following technological scheme.

This system with steam turbine steam discharge or vapour condenser warm water discharge for thermal source, with deep-sea cold water or middle high latitude area seasonal coastal waters cold water for low-temperature receiver, with CO 2for the working medium of circulation, by subcritical or Trans-critical cycle CO 2rankine cycle realizes heat to power output.

The temperature difference of described thermal source and low-temperature receiver is higher than 10 DEG C; During with deep-sea cold water for low-temperature receiver, sink temperature is the highest is no more than 12 DEG C; During with seasonal coastal waters, middle high latitude area cold water for low-temperature receiver, sink temperature is lower than CO 2critical temperature, when cannot meet this condition, described system can be closed, but does not affect the normal operation of former generator set.

The working procedure of described system is: high pressure CO 2liquid changes overheated CO into after thermal source heat absorption 2gas, overheated CO 2gas enters CO 2turbine expansion does work; CO is passed through after turbine exhaust (weary gas) being condensed into liquid with the cold water from marine extraction 2suction booster supercharging obtains high pressure CO 2liquid, completes a circulation.Owing to taking full advantage of CO 2the characteristics such as the high density in critical zone, low latent heat of phase change, not only the circulatory system is simple, facility compact, and has very excellent thermal performance.

Described CO 2the acting of turbine is used for generating or drags other wasted work equipment such as pump, blower fan.

The described mode from thermal source heat absorption is high pressure CO 2liquid enters plant condenser heat exchange, or high pressure CO 2liquid enters heat exchanger and carries out heat exchange with the seawater after plant condenser heats.

When the cold and heat source temperature difference more than 10 DEG C and sink temperature lower than CO 2during critical temperature, seawater enters plant condenser through plant condenser circulating water pump, after plant condenser absorbs steam turbine exhausted spare heat, transfer heat to CO in heat exchanger 2circulation, and then enter plant condenser circulating water pump; When the cold and heat source temperature difference lower than less than 10 DEG C or sink temperature higher than CO 2during critical temperature, now CO 2circulation is stopped using, and seawater enters plant condenser from plant condenser cooling water intake through plant condenser circulating water pump, enters heat exchanger after absorbing steam turbine exhausted spare heat, then from the plant condenser cooling water drainage mouth of a river in line enter sea.

If when low-temperature receiver is deep-sea cold water, high pressure CO 2liquid is at CO 2by entering plant condenser after surface seawater preheating or entering heat exchanger in preheater.

Described subcritical CO 2in Rankine cycle, CO 2the suction pressure of turbine is lower than CO 2critical pressure (7.382MPa), is mainly used in exhaust steam in steam turbine adiabatic condensation temperature lower than CO 2the operating mode of critical temperature (31.06 DEG C).

Described Trans-critical cycle CO 2in Rankine cycle, CO 2the suction pressure of turbine is higher than CO 2critical pressure (7.382MPa), is mainly used in exhaust steam in steam turbine adiabatic condensation temperature higher than CO 2the operating mode of critical temperature (31.06 DEG C).

Beneficial effect of the present invention is embodied in;

Compared with conventional coal fired power plant or nuclear power station, system of the present invention is equivalent to the temperature sink temperature in former power station being reduced to Mare Frigoris water, and the heat to power output efficiency of power plant will increase substantially, and has huge economic benefit and wide application prospect.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram of embodiment 1;

Fig. 2 is the CO of embodiment 2circulation warm entropy diagram;

Fig. 3 is the schematic diagram of embodiment 2;

Fig. 4 is the schematic diagram of embodiment 3;

Fig. 5 is the schematic diagram of embodiment 4;

Fig. 6 is the schematic diagram of embodiment 5;

In figure: 1. plant condenser; 2.CO 2turbine; 3. generator or wasted work equipment; 4.CO 2cycle condenser; 5. heat exchanger; 6.CO 2preheater; B1. water supply pump; B2.CO 2circularly-supercharged pump; B3. plant condenser circulating water pump; P1. power plant steam turbine exhaust steam; P2. water of condensation; P3.CO 2condenser cooling water drain opening; P4.CO 2condenser cooling water water intake; P5. the plant condenser cooling water drainage mouth of a river; P6. plant condenser cooling water intake; V1, V2, V3, V4, V5 are respectively the first, second, third, fourth, the 5th control valve; N1, N2, N3, N4 are first node, Section Point, the 3rd node, the 4th node respectively.

