CN103989024B - A kind of crab class feed - Google Patents

A kind of crab class feed Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103989024B
CN103989024B CN201410261434.7A CN201410261434A CN103989024B CN 103989024 B CN103989024 B CN 103989024B CN 201410261434 A CN201410261434 A CN 201410261434A CN 103989024 B CN103989024 B CN 103989024B
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crab
powder
composite
class feed
feed
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CN201410261434.7A
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CN103989024A (en
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张进
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顾祥茂
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • Y02A40/818Alternative feeds for fish, e.g. in aquacultures
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/80Food processing, e.g. use of renewable energies or variable speed drives in handling, conveying or stacking
    • Y02P60/87Re-use of by-products of food processing for fodder production

Abstract

The invention belongs to mariculture technical field, particularly a kind of crab class feed.A kind of crab class feed, does its raw material comprise following with the component of weight: wheat flour 25-28%, corn DDGS? 9-12%, fly maggot powder 15-18%, albumen powder 12-14%, brewer's yeast 3-5%, DHA micro-algae oil 0.8-1.5%, EPA refined oil 0.5-1%, fish oil 2%, Kelp Powder 1%, Choline Chloride 0.1-0.2%, sodium chloride 0.2%, l-cn 0.04-0.05%, shitosan 1-2%, Tea Polyphenols 1-2%, garlic 0-1%, isomalto-oligosaccharide 2-4%, composite bacillus 0.3%, mould inhibitor 0.05-0.06%; Composite adhesive 1-3%, composite mineral matter 1-2%, B B-complex 0.5-1.5%; Surplus is natural pond slag.This crab class feed can improve crab survival rate, meets crab growth needs and avoid adopting fish meal as raw material.

Description

A kind of crab class feed
Technical field
The invention belongs to mariculture technical field, particularly a kind of crab class feed.
Background technology
Fish meal as the major protein source of aquatic feeds because its protein content is high, amino acid Compositional balance, palatability are good, ANFs is few, are widely used in culture fishery always.Global aquaculture scale just with annual 11% speed increment, but the annual production of global fish meal declines increasingly, and the annual production of fish meal in recent years only maintains the unevenness between supply and demand that 600 ~ 7,000,000 t cause high-quality feed protein sources.Therefore find the fish meal alternative materials of high-quality, research substitute the adding proportion of protein sources become culture fishery can the key issue of sustainable development.Dregs of beans, because having the advantages such as high protein content, reasonable price, steady sources, amino acid pattern ideal, is studied as high-quality fish meal substitute always widely.But its palatability is poor, the ANFs in dregs of beans reduces its speed of growth by the digestibility and protein utilization rate reducing fish.Therefore at present still cannot Peru Fish Dietary in a large number.
The kind of crab is a lot, and the kind of Chinese crab just has about 600 kinds, has swimming crab, mud crab, and frog crab closes public crab etc.Crab delicious flavour and containing rich in protein and trace element, have good tonic effect to health.Containing more vitamin A in crab, helpful to the angling of skin.Crab also has treating tuberculosis effect, and eating crab has help greatly to rehabilitation lungy.The cultural technique of current crab is very general, and tradition cultivation is thrown something and fed and frozen feed that trash fish, shrimp, nutrition composition and phagostimulating effect and crab do not conform to as bait; Cause pond culture survival rate lower, have a strong impact on cultured output and raiser's income.Suitably increase the ratio of animal fodder in the maturity period of crab, can greatly improve its growth rate on the one hand, the quality of crab can also be improved in addition.
Summary of the invention
The invention provides and a kind ofly improve crab survival rate, meet crab growth needs and avoid the crab class feed that adopts fish meal as raw material.
