CN103988649B - A kind of large leaf tea tree rapid seedling cultivation method - Google Patents

A kind of large leaf tea tree rapid seedling cultivation method Download PDF

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CN103988649B
CN103988649B CN201410095446.7A CN201410095446A CN103988649B CN 103988649 B CN103988649 B CN 103988649B CN 201410095446 A CN201410095446 A CN 201410095446A CN 103988649 B CN103988649 B CN 103988649B
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cuttage
cuttings
tea tree
days
plastic film
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CN103988649A (en
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黎健龙
黎华寿
唐劲驰
郑海
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South China Agricultural University
Tea Research Institute Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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South China Agricultural University
Tea Research Institute Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of rapid seedling cultivation method of large leaf tea tree, comprise the following steps: seedbed foundation, the process of cuttage branch, cuttage, nursery bed management and go out garden.The rapid seedling cultivation method of the large leaf tea tree of the present invention, it is possible to resolve the taking root slowly of tradition nursery and group seedling, rudiment is the most weak, planting percent and the low difficult problem of transplanting survival rate, promotes growth of seedling, is used especially for the rapid seedling cultivation of No. nine tea trees of Ying Hong.The inventive method is used to carry out the rapid seedling cultivation of No. nine tea trees of Ying Hong, planting percent reaches 95%~100%, transplanting survival rate is high, on solving the problem that after surviving the winter, the red No. nine direct plantation survival rates of English are low and the not enough impact of seedling produces, there is direct meaning, the preservation of No. nine good seeds red to English and expand and numerous there is important reference value.

Description

A kind of large leaf tea tree rapid seedling cultivation method
Technical field
The invention belongs to plant fast propagation technical field of cultivation, be specifically related to a kind of large leaf tea tree rapid seedling cultivation Method.
Background technology
Country ground is obtained along with Yingde City of Guangdong Province is named as " township of China black tea " and " Yingteh graded black tea " Reason famous special product protection, Yingteh graded black tea price constantly rose in recent years, and particularly high-quality black tea English is red No. nine supply falls short of demand.Red No. nine kinds of English are that Tea Inst., Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences is from Sacred groves group Using individual plant selection method to be bred as in body, bud-leaf fertility is strong, yield is high for it, and especially suitable black tea processed, quality is excellent Different, soup look red gorgeous, the quiet and beautiful such as orchid of fragrance, flavour is fresh dense, is deeply liked by consumers in general.But these product at present Plant little at Ying De district popularizing planting area, it is difficult to meet the market demand day by day increased, therefore, rapidly Expand red No. nine cultivated areas of English the key being to solve this problem of quickly going into operation.Red No. nine cuttage seeding of English, Production cycle is long, and Cultivate administration difficulty is relatively big, and tradition cuttage seeding seedlings root is undeveloped, be easier because of Dehydration is dried up, and affects survival rate.The oldest tea place also has the method using Grafting kind to expand red No. nine of English Cultivated area, achieved with certain effect, but owing to there is certain technical difficulty, operation inconvenience, it is impossible to real Existing scale.
Plant fast propagation technology is to create most widely suited temperature, light, water, gas, nutrition, hormone for plant propagation Deng environment, play the physiological potential that plant is maximum, make the gene of taking root of plant express as early as possible, thus realize planting The Rapid Rooting of thing, and many generation circulations can be carried out by the way of with Miao Fanmiao, formed and there is cultivation valency in a large number A kind of novel plant fast breeding technique of the business seedling of value.It is not tissue culture technique, but essence is to combine The principle of tissue culture rapid propagating technology, transforms tradition cuttage technique.
Tea bush trimmer is to cultivate tree crown, the key technology of rejuvenating tree vigo(u)r.According to cultivation management needs, people Change the original growth branching habit naturally of tea tree for wiping out part branch, support fluffy prolongation tea tree by pruning Economic age, thus reach lasting high-quality, highly efficient and productive purpose.For a long time, people only focus on Pruning itself, seldom makes inquiries for the branch pruned, and substantial amounts of tea bush trimmer branch can only be discarded in tea In garden, even become pollutant.
Utilize tea bush trimmer branch to carry out vegetative propagation as cuttings to realize turning waste into wealth, accelerate stock breeding and push away Wide value.Single node cutting, as one of the strongest technical in tea tree vegetative propagation propagation method, has become The conventional method of tea tree seedling breeding is carried out for domestic Ge Cha district.
