CN103975811A - Rice cultivation method - Google Patents

Rice cultivation method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103975811A
CN103975811A CN201410249941.9A CN201410249941A CN103975811A CN 103975811 A CN103975811 A CN 103975811A CN 201410249941 A CN201410249941 A CN 201410249941A CN 103975811 A CN103975811 A CN 103975811A
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Prior art keywords
rice
paddy
irrigation
seeding
cultivating
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CN201410249941.9A
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CN103975811B (en
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张卫建
宋振伟
路明
杭晓宁
郑成岩
邓艾兴
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Institute of Crop Sciences of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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Institute of Crop Sciences of Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2

Abstract

The invention discloses a rice cultivation method. The rice cultivation method comprises the following steps of: S10, preparing before seeding; S20, carrying out seeding operation; S30, carrying out irrigation by infiltration on a rice field in a whole growth period when the rice enters the growth period, and carrying out pest control and grass disaster control; and S40, timely harvesting according to the rice growth period and carrying out planting on next round of crops. According to the rice cultivation method disclosed by the invention, no-tillage direct seeding and irrigation by infiltration are organically combined, so that the no-tillage direct seeding saves a rice seedling bed period; and flooding irrigation is replaced by the irrigation by infiltration, so that the technical problems that the conventional rice cultivation technology is high in seedling transplanting and greenhouse gas discharging amount, and lower in fertilizer and moisture utilization efficiency are solved, energy-saving and emission-reducing capacity of a rice producing system is improved, and purposes of saving the oil consumption by 45%, comprehensively reducing emission of the greenhouse gas by 50% and remarkably improving the water fertilizer utilization efficiency are achieved; and moreover, the rice cultivation method is higher in mechanical degree, simplified in technology, easy to popularize, and especially has popularization prospect in a rice-wheat (oilseed rape) paddy-upland rotation region.