The technical solution adopted for the present invention to solve the technical problems is:
A kind of crab class feed, its raw material comprises following with the component of weight: wheat flour 25-28%, corn DDGS 9-12%, fly maggot powder 15-18%, albumen powder 12-14%, brewer's yeast 3-5%, DHA micro-algae oil 0.8-1.5%, EPA refined oil 0.5-1%, fish oil 2%, Kelp Powder 1%, Choline Chloride 0.1-0.2%, sodium chloride 0.2%, l-cn 0.04-0.05%, shitosan 1-2%, Tea Polyphenols 1-2%, garlic 0-1%, isomalto-oligosaccharide 2-4%, composite bacillus 0.3%, mould inhibitor 0.05-0.06%; Composite adhesive 1-3%, composite mineral matter 1-2%, B B-complex 0.5-1.5%;
Surplus is natural pond slag, vinasse products therefrom after anaerobic fermentation that described natural pond slag is is fermentation raw material with cassava or Ipomoea batatas, after adopting mechanical presses to dewater, tans by the sun to drying, uses after then pulverizing with pulverizer.Control formula forage moisture content≤12.5%, after each component mixing, cross 80 mesh standard sieves.
Described albumen powder is mixed with arbitrary proportion by one or more in soyabean protein powder, rice protein powder or corn protein powder.
In B B-complex described in every 1000g, containing retinol1 0000000-15000000IU, vitamin D 32000000-3000000IU, vitamin E 80000-120000IU, vitamin K 36000-12000mg, Cobastab 110000-30000mg, Cobastab 220-30mg, nicotinic acid 60000-80000mg, calcium pantothenate 20000-30000mg, folic acid 2000-3000mg, biotin 200-300mg, inositol 80000mg-120000mg and vitamin C 150000-250000mg, all the other are wheat bran;
In composite adhesive described in every 1000g, containing Gluten 250-350g, algin 350-450g, tamarind gum 150-250g and dextrin 50-150g;
In composite mineral matter described in every 1000g, containing iron 20000-30000mg, manganese 3000-5000mg, copper 1500-2500mg, zinc 6000-8000mg, cobalt 500-700mg, iodine 3000-4000mg, selenium 100-150mg, magnesium 50000-60000mg and potassium 25000-35000mg, all the other are medical stone.
This formula forage also comprises following with the component of weight: hawthorn 3%, binchotan powder 1%, wherein the particle diameter of binchotan powder is 3000 orders.Adding of hawthorn, the rate of body weight gain (P < 0.01) of crab can be significantly improved and reduce feed coefficient (P < 0.05).Binchotan powder is as a kind of special additive, can use as adsorbent on the one hand, the harmful substance in absorption formula forage and issuable mould etc., can reduce the poisonous and harmful substances in crab body on the other hand, reduce environment to the injury of crab, thus improve its survival rate.
Various ingredients effectively mixes by the present invention, reduce the impact that in dregs of beans, ANFs grows crab, suitable Kelp Powder can increase the agreeable to the taste degree of crab, the protein of feed of the present invention and fat content all meet the growth of crab, and fly maggot powder, the composite bacillus and isomalto-oligosaccharide etc. of increase effectively reduce crab and infect ill risk.Feed of the present invention can carry out mixing according to the addition of 40-60% and throw in together with conventional feed.
Appropriate shitosan, Tea Polyphenols and garlic is added in feed formula of the present invention, find in the research of the present inventor, a kind of in independent interpolation shitosan, Tea Polyphenols and garlic can not have remarkable impact to the growth of crab substantially, and by appropriately combined with other component mixing match of the present invention after can improve the resistance against diseases of crab class.The garlic of adding in the present invention is fresh garlic, pulverize after and other components mix.Garlic too high levels, makes feed mouthfeel poor, and crab class is not liked to eat, and therefore needs to control its addition.
The interpolation of composite bacillus significantly affects the stomach of crab, trypsase and hepatopancrease lipase active, but, the meeting of excessive interpolation bacillus significantly reduces trypsase and the lipase active of test crab, and this may be because the too much bacillus of interpolation destroys the colony balance in its body; Further, bacillus produces excessive enzyme in vivo and or the secretion of endogenous enzyme may be suppressed to impact to the activity of body endogenous enzyme.Therefore, the addition of composite bacillus needs careful control.Isomalto-oligosaccharide not only can promote the beneficial bacterium in aquatic products gut flora---the propagation of Bifidobacterium, can suppress harmful bacteria simultaneously---and the growth of C.perfringens, and effect is extremely remarkable, makes gut flora maintain positive balance state.Isomalto-oligosaccharide and composite bacillus cooperatively regulate the gut flora of crab, improve its digestive efficiency.