But existing single node cutting technology, needs fringe source is carried out special management and cultivation.Generally to select long The vigorous tea place of gesture is as Mu Sui garden, and Mu Sui garden is carried out special management, specifically includes that 1, provides fringe Fertilising to be strengthened to make elite stand produce the young sprout that meristematic capacity is strong in Yuan Musui garden;2, the pruning of fringe elite stand is supported Degree relatively picking leaves tea tree is attached most importance to;3, in order to promote to stay foster Shoot hardeding, put aside more nutriment, and make axillalry bud satisfy Completely expand, typically pinch in beta pruning first half of the month, pluck the tender shoots leaf on top;4, elite stand must be prevented and treated in time Pest and disease damage, it is important to note that control smaller green leaf hopper, the harm of mite class in young sprout elongation process.Part seedling Breeding unit is that this must build specially and adopts fringe maternal plant garden, considerably increases construction cost and administration fee is used.
Summary of the invention
In order to overcome the shortcoming of prior art with not enough, it is an object of the invention to provide one can save manpower, Meet anniversary nursery needs, improve Quality of Seedlings and the large leaf tea tree rapid seedling cultivation method of production efficiency.
The purpose of the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:
A kind of large leaf tea tree rapid seedling cultivation method, comprises the following steps:
(1) seedbed is set up: selecting red soil field to make nursery, smooth furrow face, on furrow face, bedding one layer is red Loam cubsoil, is compacted as seedbed after striking off, then sets up the frame that shelters from heat or light above nursery;
Red soil field preferred water source abundance, irrigation and drainage facility, level of ground water less than 1 meter, soil texture be good, Soil is acid or slightly acidic red soil field;
Preferably, the bedding thickness of described red soil cubsoil is 7~10cm;The height of the described frame that shelters from heat or light Being 1.8~2.0m, the rate of sheltering from heat or light of the frame that shelters from heat or light is 70%, and black sunshade preferably used by the material that shelters from heat or light of the frame that shelters from heat or light Net;
(2) cuttage branch processes: collect the branch of large leaf tea tree discarded after the management of tea place autumn and winter is pruned, Select healthy and strong branch, cut off cloudy branch, then be cut into long 20~25cm branch, clip directive and leaf to identical, Obtain the cuttings for rapid seedling cultivation;
Preferably, described large leaf tea tree is red No. nine tea trees of English;
(3) cuttage: first fully squirted in seedbed before cuttage, cuts the lower clip of step (2) described cuttings Face promotees to bedew in root guard agent solution plant, then by cuttage specification cuttings straight cutting or 45 ° of oblique cuttings in seedbed In, insertion depth is 3~5 centimetres, exposes blade, by the red soil cubsoil base of cuttings surrounding while insertion Matter is compacted;Cuttings be all plugged after trickle and the spray dilution photosynthetic bacteria microbial inoculum solution of 60~120 times immediately, Cover by White plastic film again and seal, in order to moisture-heat preservation;
Preferably, described plant promotees the photosynthetic bacteria microbial inoculum solution or dilute that root guard agent solution is dilution 120 times Release the soil activating agent solution of 60 times;
Preferably, described cuttage specification is line-spacing 10~12cm, spacing in the rows 6~8cm, so that blade is the most overlapping is Preferably, mu is inserted up to 4~60,000 strains;
Cuttings carries out nursery according to nutrient bag, can be effectively improved transplanting survival rate;
Cuttage is not limited by seasonality, and the anniversary all can be carried out;Especially can carry out autumn and winter skewer after tea place stops adopting Insert, all can carry out cuttage from January September to next year;
(4) nursery bed management: cuttings periodically carries out seedling management in being plugged latter 120 days, specifically includes following behaviour Make:
A poured water after 7 days in seedbed by () cuttage, keep ground moistening in seedbed, need not open white and mould Material film;
B after () cuttage 30 days, raising White plastic film and carry out uprooting weed, extract bud, trickle also sprays Dilute the photosynthetic bacteria microbial inoculum solution of 120 times, the most again White plastic film is covered and seal;
C after () cuttage 50 days, again raising White plastic film and carry out uprooting weed, extract bud, trickle is also Spray the photosynthetic bacteria microbial inoculum solution of dilution 120 times, the most again White plastic film is covered and seal;
After (d) cuttage 60 days, raise White plastic film carry out spraying dilution 60~120 times photosynthetic carefully Bacteria agent solution and the soil activating agent solution of dilution 60~120 times, cover White plastic film the most again Lid seals;
After (e) cuttage 90 days, raise White plastic film two ends and carry out ventilative, by white after ventilative one week Plastic sheeting is all raised, and carries out applying fertilizer for the first time, once every fertilising in 7 days later;Used by described fertilising Fertilizer is the urea of mass fraction 0.1%~0.5%.