Description

Rice cultivating method
Technical field
The present invention relates to the proportion of crop planting agricultural method in a kind of agricultural technology field, relate in particular to a kind of rice cultivating method.
Background technology
Rice field is the most important field ecosystem of China, although its gross area Jin Zhan China arable area 20%, produced the grain of China nearly 50%.Rice field, in ensureing China's grain security, is also CH 4and N 2the important emission source of O isothermal chamber gas.The CH in the whole world 16% at present 4discharge capacity results from rice field, and Chinese rice field is to global CH 4the contribution of discharge is about 22%~32%, rice field CH 4emission problem will become the new focus of international energy-saving and emission-reduction negotiation.Straw-returning can promote on the one hand agricultural land soil carburetting, reduces fertilizer amount and promote Comprehensive Productivity; But then, under flooding condition, rice field straw-returning can discharge again a large amount of greenhouse gases CH 4, the negative effect of environment can not be ignored.Therefore Study On Rice high yield water-saving and emission-reducing Comprehensive Cultivation Techniques, Development of Novel rice operation mode, has important realistic meaning.
The Traditional Rice operation mode of China is various, live, rice transplantation by hand and transplanting are all widely used at present.But along with the quickening of urban-rural integration process, rural laborer shifts gradually and shifts to city, causes the area of hand rice transplanting to reduce year by year.Transplanting is that government promotes mainly culture technique, and under the vigorously supporting of government, development is rapid, but cost is higher, is difficult to spread and popularizes in the short time.Direct-seeding Rice is as a kind of portable rice operation mode, and its advantage is that running cost is low, has been subject to the favor of peasant household, and growth momentum is powerful; But in actual production, also there are problems, such as output shakiness, serious lodging, especially traditional one seed, fertile water direct seeding, cause greenhouse gas emissions high, liquid manure utilization ratio is low, has limited applying of Direct-seeding Rice technology.
Summary of the invention
Object of the present invention is exactly technical problem and the defect existing for Traditional Rice operation mode, a kind of rice cultivating method is provided, to reducing manpower and energy input, improves water use efficiency, reduce in the situation of rice field greenhouse gas emissions, reach the object of energy-saving and emission-reduction, cost-saving synergistic.
Technical solution problem of the present invention adopts following technical scheme: a kind of rice cultivating method, comprises the following steps:
S10, broadcast front preparation, and obtain rice paddy seed to be sowed;
S20, broadcast after front preparation, rice paddy seed described to be sowed is carried out to seeding operation in good time, and carry out the deep placement operation of chemical fertilizer location simultaneously;
S30, after planting, described paddy rice enters breeding time, in whole breeding time, irrigation by infiltration is carried out in described rice field, and carries out the extermination of disease and insect pest and/or prevention and control of weeds;
S40, gather in the crops according to growth period duration of rice in good time, and carry out next round crop-planting.
Optionally, described step S10 is specially:
S101, paddy rice, after first crop harvesting wheat, adopt stalk to cover total crop return;
S102, broadcast front rice varieties and select and/or process, described in broadcast front rice varieties and select that stooling is strong, emergence rate is high and the precocity of strong stress resistance japonica rice variety in evening; Described broadcasting before front rice varieties is treated to sowing basked seeds and seed coat agent dressing, obtains rice paddy seed to be sowed after above-mentioned processing.
Optionally, described step S20 is specially: use rice wheat no-tillage fertilizing seeding integrated machine that the rotary tillage of soil band, direct-sowing dry and the deep placement operation of chemical fertilizer location are once completed.
Optionally, between step S10 and S20, also comprise step 15:
S15, offer in field and fill with row high yield ditch, the wide 30cm in its top, the wide 20cm in bottom, degree of depth 15cm, the railway carriage or compartment face width 1.5m between every two row's of filling high yield ditches, plantation 12 row paddy rice.
Optionally, " irrigation by infiltration being carried out in described rice field in whole breeding time " in described step S30 is specially:
Seedling stage: keep shoaling layer, promote paddy rice highland barley alive and the generation of tillering;
The Sheng of tillering phase and shooting stage: keep full water in described filling row high yield ditch, and field face does not have obvious water layer;
Fringe differentiation and booting stage: keep shoaling layer, promote fringe to grow;
Pustulation period: carry out alternation of wetting and drying and keep ground moistening, promote substance transportation and Grain Filling.
Optionally, " carrying out the extermination of disease and insect pest and/or prevention and control of weeds " in described step S30 is specially: in 3-5 days and paddy rice 3-4 leaf phase after planting, carry out chemical weed control; The described extermination of disease and insect pest comprise panicle blast, four generation rice leaf roller, banded sclerotial blight or rice fulgorid control.
Optionally, described " chemical fertilizer is located deep placement operation " is specially: adopt the method for layered deep placement, nitrogenous fertilizer base manure deep placement 6cm; The ratio that nitrogenous fertilizer base manure and nitrogenous fertilizer topdress is 6:4; On the basis of base manure deep placement, in reasonable Nitrogen Top Dressing of paddy growth critical period.