Bacillus can produce the volatile fatty acid such as lactic acid and acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid in enteron aisle in growth and breeding process, reduce gut pH, harmful microorganism is suppressed, have adjusted alimentary canal microecological balance, and gut pH reduction can promote that the aquatic livestock young is to the digestion of nutriment, especially to the absorption and digestion of protein.On the other hand, bacillus subtilis, in its growth, reproductive process, self can synthesize vitamin and the coenzyme thereof such as VC, VB and VK again, and the nutriment such as organic acid and amino acid, can be animal and provides nutrition, promote that it grows.In addition, after probiotics field planting in Host Digestion road, procreation, metabolism, some digestive enzyme activity materials of generation, can promote that digestive system is to the absorption and digestion of feed nutrient, improve digestive efficiency.
The micro-algae oil of DHA extracts from marine microalgae, composition safety.EPA content in DHA micro-algae oil is lower, and the growth that therefore DHA micro-algae oil of appropriate proportioning and EPA refined oil are crab class provides required aliphatic acid, is conducive to the survival rate and the speed of growth that improve young crab, but if too high levels, can deleterious.The effect of DHA micro-algae oil and EPA refined oil mixing regulation and control is than adopting a kind of better effects if separately.EPA refined oil and EPA refined fish oil, containing EPA and DHA two kinds of compositions, selection EPA content is 46-48%, and DHA content is the product of 35-38%.
Natural pond slag is the product after the process of organic waste anaerobic fermentation, it is a kind of valuable resource, it contains abundant soluble inorganic salt nutriment and the multiple biochemical products (as: trace element such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, boron, copper, manganese, calcium, zinc, and several amino acids), easily absorb by biological, crop.In addition, its protein content is 23.5%-35.8%, and vitamin B12 is 17.6mg/kg (dry weight), can be used as feed after treatment, and nutrition, economic worth are considerable.
Contained nutrient in the slag of natural pond, being the necessary nutrient of crop growth, is also the Major Nutrient material in livestock and poultry, aquaculture feed.Therefore, the recycling of natural pond slag has much value.Make full use of natural pond slag, not only can alleviate crisis of resource to a certain extent, turn waste into wealth, also under the prerequisite reducing ambient pollution burden, considerable economic benefit and social benefit can be brought.In recent years, some large-scale breweries, Alcohol Plant (producer as Sichuan Mianzhu and Linyi, Shandong and other places) build anaerobic fermentation facility energetically, positive utilization biogas anaerobic fermentation technology, building a collection of take vinasse as the large-sized biogas engineering of raw material, and natural pond slag output is considerable.But these tunnings do not obtain rationally, effectively utilize, and define the waste of resource.At present, whole feed resource supply-demand relationship presents the features such as concentrated feed lacks, protein feeds lacks, green feed lacks, insufficient total amount, and natural pond slag is not used widely in field of fodder, urgently development and utilization.In the present invention, reasonably make use of discarded object, turn waste into wealth, achieve resource recycling.
Corn DDGS is the trade name of protein feed in vinasse, the distiller's dried grain namely containing soluble solids.Be that in fermenting raw materials ethanol production process, starch is wherein converted to ethanol and carbon dioxide with corn, other nutritional labelings such as protein, fat, fiber etc. are all stayed in vinasse.Simultaneously due to the effect of microorganism, in vinasse, protein, B family vitamin and amino acid content all increase to some extent than corn, and containing the unknown somatomedin generated in fermentation.The each component of the relatively existing aquaculture feeds of corn DDGS, originates wide, relative low price, and owing to processing by fermentation, therefore composition wherein easily absorbs.DDGS moisture is high, and cereal is damaged, and mould easily grows, and therefore mycotoxin content is very high, may there is multiple mycotoxin, can cause the Mycotoxicoses of domestic animal.Cause immunocompromised susceptible disease, production performance declines.So must with mould inhibitor or wide spectrum mold toxin sorbent.After careful composite of the present invention, defining can for the feed of crab growth.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: various ingredients effectively mixes by the present invention, avoid the use of fish meal and dregs of beans, reduce the impact that in dregs of beans, ANFs grows crab.Reasonable component formula of the present invention, sufficient raw, raw material components is nutritious, substantially increases resource utilization rate, improves survival rate and the rate of body weight gain of crab significantly simultaneously.