(5) go out garden: cuttings cuttage carried out hardening after 120 days, treat the tea tree height of seedling 30~45cm that the cuttings chief becomes Garden can be gone out time above.
The present invention has such advantages as relative to prior art and effect:
(1) the large leaf tea tree rapid seedling cultivation method of the present invention, tea tree branch discarded after selecting tea place to prune Recycle as cuttage material, without extra charge, and the Sino-British red No. nine kind concrete managements of prior art Elite stand cuttage fringe bar cost per kilogram reach more than 80 yuan, therefore the method for culturing seedlings of the present invention can reduce financial cost And management cost, save a large amount of manpower, reduce labour intensity.
(2) the large leaf tea tree rapid seedling cultivation method of the present invention can promote growth of seedling, is used especially for Ying Hong The rapid seedling cultivation of No. nine tea trees.Use the planting percent of red No. nine rapid seedling cultivations of English after the inventive method reach 95%~ 100%, seedling is moved, plants survival rate height;Emergence rate is fast, and conventional short fringe nursery needed for 1 year, and grew Cladus bar just can go out garden for 120 days, shortens growing-seedling period;To solving, large leaf tea especially English after surviving the winter is red Low and the impact production of seedling deficiency the problem of the directly plantation survival rate of No. nine has direct meaning, red to English The preservation of No. nine good seeds and expand and numerous there is important reference value.
(3) the large leaf tea tree rapid seedling cultivation method technological operation of the present invention is simple, and hand labor intensity is little, There is the prospect of large-scale promotion application.
(4) the large leaf tea tree rapid seedling cultivation method versatility of the present invention is good, the most numerous except large leaf tea tree Outside nursery, also can be applied to the rapid seedling cultivation of other commodity trees.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with embodiment, the present invention is described in further detail, but embodiments of the present invention are not limited to This.
In the embodiment of the present invention, it is raw that soil activating agent uses heaven and earth biotechnology Co., Ltd of Fugang County " green rich microbial inoculum is driven in sky " series soil activating agent produced, photosynthetic bacteria agent uses Fugang County's heaven and earth biology work " green rich microbial inoculum is driven in sky " series photosynthetic bacteria agent that journey Technology Co., Ltd. produces, water of taking root uses the Taishan The platform board plant establishment water that chemical plant, city produces.Experimental field it is positioned at Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences and drinks plant research In Germany and Britain of institute base, trial zone height above sea level 40m, year fall amount 1138mm, average annual rainfall number of days 158 days.
Embodiment 1
A kind of large leaf tea tree rapid seedling cultivation method, comprises the steps:
(1) seedbed is set up: selecting to have abundant water resources, irrigation and drainage are convenient, below level of ground water 1m, and soil texture Well, soil is that nursery is made in acid or slightly acidic red soil field;Smooth furrow face, more thereon bedding 7~ The red soil cubsoil of 10cm, strikes off and is slightly compacted;Scaffolding shades, and uses the high canopy of 1.8~2m, and the material that shelters from heat or light is adopted Using black sunshade net, the rate of shading is 75%;
(2) cutting time: after tea place stops adopting, monthly carries out autumn and winter cuttage from September to next year 1;
(3) cuttage material selection: use the pruning that the tea place autumn and winter produce after managing No. nine tea bush trimmers red to English Branch, selects wherein healthy and strong skill, discards cloudy branch as tea cutting branch;
(4) cuttage branch processes: by selected tea cutting branch, be cut into the cuttings of long 20~25cm, Clip must smooth without explosion, and clip directive and leaf are to identical, and clip tangent plane under cuttings is being diluted 60 times Soil activating agent liquor middling speed be stained with and can carry out cuttage;
(5) cuttage specification: line-spacing 10~12cm, spacing in the rows is 6~8cm, is advisable so that blade is the most overlapping, Mu inserts 4~60,000 strains.With good conditionsi use nutritional bag, favorably improve transplanting survival rate;
(6) cottage method: before cuttage, first fully squirts seedbed, until the most dry and after not touching with one's hand, cuttings Straight cutting or 45 ° of oblique cuttings bury in 2~3 centimetres, expose blade, soil is compacted by limit insert edge a little, vertical after inserting I.e. trickle spray the dilution photosynthetic bacteria microbial inoculum solution of 60~120 times, covers by White plastic film and seals With moisture-heat preservation;
(7) nursery bed management: nursery bed management concrete operations are as follows:
A, cuttage are poured water once in about 7 days, keep ground moistening, need not open White plastic film;
B, cuttage carry out after 30 days lifting film uprooting weed, extracing bud, trickle and spray dilution 60~120 times After photosynthetic bacteria microbial inoculum solution, film is covered again;
C, cuttage carry out after 50 days lifting film uprooting weed, extracing bud, trickle and spray dilution 60~120 times After photosynthetic bacteria microbial inoculum solution, film is covered again;
After D, cuttage 60 days, raise White plastic film and carry out spraying the photosynthetic bacteria of dilution 60~120 times Microbial inoculum solution and the soil activating agent solution of dilution 60~120 times, cover White plastic film the most again Seal;
After E, cuttage 90 days, start to raise White plastic film two ends, can all raise after one week, start Apply for the first time the urea of mass fraction 0.1%~0.5%, later every 7 days with mass fraction 0.1%~0.5% Urea applies fertilizer once, notices that trickle cleans tea shoot, in order to avoid causing tea shoot to burn after topdressing every time;
(8) garden is gone out: after cuttage 120 days, hardening, garden can be gone out when height of seedling 30~more than 45cm;
Survival rate and the rooting rate of cuttings is added up after cuttage.