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, the invention will be further described.

Embodiment 1

A kind of CO utilizing the seasonal Mare Frigoris water temperature difference of coastal waters plant condenser warm water discharge and middle high Latitude area 2rankine cycle system, as shown in Figure 1, with plant condenser warm water discharge for CO 2the thermal source of circulation, with seasonal coastal waters, middle high latitude area Mare Frigoris water for CO 2the low-temperature receiver of circulation.The described circulatory system mainly comprises plant condenser 1, CO 2turbine 2, generator or wasted work equipment 3 (wasted work equipment comprises pump, blower fan etc.), CO 2cycle condenser 4, heat exchanger 5, water supply pump B1, CO 2circularly-supercharged pump B2 and plant condenser circulating water pump B3 etc.The described circulatory system can be analyzed to following three loops:

Heat source loop: when the cold and heat source temperature difference more than 10 DEG C and sink temperature lower than CO 2during critical temperature, close the first control valve V1 and the 3rd control valve V3, open the second control valve V2, this loop is closed circuit, seawater (or other working medium) enters plant condenser 1 through plant condenser circulating water pump B3, transfers heat to CO after absorbing power plant steam turbine exhaust steam P1 waste heat in heat exchanger 5 2circulation.When the cold and heat source temperature difference lower than less than 10 DEG C or sink temperature higher than CO 2during critical temperature, open the first control valve V1 and the 3rd control valve V3, close the second control valve V2, this loop becomes open circuit, now CO 2circulation is stopped using, seawater enters plant condenser 1 from plant condenser cooling water intake P6 through the first control valve V1 and plant condenser circulating water pump B3, to absorb after power plant steam turbine exhaust steam P1 waste heat after heat exchanger 5, the 3rd control valve V3 from plant condenser cooling water drainage mouth of a river P5 in line enter sea.

CO 2loop: from CO 2the high pressure CO of circularly-supercharged pump B2 2liquid (state point b) heated evolves in heat exchanger 5 is overheated CO 2gas (state point c), then enters CO 2turbine 2 expansion work, for drawing generator or wasted work equipment 3.Turbine exhaust is at CO 2condensed to state point a by Mare Frigoris water from state point d in cycle condenser 4, and pass through CO 2circularly-supercharged pump B2 is pressurized to state point b, forms the CO closed 2rankine cycle.

Low-temperature receiver loop: work as CO 2when circulation normally runs, start water supply pump B1, from CO 2condenser cooling water water intake P4 extracts Mare Frigoris water and injects CO 2cycle condenser 4, absorbs CO 2through CO after the exhaust heat of turbine 2 2condenser cooling water drain opening P3 in line enter sea.

The present embodiment is mainly used in the coastal waters power plant of middle high Latitude area, starts CO when coastal seawater temperature is lower 2rankine cycle, the temperature difference making full use of cold & heat source carries out heat to power output, and closes CO when coastal seawater temperature is higher 2rankine cycle, generator set runs in the usual way.

Fig. 2 illustrates CO 2the tephigram of circulation, wherein, a-b-c-d-a is subcritical CO 2rankine cycle, is mainly used in exhaust steam in steam turbine adiabatic condensation temperature lower than CO 2the operating mode of critical temperature (31.06 DEG C); A-b '-c '-d-a is supercritical CO 2rankine cycle, is mainly used in exhaust steam in steam turbine adiabatic condensation temperature higher than CO 2the operating mode of critical temperature (31.06 DEG C).This tephigram is applicable to other embodiment too.

