CN103985917B - Low-temperature charging and discharging method for lithium battery - Google Patents

Low-temperature charging and discharging method for lithium battery Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103985917B
CN103985917B CN201410252579.0A CN201410252579A CN103985917B CN 103985917 B CN103985917 B CN 103985917B CN 201410252579 A CN201410252579 A CN 201410252579A CN 103985917 B CN103985917 B CN 103985917B
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China
Prior art keywords
temperature
battery
lithium battery
charging
lithium
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CN201410252579.0A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN103985917A (en
Inventor
潘青海
陈娟
高晶晶
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河南顺之航能源科技有限公司
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • H01M10/44Methods for charging or discharging
    • H01M10/443Methods for charging or discharging in response to temperature
    • HELECTRICITY
    • H01BASIC ELECTRIC ELEMENTS
    • H01MPROCESSES OR MEANS, e.g. BATTERIES, FOR THE DIRECT CONVERSION OF CHEMICAL ENERGY INTO ELECTRICAL ENERGY
    • H01M10/00Secondary cells; Manufacture thereof
    • H01M10/42Methods or arrangements for servicing or maintenance of secondary cells or secondary half-cells
    • H01M10/44Methods for charging or discharging
    • H01M10/446Initial charging measures
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E60/00Enabling technologies; Technologies with a potential or indirect contribution to GHG emissions mitigation
    • Y02E60/10Energy storage using batteries

Abstract

The invention provides a low-temperature charging and discharging method for a lithium battery. The low-temperature charging and discharging method comprises the steps of detecting the temperature of the battery in real time through a battery management system; reading a preset rule through the battery management system, wherein the preset rule defines a plurality of continuous temperature ranges, and each temperature range corresponds to a charging stop voltage; comparing, by the battery management system, the temperature value of the detected battery with a boundary value of the temperature range to judge in which temperature range the temperature falls, to obtain a corresponding charging stop voltage value; sending an instruction by the battery management system through a control circuit or a charger to charge a lithium battery pack according to the charging stop voltage. The low-temperature charging and discharging method for the lithium battery has the advantages and the active effects that due to the matching of the lithium battery pack and the management system, the lithium battery pack can be charged and discharged at low temperature without external heating; the phenomenon of lithium crystal branches is avoided.