Comparative example 1
A kind of method for culturing seedlings of large leaf tea tree, implementation step is substantially the same manner as Example 1, and difference is: When step (4) cuttage branch processes, tea cutting branch is not cut into the cuttings of long 20~25cm, but uses Conventional process, is cut into the cuttings of long 3~4cm by tea cutting branch, and has one on a short stem and satisfy Full axillalry bud and the blade of a piece of stalwartness.
Survival rate and the rooting rate of cuttings is added up after cuttage.
Comparative example 2
A kind of method for culturing seedlings of large leaf tea tree, implementation step is substantially the same manner as Example 1, and difference is: Step (1) top layer, seedbed not bedding red soil cubsoil, directly in the local general soil of cuttings cuttage to nursery.
Survival rate and the rooting rate of cuttings is added up after cuttage.
Comparative example 3
A kind of method for culturing seedlings of large leaf tea tree, implementation step is substantially the same manner as Example 1, and difference is: In step (6) cottage method, trickle after spraying photosynthetic bacteria microbial inoculum solution, do not carry out White plastic film Cover and seal, cuttings open-air rearing.
Survival rate and the rooting rate of cuttings is added up after cuttage.
Comparative example 4
A kind of method for culturing seedlings of large leaf tea tree, implementation step is substantially the same manner as Example 1, and difference is:
1, the operation of step (6) cottage method is: before cuttage, is first fully squirted in seedbed, treats the most dry and non-sticky After hand, during cuttings straight cutting or 45 ° of oblique cuttings are buried 2~3 centimetres, exposing blade, limit insert edge is by soil a little Compacting, trickle immediately after inserting, cover by White plastic film and seal with moisture-heat preservation;
2, step (7) nursery bed management operation is:
A, cuttage are poured water once in about 7 days, keep ground moistening, need not open White plastic film;
B, cuttage carry out after 30 days lifting film uprooting weed, extracing bud, after trickle, film are covered again;
C, cuttage carry out after 50 days lifting film uprooting weed, extracing bud, after trickle, film are covered again;
After D, cuttage 60 days, after raising White plastic film trickle, again White plastic film is covered close Envelope;
After E, cuttage 90 days, start to raise White plastic film two ends, can all raise after one week, start the Single-dose application, applied fertilizer once with 0.1%~0.5% urea every 7 days later, noticed that trickle cleans after topdressing every time Tea shoot, in order to avoid causing tea shoot to burn.
Survival rate and the rooting rate of cuttings is added up after cuttage.
Comparative example 5
A kind of method for culturing seedlings of large leaf tea tree, implementation step is substantially the same manner as Example 1, and difference is:
A () step (1) selects the yellow ground loam of slant acidity or red soil to make nursery;
When () step (4) cuttage branch processes b, tea cutting branch is not cut into the cuttings of long 20~25cm, But employing conventional process, tea cutting branch is cut into the cuttings of long 3~4cm, and one There is on short stem a full axillalry bud and the blade of a piece of stalwartness;
When () step (4) cuttage branch processes c, by the taking root dilution 1500 times of clip tangent plane under cuttings Aqueous solution middling speed is stained with cuttage the most at once rather than by clip tangent plane under cuttings dilution 60 times Soil activating agent liquor middling speed is stained with.