Detailed description of the invention
Below by specific embodiment, technical scheme of the present invention is described in further detail.Should be appreciated that enforcement of the present invention is not limited to the following examples, any pro forma accommodation make the present invention and/or change all will fall into scope.
In the present invention, if not refer in particular to, all parts, percentage are unit of weight, and all equipment and raw material etc. all can be buied from market or the industry is conventional.
Composite bacillus is provided by Zhejiang Microbe Inst., and be mainly bafillus natto (BacillussubtilisNatto) and bacillus subtilis (BacillussubtilisCohn), bacterium liquid bacteria containing amount is 1 × 10 10cfug -1.
The micro-algae oil of DHA (DHA content is 40.00%, and EPA content is 2.44%), is provided by Jiangsu Tiankai Biotechnology Co., Ltd.; EPA refined oil (EPA content is 46-48%, and DHA content is 35-38%), is provided by benevolence general (Suzhou) pharmaceutcal corporation, Ltd.
In B B-complex described in every 1000g, containing retinol1 0000000-15000000IU, vitamin D 32000000-3000000IU, vitamin E 80000-120000IU, vitamin K 36000-12000mg, Cobastab 110000-30000mg, Cobastab 220-30mg, nicotinic acid 60000-80000mg, calcium pantothenate 20000-30000mg, folic acid 2000-3000mg, biotin 200-300mg, inositol 80000mg-120000mg and vitamin C 150000-250000mg, all the other are wheat bran;
In composite adhesive described in every 1000g, containing Gluten 250-350g, algin 350-450g, tamarind gum 150-250g and dextrin 50-150g;
In composite mineral matter described in every 1000g, containing iron 20000-30000mg, manganese 3000-5000mg, copper 1500-2500mg, zinc 6000-8000mg, cobalt 500-700mg, iodine 3000-4000mg, selenium 100-150mg, magnesium 50000-60000mg and potassium 25000-35000mg, all the other are medical stone.
The source of natural pond slag: be that raw material runs, all normal large-scale anaerobic fermentation equipment of aerogenesis with vinasse, natural pond liquid pH value is within the scope of 6.5-7.5, the natural pond slag that becomes thoroughly decomposed that every day feeds intake, every day discharges, most of moisture is gone out by mechanical presses mode, uniform spreading is to thickness 5-10cm, tan by the sun to drying, then pulverize with pulverizer, for subsequent use.After testing, natural pond slag ingredient is in table 1.
Table 1 natural pond slag ingredient table
Embodiment 1-3:
A kind of crab class feed, its raw material is in table 2.
Table 2
Cross 80 mesh standard sieves after above-mentioned each component mixing, then add water and make soft graininess, control formula forage moisture content≤12.5%.
In embodiment 1,
The composition of B B-complex is: containing retinol1 2000000IU, vitamin D in every 1000g B B-complex 32500000IU, vitamin e1 00000IU, vitamin K 39000mg, Cobastab 120000mg, Cobastab 225mg, nicotinic acid 70000mg, calcium pantothenate 25000mg, folic acid 2500mg, biotin 250mg, inositol 100000mg, Catergen 00000mg, all the other are wheat bran.The composition of composite adhesive is: every composite adhesive of 1000g contains Gluten 300g, algin 400g, tamarind gum 200g, dextrin 100g.The composition of composite mineral matter is: every 1000g composite mineral matter contains iron 25000mg, manganese 4000mg, copper 2000mg, zinc 7000mg, Co 60 0mg, iodine 3500mg, selenium 125mg, magnesium 55000mg, potassium 30000mg, and all the other are medical stone.
In embodiment 2,
The composition of B B-complex is: every 1000g B B-complex contains retinol1 0000000IU, vitamin D 32000000IU, vitamin E 80000IU, vitamin K 36000mg, Cobastab 110000mg, Cobastab 220mg, nicotinic acid 60000mg, calcium pantothenate 20000mg, folic acid 2000mg, biotin 200mg, inositol 80000mg, vitamin C 150000mg, all the other are wheat bran.The composition of composite adhesive is: every composite adhesive of 1000g contains Gluten 250g, algin 350g, tamarind gum 250g, dextrin 150g.The composition of composite mineral matter is: every 1000g is multiple, and composite mineral matter contains iron 20000mg, manganese 3000mg, copper 1500mg, zinc 6000mg, cobalt 500mg, iodine 3000mg, selenium 100mg, magnesium 50000mg, potassium 25000mg, and all the other are medical stone.