Description

A kind of lithium battery low temperature charging/discharging thereof
Technical field
The invention belongs to battery charging and discharging technical field, more particularly, to a kind of lithium battery low temperature charging/discharging thereof.
Background technology
At low temperatures, various active substance activity are reduced lithium battery, and the response rate of battery core electrode is low, and battery performance is non- Often low, the electricity being actually charged into is few, and the use time of battery shortens when using.Simultaneously lithium battery in low temperature charging process easily Cause lithium ion to separate out in negative pole, produce lithium metal crystallization, i.e. " lithium dendrite arm " phenomenon.The generation of " lithium dendrite arm " can make battery every Film rupture and cause inside battery both positive and negative polarity short circuit, produce safety problem.Meanwhile, lithium metal can make battery with electrolyte reaction Activity lowers, and accelerates the decay of battery life.
In prior art, during using lithium battery, to avoid the generation of " lithium dendrite arm " phenomenon, three kinds of methods are typically adopted:The One kind is to forbid lithium battery low temperature to charge.Second is, when lithium battery must charge in low temperature environment, first lithium battery to be entered Row heating, so as to avoid the generation of the phenomenon of " lithium dendrite arm ".The third is exactly to propose to pass through small current formula at low ambient temperatures Pulse realization carries out fully charged to battery.First method obviously can not meet demand of the lithium battery in various fields, especially Current electric automobile field, because it uses vast in territory, the especially north of China, winter climate is colder, outdoor temp Degree can be to subzero 30 DEG C.Although second method is better compared with the first in use, its complex structure controls difficulty Greatly, the problems such as fault rate is high have impact on all the time lithium battery and use field, the especially development in electric automobile field.The third side Method improve in theory low temperature can not fill electricity problem and low temperature state under mobility be more than lithium ion mobility speed The problem that lithium ion is separated out in negative terminal surface during causing, but ignore because under cryogenic both positive and negative polarity matching amount is lost The safety problem that weighing apparatus is caused, produces a kind of " relative to overcharge phenomenon ".
The content of the invention
The problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide a kind of charging and discharging lithium battery method, prevents the charging analysis of lithium battery low temperature Go out lithium metal problem.
To solve above-mentioned technical problem, the technical solution used in the present invention is:
A kind of lithium battery low-temperature charging method, comprises the steps:
S1. the temperature of battery management system real-time detection battery;
S2. battery management system reads a preset rules, and the preset rules define multiple continuous temperature ranges, often One charge cutoff voltage of individual temperature range correspondence;The temperature value of the battery that the battery management system detects step S1 and temperature The boundary value of degree scope is compared, and is looked down in which temperature range, obtains the value of corresponding charge cutoff voltage;
S3. battery management system sends instruction control and cuts according to the charging that S2 steps are obtained by control circuit or charger Only voltage charges to lithium battery group.
Further, the preset rules for reading in step S2 also include that each charge cutoff voltage correspondence one charges electric Stream;In step S3, the corresponding charge cutoff voltage of correspondence carries out difference using corresponding charging current in preset rules to battery The constant-current charge of current value.
Further, the battery management system include microprocessor, single-unit voltage acquisition module, current acquisition module and Temperature collect module.
A kind of lithium battery low temperature discharge method, comprises the steps:
X1. the temperature of battery management system real-time detection battery;
X2. battery management system reads a preset rules, and the preset rules define multiple continuous temperature ranges, often One discharge cut-off voltage of individual temperature range correspondence;The temperature value of the battery that the battery management system detects step X1 and temperature The boundary value of degree scope is compared, and is looked down in which temperature range, obtains the value of corresponding discharge cut-off voltage;
X3. battery management system sends the discharge cut-off voltage pair that instruction control is obtained according to X2 steps by control circuit Lithium battery group is discharged.
Further, the battery is lithium battery group or lithium battery monomer.
The present invention has the advantages and positive effects that:By the cooperation of lithium battery group and management system, it is implemented without Low temperature discharge and recharge also can be carried out to lithium battery group by external heat, and " lithium dendrite arm " phenomenon will not occur.
Description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the flow chart of the charging method that the present invention adjusts charge cutoff voltage according to temperature;
Fig. 3 is the flow chart of the charging method that the present invention adjusts charge cutoff voltage and charging current according to temperature simultaneously;
Fig. 4 is the flow chart of the charging method that the present invention adjusts discharge cut-off voltage according to temperature.
Specific embodiment
The specific embodiment of the present invention is elaborated below in conjunction with the accompanying drawings.
The core concept of the embodiment of the present invention is that battery charging and discharging method is not being produced " lithium crystallization " according to battery Temperature range is determining appropriate charge cutoff voltage and discharge cut-off voltage;Most start under constant current charge, and in electricity Cell voltage is changed to constant-voltage charge when rising to the charge cutoff voltage, the temperature of real-time detection battery, with the process for charging, The temperature of battery is gradually increasing, and the temperature of battery reaches another temperature range, then corresponding charge cutoff voltage is also with Rise, be charged according to new charge cutoff voltage, once rule is carried out, till battery is fully charged.Meanwhile, battery fills Method for electrically can determine an appropriate charging current according further to temperature range.
As shown in figure 1, battery is lithium battery group in the embodiment of the present invention, charger is lithium battery by battery management system Charge;Battery management system includes microprocessor, single-unit voltage acquisition module, current acquisition module and temperature collect module, single Section voltage acquisition module is used for gathering the voltage of single lithium battery, when current acquisition module is used for detecting lithium battery group discharge and recharge Electric current, temperature collect module is used for detecting the temperature of battery;Microprocessor receives the cell voltage of each battery, adopts from electric current The output signal of collection module and temperature collect module, is controlled to the charge and discharge process of set of cells;Battery management system coordinates Charger is to managing the charge cutoff voltage of set of cells and the control of charging current.