The present invention has following beneficial effect: the present invention organically combines paddy rice no-tillage and direct-seeding and irrigation by infiltration technology, no-tillage and direct-seeding has saved nursery period, replace waterflooding irrigation by irrigation by infiltration technology, thereby solve traditional rice cultivating technique and had seedling raising and transplanting, greenhouse gas emissions are high, the technical problem that fertilizer and water use efficiency are lower, improve the energy-saving and emission-reduction ability that rice makes production system, reach saving oil consumption 45%, reduce greenhouse gas emission 50%, the object increasing production and improying productivity, and mechanization degree is higher, technology is simplified, easily penetration and promotion, particularly has promotion prospect in rice-Mai (rape) rice field-upland field rotation district.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of the filling row high yield ditch of rice cultivating method of the present invention;
In figure, mark is illustrated as: 1-fills with row's high yield ditch; 2-railway carriage or compartment face; 3-Rice Cropping ditch.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment and accompanying drawing, technical scheme of the present invention is further elaborated.
Embodiment 1
With reference to figure 1, the present invention has carried out productive experiment on Yancheng City Huanghai Sea farm, Jiangsu Province, China, sample plot belongs to subtropical climate district, warm temperate zone, the whole district is greater than the accumulated temperature 4500-6500 DEG C of 10 DEG C throughout the year, sunshine duration 700-1500 hour, rice makes phase precipitation 700-1600mm, is more typical rice-Mai rice field-upland field rotation district, is suitable for enforcement of the present invention.
1, broadcast front preparation
1.1 kinds are prepared: in variety adoption, must select and be applicable to doing live precocity japonica rice variety in evening, breeding time,, strong stress resistance strong about 150-156 days, stooling, germination rate be more than 98%, the more than 99% high yield and high quality kind of full grain rate, seeding quantity 75-112.5kg/hm 2.Broadcast before front rice varieties is treated to sowing and bask seeds and seed coat agent dressing, after above-mentioned processing, obtain rice paddy seed to be sowed.
1.2 soils are prepared
Select the rice field that soil property is fertile, air capacity of soils good, do not harden, after first crop harvesting wheat, adopt stalk to cover total crop return.
1.3 agricultural machinery are prepared
The rice wheat no-tillage fertilizing seeding integrated machine of selecting Jiangsu to apply, and described rice wheat no-tillage fertilizing seeding integrated machine is carried out checking debugging comprehensively, take precautions against and stop up.
2, no-tillage and direct-seeding
Sow in mid-June, adopt rice wheat no-tillage fertilizing seeding integrated machine, the rotary tillage of soil band, direct-sowing dry, the deep placement operation of chemical fertilizer location are once completed, and described rice paddy seed be sown into described Rice Cropping ditch, narrow row 10cm, wide row 16cm, seed level 3-5cm.Strictly hold seeding quality and close, accomplish to broadcast row straight, line-spacing is consistent, and seeding down is even, and the depth is suitable, suppresses closely knit.
3, chemical fertilizer layered deep placement
The method that adopts layered deep placement, by described rice wheat no-tillage fertilizing seeding integrated machine, by described fertilizer deep placement 6cm, the ratio that nitrogenous fertilizer base manure and nitrogenous fertilizer topdress is 6:4.General deep placement base manure amount: nitrogen (N) 16kg/ mu, phosphorus (P 2o 5) 8kg/ mu, potassium (K 2o) 12kg/ mu.On the basis of base manure deep placement, topdress in reasonable Nitrogen Top Dressing of plant growth critical period.
4, offer the row's of filling high yield ditch and irrigation by infiltration
The wide 30cm in top of described filling row high yield ditch, the wide 20cm in bottom, degree of depth 15cm, the railway carriage or compartment face width 1.5m between every two row's of filling high yield ditches, plantation 12 row paddy rice.
Preserve shoaling layer seedling stage, promote paddy rice highland barley alive and the generation of tillering; The Sheng of tillering phase and shooting stage keep full water in described filling row high yield ditch, and field face does not have obvious water layer; Fringe breaks up and keeps booting stage shoaling layer, promotes fringe to grow; Pustulation period carries out alternation of wetting and drying and keeps ground moistening, promotes substance transportation and Grain Filling.
5, integrated control damage by disease and insect and crop smothering
After paddy rice drilling significant period of time alternation of wetting and drying, be beneficial to weed growth, and weeds breeding times is long, kind is many, generating capacity is large, harm is heavy.Therefore, generally 3-5 days and paddy rice 3-4 leaf phase after broadcasting, carry out chemical weed control; The extermination of disease and insect pest is taking panicle blast four generations rice leaf roller, banded sclerotial blight etc. as prevention emphasis, doublely controls rice fulgorid, in the time that damage by disease and insect reaches index for control, carries out interim preventing and controlling.
6, gather in the crops the three-dimensional also field of stalk in good time
Rice maturity will be determined according to sowing time, generally than local machine transplanting of rice rice late about 7 days.Adopt mechanized harvest, stay high stubble, all the other crushed stalk total crop returns.Paddy will a point kind ted, anti-mixing, and rob and ted, when paddy moisture reaches 14.5% standard, raise clean laggard warehousing and put.
The sequencing of above embodiment only, for ease of describing, does not represent the quality of embodiment.
Finally it should be noted that: above embodiment only, in order to technical scheme of the present invention to be described, is not intended to limit; Although the present invention is had been described in detail with reference to previous embodiment, those of ordinary skill in the art is to be understood that: its technical scheme that still can record aforementioned each embodiment is modified, or part technical characterictic is wherein equal to replacement; And these amendments or replacement do not make the essence of appropriate technical solution depart from the spirit and scope of various embodiments of the present invention technical scheme.