Survival rate and the rooting rate of cuttings is added up after cuttage.
Cuttings survival rate and the rooting rate statistics of embodiment 1 and comparative example 1-5 are as shown in table 1:
The survival rate of Sino-British red No. nine cuttings of the different cottage method of table 1 and rooting rate
Knowable to table 1 interpretation of result, use survival rate and the life of method for culturing seedlings of the present invention No. nine tea seedlings red to English The facilitation of root rate is more obvious, has significant progressive compared with comparative example.It follows that this Bright method for culturing seedlings by soil matrix, scaffolding shade, cuttings pre-treatment and use film cover sealing, moisturizing protect The measures such as temperature are that the red No. nine cuttings nursery of English create the most suitable environment, can promote growth of seedling, promote numerous Grow material to take root, improve survival rate and rooting rate, thus this technology has in the various plants numerous middle popularization and application of expansion Prospect.
Above-described embodiment is the present invention preferably embodiment, but embodiments of the present invention are not by above-mentioned enforcement The restriction of example, the change made, modifies, replaces under other any Spirit Essence without departing from the present invention and principle In generation, combine, simplify, all should be the substitute mode of equivalence, within being included in protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. a large leaf tea tree rapid seedling cultivation method, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
(1) seedbed is set up: selecting red soil field to make nursery, smooth furrow face, on furrow face, bedding one layer is red Loam cubsoil, flattens as seedbed after striking off, then sets up the frame that shelters from heat or light above nursery;
(2) cuttage branch processes: collect the branch of large leaf tea tree discarded after the management of tea place autumn and winter is pruned, Select healthy and strong branch, cut off cloudy branch, then be cut into long 20~25cm branch, clip directive and leaf to identical, Obtain the cuttings for rapid seedling cultivation;
(3) cuttage: first fully squirted in seedbed before cuttage, cuts the lower clip of step (2) described cuttings Face promotees to bedew in root guard agent solution plant, then by cuttage specification cuttings straight cutting or 45 ° of oblique cuttings in step (1) in described seedbed, insertion depth is 3~5 centimetres, exposes blade, by cuttings surrounding while insertion Red soil cubsoil compacting;Cuttings be all plugged after immediately trickle and spray dilution 60~120 times photosynthetic carefully Bacteria agent solution, then cover sealing by White plastic film;
(4) nursery bed management: cuttings periodically carries out seedling management in being plugged latter 120 days;
(5) go out garden: cuttings cuttage carried out hardening after 120 days, treat the tea tree height of seedling 30~45cm that the cuttings chief becomes Time can go out garden;
Step (3) described plant promotees the photosynthetic bacteria microbial inoculum solution that root guard agent solution is dilution 60~120 times Or the soil activating agent solution of dilution 60~120 times;
Step (4) described nursery bed management includes operating as follows:
A poured water after 7 days in seedbed by () cuttage, keep ground moistening in seedbed, need not open white and mould Material film;
B after () cuttage 30 days, raising White plastic film and carry out uprooting weed, extract bud, trickle also sprays Dilute the photosynthetic bacteria microbial inoculum solution of 120 times, the most again White plastic film is covered and seal;
C after () cuttage 50 days, again raising White plastic film and carry out uprooting weed, extract bud, trickle is also Spray the photosynthetic bacteria microbial inoculum solution of dilution 120 times, the most again White plastic film is covered and seal;
After (d) cuttage 60 days, raise White plastic film and spray the photosynthetic bacteria bacterium of dilution 60~120 times Agent solution and the soil activating agent solution of dilution 60~120 times, cover close the most again by White plastic film Envelope;
After (e) cuttage 90 days, raise White plastic film two ends and carry out ventilative, by white after ventilative one week Plastic sheeting is all raised, and carries out applying fertilizer for the first time, once every fertilising in 7 days later;Used by described fertilising Fertilizer is the urea of mass fraction 0.1%~0.5%.
A kind of large leaf tea tree rapid seedling cultivation method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: step Suddenly (2) described large leaf tea tree is red No. nine tea trees of English.
A kind of large leaf tea tree rapid seedling cultivation method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: step Suddenly the bedding thickness of (1) described red soil cubsoil is 7~10cm;Shelter from heat or light described in step (1) height of frame Degree is 1.8~2.0m, and the rate of sheltering from heat or light of the frame that shelters from heat or light is 70%.
A kind of large leaf tea tree rapid seedling cultivation method the most according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: step Suddenly (3) described cuttage specification is line-spacing 10~12cm, spacing in the rows 6~8cm.
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