A kind of lithium battery low-temperature charging method, comprises the steps:
A1. the temperature of battery management system real-time detection battery;
A2. battery management system reads a preset rules, and the preset rules define multiple continuous temperature ranges, often One charge cutoff voltage of individual temperature range correspondence;The temperature value of the battery that the battery management system detects step A1 and temperature The boundary value of degree scope is compared, and is looked down in which temperature range, obtains the value of corresponding charge cutoff voltage;
A3. battery management system sends instruction control and cuts according to the charging that A2 steps are obtained by control circuit or charger Only voltage charges to lithium battery group.
Further, the preset rules for reading in step A2 also include that each charge cutoff voltage correspondence one charges electric Stream;In step A3, the corresponding charge cutoff voltage of correspondence carries out difference using corresponding charging current in preset rules to battery The constant-current charge of current value.
A kind of lithium battery low temperature discharge method, comprises the steps:
B1. the temperature of battery management system real-time detection battery;
B2. battery management system reads a preset rules, and the preset rules define multiple continuous temperature ranges, often One discharge cut-off voltage of individual temperature range correspondence;The temperature value of the battery that the battery management system detects step B1 and temperature The boundary value of degree scope is compared, and is looked down in which temperature range, obtains the value of corresponding discharge cut-off voltage;
B3. battery management system sends the discharge cut-off voltage pair that instruction control is obtained according to B2 steps by control circuit Lithium battery group is discharged.
One embodiment of the invention takes a Battery pack of a certain model of certain brand, does different charge cutoff electricity under different temperatures The experiment of pressure, by experiment test and dissection (being shown in Table 1), show under different magnitudes of voltage and different state of temperatures, lithium is brilliant The generation of branch " phenomenon and degree are also different.
Table 1:Lithium dendrite arm phenomenon occurrence temperature table corresponding with charge cutoff voltage
A kind of lithium battery low-temperature charging method in the present embodiment, as shown in Fig. 2 comprising the steps:
First, the temperature of battery management system real-time detection battery;
Afterwards. battery management system reads a preset rules, and the preset rules define multiple continuous temperature ranges, Each temperature range one charge cutoff voltage (being shown in Table 2, table 2 is obtained according to the result of table one) of correspondence;The cell tube The temperature value of the battery that reason system detects upper step is compared with the boundary value of temperature range, looks down which temperature range It is interior, obtain the value of corresponding charge cutoff voltage;Specifically:It is corresponding to fill when lithium battery group temperature is detected less than -22 DEG C Electric blanking voltage is 3.9OV, and battery management system is sent instruction control and cut using 3.9OV chargings by control circuit or charger Only voltage charges to lithium battery group;As charging is carried out, lithium battery group produces heat, and temperature gradually rises;It is electric when lithium is detected When pond group temperature is in the range of -16 DEG C≤C1≤- 20 DEG C, lithium battery group is charged using 4.OV charge cutoff voltages;According to Secondary to analogize, with the increase of temperature, charge cutoff voltage gradually increases, and is finally reached 4.20V, in constant-voltage charge, by lithium battery Till group is full of;In this charging process, " lithium dendrite arm " phenomenon will not be produced.
Table 2:The charge cutoff voltage value of correspondence different temperatures scope
Temperature range Charge cutoff voltage (V)
>-10℃ 4.20V
-10℃≤C1≤-15℃ 4.10V
-16℃≤C1≤-20℃ 4.00V
<-20℃ 3.90V
As shown in figure 3, on the premise of set of cells safety is ensured, in order to preferably play the performance of battery, further, The preset rules of reading also include that one corresponding charging of charging current (being shown in Table 3) correspondence of each charge cutoff voltage correspondence is cut Only voltage, using different charging currents the constant-current charge of different current values is carried out to set of cells;It is specifically in the present embodiment: When lithium battery group is detected at -22 DEG C, adjustment charging current is 0.1C, when temperature is raised, when voltage is stepped up, and electricity Stream also correspondingly becomes big, until voltage is more than 2.5V, recovers conventional setting charging current, i.e. 0.5C.
Table 3:Regulation and control under different temperatures are charged when voltage according to the scope control charging current of voltage
Temperature range Charging initial voltage Electric current
>-10℃ >2.5V Normal setting electric current
-10℃≤C1≤-15℃ 2V<C1≤2.5V 0.3C
-16℃≤C1≤-20℃ 1.5V<C1≤2V 0.2C
-21℃≤C1≤-25℃ 1V<C1≤1.5V 0.1C
-26℃≤C1≤-30℃ 0.5V≤C1≤1V 0.05C
<-30℃ <0.5V Report to the police
A kind of embodiment of lithium battery low temperature discharge method, as shown in figure 4, comprising the steps:
First, the temperature of battery management system real-time detection battery;
Afterwards. battery management system reads a preset rules, and the preset rules define multiple continuous temperature ranges, Each temperature range one discharge cut-off voltage (being shown in Table 4) of correspondence;The battery that the battery management system detects upper step Temperature value is compared with the boundary value of temperature range, is looked down in which temperature range, obtains corresponding discharge cut-off voltage Value;Specifically:When detect lithium battery group temperature less than -20 DEG C when, corresponding discharge cut-off voltage be 1.5OV, cell tube Reason system is sent instruction control lithium battery group is discharged using 1.5O V discharge cut-off voltage by control circuit;With discharge into OK, lithium battery group produces heat, and temperature gradually rises;When the temperature that battery management system detects lithium battery group reaches -20 DEG C When, discharge cut-off voltage is continually adjusted to 2.2V by battery management system from 1.5V;The like, work as temperature>- 10 DEG C, electric discharge Blanking voltage discharges for the carrying out of the setting of 2.5V.
Subordinate list 4:The discharge cut-off voltage value of correspondence different temperatures scope
Temperature range Discharge cut-off voltage
>-10℃ 2.5V
-10℃≤C1≤-15℃ 2.2V
-16℃≤C1≤-20℃ 2.0V
-21℃≤C1≤-25℃ 1.5V
-26℃≤C1≤-30℃ 1.0V
<-30℃ 0V
One embodiment of the present of invention has been described in detail above, but the content is only the preferable enforcement of the present invention Example, it is impossible to be considered as the practical range for limiting the present invention.All impartial changes made according to the present patent application scope and improvement Deng, all should still belong to the present invention patent covering scope within.