Embodiment 2

A kind of CO utilizing coastal waters plant condenser warm water discharge and coastal waters Mare Frigoris water temperature difference 2rankine cycle system, as shown in Figure 3, with plant condenser warm water discharge for CO 2the thermal source of circulation, with seasonal coastal waters, middle high latitude area Mare Frigoris water for CO 2the low-temperature receiver of circulation.The CO of the described circulatory system 2loop is identical with embodiment 1 with low-temperature receiver loop, and heat source loop is simpler than embodiment 1, eliminates the first control valve V1, the second control V2, the 3rd control V3 and plant condenser cooling water drainage mouth of a river P5 and plant condenser cooling water intake P6.The described circulatory system is mainly used in coastal seawater temperature all the time lower than CO 2the power plant of critical temperature, appropriateness can improve exhaust steam in steam turbine temperature, to maintain CO when the cold and heat source temperature difference is less 2the normal operation of circulation.According to analysis, even if ocean temperature reaches 25 DEG C, adopt steam turbine and CO after above-mentioned circulation 2the gross output of turbine and total generating efficiency still improve 0.8% than former unit, still have significant economic benefit.The working principle in the described circulatory system three loops is identical with embodiment 1, repeats no more herein.

The described circulatory system can adopt subcritical CO according to exhaust steam in steam turbine Selecting parameter 2circulation or Trans-critical cycle CO 2circulation.

Embodiment 3

A kind of CO utilizing coastal waters power plant steam turbine exhaust steam and coastal waters Mare Frigoris water temperature difference 2rankine cycle system, as shown in Figure 4, with power plant steam turbine exhaust steam for CO 2the thermal source of circulation, with seasonal coastal waters, middle high latitude area Mare Frigoris water for CO 2the low-temperature receiver of circulation.The application of the described circulatory system is identical with embodiment 2, but eliminates heat exchanger 5, uses CO 2working medium directly and exhaust steam in steam turbine carry out heat exchange, only have CO 2loop and low-temperature receiver loop, be the further simplification to embodiment 2, the working principle in low-temperature receiver loop is identical with embodiment 2, repeats no more herein.

CO 2loop: from CO 2the high pressure CO of circularly-supercharged pump B2 2liquid (state point b) enters plant condenser 1, changes overheated CO into after absorbing exhaust steam in steam turbine P1 waste heat 2gas (state point c), then enters CO 2turbine 2 expansion work, for drawing generator or wasted work equipment 3.Turbine exhaust is at CO 2condensed to state point a by Mare Frigoris water from state point d in cycle condenser 4, and pass through CO 2circularly-supercharged pump B2 is pressurized to state point b, forms the CO closed 2rankine cycle.

The described circulatory system can adopt subcritical CO according to exhaust steam in steam turbine Selecting parameter 2circulation or Trans-critical cycle CO 2circulation.Compared with embodiment 2, the structure of the present embodiment is simple, and exergy destruction is little, but for existing power station, needs to transform vapour condenser, use CO 2substitute former circulating water.

Embodiment 4

A kind of CO utilizing coastal waters plant condenser warm water discharge and the deep sea water temperature difference 2rankine cycle system, as shown in Figure 5, with plant condenser warm water discharge for CO 2the thermal source of circulation, with deep-sea cold water for CO 2the low-temperature receiver of circulation.The described circulatory system mainly comprises vapour condenser 1, CO 2turbine 2, generator or wasted work equipment 3, CO 2cycle condenser 4, heat exchanger 5, CO 2preheater 6, water supply pump B1, CO 2circularly-supercharged pump B2 and plant condenser circulating water pump B3 etc.The described circulatory system can be analyzed to following three loops:

Heat source loop: top layer temperature seawater enters plant condenser 1 from plant condenser cooling water intake P6 through plant condenser circulating water pump B3, transfers heat to CO after absorbing exhaust steam in steam turbine waste heat P1 in heat exchanger 5 2circulation, the circulating water after heat release from plant condenser cooling water drainage mouth of a river P5 in line enter sea.