In embodiment 3,
The every 1000g of B B-complex contains retinol1 5000000IU, vitamin D 33000000IU, vitamin e1 20000IU, vitamin K 312000mg, Cobastab 130000mg, Cobastab 230mg, nicotinic acid 80000mg, calcium pantothenate 30000mg, folic acid 3000mg, biotin 300mg, inositol 120000mg, Catergen 50000mg, all the other are wheat bran.The composition of composite adhesive is: every composite adhesive of 1000g contains Gluten 350g, algin 450g, tamarind gum 150g, dextrin 50g.The composition of composite mineral matter is: every 1000g composite mineral matter contains iron 30000mg, manganese 5000mg, copper 2500mg, zinc 8000mg, cobalt 700mg, iodine 4000mg, selenium 150mg, magnesium 60000mg, potassium 35000mg, and all the other are medical stone.
Culture experiment
Select the culture experiment that the crab 400 cultivating about 3 months only carries out 120 days, result of the test is in table 3.
Table 3
From table 3, embodiment does not contain the feed of fish meal at feed coefficient, survival rate, specific growth rate all has good performance than comparative example, especially survival rate aspect tool increases significantly, and the crab adopting feed of the present invention to cultivate probability of catching an illness is lower, and resistance against diseases is stronger.On the other hand, embodiment feed can replace traditional high fish-meal completely.Observe through histotomy, liver and enteron aisle are all without obvious alteration of form.
The high fish-meal of Feed Energy replacing whole tradition provided by the invention, have no adverse effects to crab growth, survival rate etc., and cost is low, culture benefit is high, decrease the dependence to high-quality fish meal, the sustainable development for crab cultivation provides a kind of good demonstration and reference function.
Above-described embodiment is one of the present invention preferably scheme, not does any pro forma restriction to the present invention, also has other variant and remodeling under the prerequisite not exceeding the technical scheme described in claim.

Claims (3)

1. a crab class feed, is characterized in that its raw material comprises following with the component of weight:
Wheat flour 25-28%, corn DDGS 9-12%, fly maggot powder 15-18%, albumen powder 12-14%, brewer's yeast 3-5%, DHA micro-algae oil 0.8-1.5%, EPA refined oil 0.5-1%, fish oil 2%, Kelp Powder 1%, Choline Chloride 0.1-0.2%, sodium chloride 0.2%, l-cn 0.04-0.05%,
Shitosan 0.5-1%, Tea Polyphenols 0.5-1%, garlic 0-1%,
Isomalto-oligosaccharide 2-4%, composite bacillus 0.3%, mould inhibitor 0.05-0.06%; Composite adhesive 1-3%, composite mineral matter 1-2%, B B-complex 0.5-1.5%;
Surplus is natural pond slag, vinasse products therefrom after anaerobic fermentation that described natural pond slag is is fermentation raw material with cassava or Ipomoea batatas, after adopting mechanical presses to dewater, tans by the sun to drying, uses after then pulverizing with pulverizer.
2. crab class feed according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described albumen powder is mixed with arbitrary proportion by one or more in soyabean protein powder, rice protein powder or corn protein powder.
3. crab class feed according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that this formula forage also comprises following with the component of weight: hawthorn 3%, binchotan powder 1%, wherein the particle diameter of binchotan powder is 3000 orders.
CN201410261434.7A 2014-06-12 2014-06-12 A kind of crab class feed CN103989024B (en)

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CN104782891A (en) * 2015-04-27 2015-07-22 苏州洁威生物科技有限公司 Method for preparing crab fodder from fly maggots
CN105533260A (en) * 2015-12-16 2016-05-04 苏州蟹家族生态农业有限公司 Ornamental crab feed and preparation method thereof
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CN105901418A (en) * 2016-04-19 2016-08-31 全椒县天润生态养殖专业合作社 Feed for improving meat quality and mouth feel of crabs
CN105901416A (en) * 2016-04-19 2016-08-31 全椒县天润生态养殖专业合作社 Feed for increasing survival rate of crabs
CN105901419A (en) * 2016-04-19 2016-08-31 全椒县天润生态养殖专业合作社 High-protein absorption-promoting crab feed
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