Claims (3)

1. a kind of lithium battery low-temperature charging method, it is characterised in that:Battery management system is supplied to, so as to determining a charge cutoff Voltage, and then battery is charged according to this charge cutoff voltage, the method comprises the steps:
A1. the temperature of battery management system real-time detection battery;
A2. battery management system reads a preset rules, and the preset rules define multiple continuous temperature ranges, temperature model The peak for enclosing is -10 DEG C, each temperature range one charge cutoff voltage of correspondence, and according to battery " lithium crystallization " temperature is not being produced Spend scope to determine appropriate charge cutoff voltage;The temperature value of the battery that the battery management system detects step A1 with The boundary value of temperature range is compared, and is looked down in which temperature range, obtains the value of corresponding charge cutoff voltage;
A3. battery management system sends the charge cutoff electricity that instruction control is obtained according to A2 steps by control circuit or charger Pressure charges to lithium battery group;
The preset rules of reading also include in step A2, each charge cutoff voltage one charging current of correspondence;Step A3 In, the corresponding charge cutoff voltage of correspondence carries out different current values using corresponding charging current in preset rules to battery Constant-current charge;
As the increase of temperature, charge cutoff voltage gradually increase, 4.20V is finally reached, in constant-voltage charge, lithium battery group is filled Till full.
2. lithium battery low-temperature charging method according to claim 1, it is characterised in that:The battery management system includes micro- Processor, single-unit voltage acquisition module, current acquisition module and temperature collect module.
3. lithium battery low-temperature charging method according to claim 1 and 2, it is characterised in that:The battery is lithium battery group Or lithium battery monomer.
CN201410252579.0A 2014-06-09 2014-06-09 Low-temperature charging and discharging method for lithium battery CN103985917B (en)

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CN105882436B (en) * 2015-08-20 2018-10-23 北京长城华冠汽车科技股份有限公司 A kind of battery management system and battery management method of electric vehicle
CN105429249B (en) * 2016-01-19 2018-08-24 宁德新能源科技有限公司 Battery control device and the method for controlling battery
CN105946604B (en) * 2016-04-28 2018-08-17 郑州宇通客车股份有限公司 Power battery method for heating and controlling and power battery heating control system
WO2017214852A1 (en) * 2016-06-14 2017-12-21 宁德新能源科技有限公司 Battery charging method and device and battery system
CN106025410B (en) * 2016-07-22 2018-07-24 哈尔滨理工大学 A kind of battery variable current heating means for electric vehicle
CN106505693B (en) * 2016-12-29 2019-02-15 普天新能源车辆技术有限公司 Low temperature charge control method
CN107275689A (en) * 2017-05-10 2017-10-20 宁波动电器有限公司 A kind of lithium battery pack low-temperature start method and system and a kind of controller
CN108417919B (en) * 2018-03-07 2020-05-22 厦门美图移动科技有限公司 Battery voltage adjusting method and device and mobile terminal
CN108511827A (en) * 2018-04-03 2018-09-07 河南顺之航能源科技有限公司 A kind of low temperature charging/discharging thereof of lithium ion battery
WO2020097917A1 (en) * 2018-11-16 2020-05-22 深圳市欢太科技有限公司 Charging method and apparatus, mobile terminal, and computer-readable storage medium
TWI702747B (en) * 2019-01-25 2020-08-21 大陸商太普動力新能源(常熟)股份有限公司 Battery and method for charging a battery cell thereof

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