CO 2loop: from CO 2the height of circularly-supercharged pump B2 presses through cold CO 2liquid (state point b) is successively at CO 2absorb heat in preheater 6 and heat exchanger 5, change overheated CO into 2gas (state point c), then enters CO 2turbine 2 expansion work, for drawing generator or wasted work equipment 3.Turbine exhaust is at CO 2condensed to state point a by deep sea low temperature seawater from state point d in cycle condenser 4, and pass through CO 2circularly-supercharged pump B2 is pressurized to state point b, forms the CO closed 2rankine cycle.

Low-temperature receiver loop: start water supply pump B1, from CO 2the low temperature seawater that condenser cooling water water intake P4 extracts, at CO 2in cycle condenser 4, after heat absorption, temperature raises, but its temperature is still far below surface seawater temperature, and a part wherein can be introduced plant condenser 1 via the 3rd node N3, the 5th control valve V5 and the 4th node N4, remaining is from CO 2condenser cooling water drain opening P3 in line enter sea, the 4th control valve V4 and the 5th control valve V5 is for performing the distribution of the water yield.By said method, plant condenser 1 can be made to keep design conditions to run for a long time, and coolant water temperature is not with variation of ambient temperature.

The present embodiment is mainly used in the coastal waters power plant having and can utilize deep-sea cold water, not only make use of exhaust steam in steam turbine waste heat, and make use of the temperature difference of deep sea water and shallow layer sea water, has higher heat to power output efficiency.The described circulatory system can adopt subcritical CO according to exhaust steam in steam turbine Selecting parameter 2circulation or Trans-critical cycle CO 2circulation.

Embodiment 5

A kind of CO utilizing coastal waters power plant steam turbine exhaust steam and the deep sea water temperature difference 2rankine cycle system, as shown in Figure 6, with power plant steam turbine exhaust steam for CO 2the thermal source of circulation, with deep-sea cold water for CO 2the low-temperature receiver of circulation.The application of the described circulatory system is identical with embodiment 4, but eliminates heat exchanger 5, uses CO 2working medium directly and exhaust steam in steam turbine carry out heat exchange, only have CO 2loop and low-temperature receiver loop are the further simplification to embodiment 4.

CO 2loop: from CO 2the height of circularly-supercharged pump B2 presses through cold CO 2liquid (state point b) is at CO 2enter plant condenser 1 after heat absorption in preheater 6, after absorbing exhaust steam in steam turbine P1 waste heat, change overheated CO into 2gas (state point c), then enters CO 2turbine 2 expansion work, for drawing generator or wasted work equipment 3.Turbine exhaust is at CO 2condensed to state point a by deep sea low temperature seawater from state point d in cycle condenser 4, and pass through CO 2circularly-supercharged pump B2 is pressurized to state point b, forms the CO closed 2rankine cycle.

Low-temperature receiver loop: start water supply pump B1, from CO 2the low temperature seawater that condenser cooling water water intake P4 extracts, at CO 2cO is absorbed in cycle condenser 4 2through CO after the exhaust heat of turbine 2 2condenser cooling water drain opening P3 in line enter sea.

The described circulatory system can adopt subcritical CO according to exhaust steam in steam turbine Selecting parameter 2circulation or Trans-critical cycle CO 2circulation.Compared with embodiment 4, the structure of the present embodiment is simple, and exergy destruction is little, but for existing power station, needs to transform vapour condenser, use CO 2substitute former circulating water.

If the temperature of Mare Frigoris water is 5 DEG C, the temperature of circulating water is 35 DEG C, and heat exchange difference is 5 DEG C, and turbine internal efficiency gets 80%, according to engineering thermodynamics basic theories, and CO 2the efficiency of circulation can reach 5.3%.Because the exhaust steam residual heat of coal fired power plant and the ratio of generated output are about 0.7 ~ 0.85, and under same power, the exhaust steam residual heat of pressurized-water reactor nuclear power plant is equivalent to 1.7 ~ 2.0 times of coal fired power plant, therefore, and the CO that the present invention proposes 2the generated output of circulation will reach 3.7 ~ 4.5% of former coal fired power plant, will reach 6.3 ~ 9.0% of pressurized-water reactor nuclear power plant.For the Thermal generation unit of a 1000MW, without the need to increasing fuel quantity, employing the solution of the present invention every year can be multiple electric more than 200,000,000 degree; Even if with the seasonal Mare Frigoris water of middle high latitude area for low-temperature receiver, every year also can be multiple electric more than 0.8 hundred million degree, there is huge economic benefit and wide application prospect.

Claims (6)

1. a low temperature exhaust heat CO 2rankine cycle system, is characterized in that: this system with steam turbine steam discharge or vapour condenser warm water discharge for thermal source, with deep-sea cold water or middle high latitude area seasonal coastal waters cold water for low-temperature receiver, with CO 2for the working medium of circulation, by subcritical or Trans-critical cycle CO 2rankine cycle realizes heat to power output;
When the cold and heat source temperature difference more than 10 DEG C and sink temperature lower than CO 2during critical temperature, seawater enters plant condenser through plant condenser circulating water pump, after plant condenser absorbs steam turbine exhausted spare heat, transfer heat to CO in heat exchanger 2circulation, and then enter plant condenser circulating water pump; When the cold and heat source temperature difference lower than less than 10 DEG C or sink temperature higher than CO 2during critical temperature, now CO 2circulation is stopped using, and seawater enters plant condenser from plant condenser cooling water intake through plant condenser circulating water pump, enters heat exchanger after absorbing steam turbine exhausted spare heat, then from the plant condenser cooling water drainage mouth of a river in line enter sea.
2. a kind of low temperature exhaust heat CO according to claim 1 2rankine cycle system, is characterized in that: the temperature difference of described thermal source and low-temperature receiver is higher than 10 DEG C; During with deep-sea cold water for low-temperature receiver, sink temperature is the highest is no more than 12 DEG C; During with seasonal coastal waters, middle high latitude area cold water for low-temperature receiver, sink temperature is lower than CO 2critical temperature.
3. a kind of low temperature exhaust heat CO according to claim 1 2rankine cycle system, is characterized in that: the working procedure of described system is: high pressure CO 2liquid changes overheated CO into after thermal source heat absorption 2gas, overheated CO 2gas enters CO 2turbine expansion does work; CO is passed through after turbine exhaust being condensed into liquid with the cold water from marine extraction 2suction booster supercharging obtains high pressure CO 2liquid, completes a circulation.
4. a kind of low temperature exhaust heat CO according to claim 3 2rankine cycle system, is characterized in that: described CO 2the acting of turbine is used for generating or drags wasted work equipment.
5. a kind of low temperature exhaust heat CO according to claim 3 2rankine cycle system, is characterized in that: the described mode from thermal source heat absorption is: high pressure CO 2liquid enters plant condenser heat exchange, or high pressure CO 2liquid enters heat exchanger and carries out heat exchange with the seawater after plant condenser heats.
6. a kind of low temperature exhaust heat CO according to claim 5 2rankine cycle system, is characterized in that: if when low-temperature receiver is deep-sea cold water, high pressure CO 2liquid is at CO 2by entering plant condenser after surface seawater preheating or entering heat exchanger in preheater.
CN201410240295.XA 2014-05-30 2014-05-30 A kind of low temperature exhaust heat CO 2rankine cycle system CN103993922B (en)

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CN109654894A (en) * 2018-12-05 2019-04-19 东北大学 One kind being based on CO2The recycling of sinter waste heat and the system of utilizing of trans critical cycle

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