Claims (7)

1. a rice cultivating method, is characterized in that, comprises the following steps:
S10, broadcast front preparation, and obtain rice paddy seed to be sowed;
S20, broadcast after front preparation, rice paddy seed described to be sowed is carried out to seeding operation in good time, and carry out the deep placement operation of chemical fertilizer location simultaneously;
S30, after planting, described paddy rice enters breeding time, in whole breeding time, irrigation by infiltration is carried out in described rice field, and carries out the extermination of disease and insect pest and/or prevention and control of weeds;
S40, gather in the crops according to growth period duration of rice in good time, and carry out next round crop-planting.
2. rice cultivating method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, described step S10 is specially:
S101, paddy rice, after first crop harvesting wheat, adopt stalk to cover total crop return;
S102, broadcast front rice varieties and select and/or process, described in broadcast front rice varieties and select that stooling is strong, emergence rate is high and the precocity of strong stress resistance japonica rice variety in evening; Described broadcasting before front rice varieties is treated to sowing basked seeds and seed coat agent dressing, obtains rice paddy seed to be sowed after above-mentioned processing.
3. rice cultivating method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, described step S20 is specially: use rice wheat no-tillage fertilizing seeding integrated machine that the rotary tillage of soil band, direct-sowing dry and the deep placement operation of chemical fertilizer location are once completed.
4. rice cultivating method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, also comprises step 15 between step S10 and S20:
S15, offer in field and fill with row high yield ditch, the wide 30cm in its top, the wide 20cm in bottom, degree of depth 15cm, the railway carriage or compartment face width 1.5m between every two row's of filling high yield ditches, plantation 12 row paddy rice.
5. rice cultivating method according to claim 4, is characterized in that, " irrigation by infiltration being carried out in described rice field in whole breeding time " in described step S30 is specially:
Seedling stage: keep shoaling layer, promote paddy rice highland barley alive and the generation of tillering;
The Sheng of tillering phase and shooting stage: keep full water in described filling row high yield ditch, and field face does not have obvious water layer;
Fringe differentiation and booting stage: keep shoaling layer, promote fringe to grow;
Pustulation period: carry out alternation of wetting and drying and keep ground moistening, promote substance transportation and Grain Filling.
6. rice cultivating method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, " carrying out the extermination of disease and insect pest and/or prevention and control of weeds " in described step S30 is specially: in 3-5 days and paddy rice 3-4 leaf phase after planting, carry out chemical weed control; The described extermination of disease and insect pest comprise panicle blast, four generation rice leaf roller, banded sclerotial blight or rice fulgorid control.
7. rice cultivating method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, described " the deep placement operation of chemical fertilizer location " is specially: adopt the method for layered deep placement, nitrogenous fertilizer base manure deep placement 6cm; The ratio that nitrogenous fertilizer base manure and nitrogenous fertilizer topdress is 6:4; On the basis of base manure deep placement, in reasonable Nitrogen Top Dressing of paddy growth critical period.
CN201410249941.9A 2014-06-06 2014-06-06 A kind of Oryza sativa L. irrigation by infiltration cultural method Active CN103975811B (en)

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CN104472070A (en) * 2014-11-28 2015-04-01 上海海丰现代农业有限公司 Large-scale integrated mechanized water handling mode after direct sowing of rice
CN104521504A (en) * 2014-12-22 2015-04-22 重庆市农业科学院 Half-drought type rice- ercai alternate culture method
CN104838858A (en) * 2015-05-19 2015-08-19 湖南农业大学 Rape stubble soil ploughing-free direct transplanting rice cultivation method
CN104938267A (en) * 2015-06-02 2015-09-30 江苏沿江地区农业科学研究所 Rice planting method for efficiently applying nitrogenous fertilizer in quantity reducing mode
CN105028076A (en) * 2015-07-31 2015-11-11 河南科技大学 Method for improving seedling rate of wheat-residue to field launching direct seeding rice
CN105145215A (en) * 2015-07-31 2015-12-16 江苏省农业科学院 Culturing method maintaining eating quality of south round-grained nonglutinous No.46 paddy rice
CN105191748A (en) * 2015-11-02 2015-12-30 扬州大学 Irrigation method for promoting assimilation substance transfer in stems after paddy flowering and grain filling
CN105706811A (en) * 2016-02-04 2016-06-29 信阳市农业科学院 Two-stage cultivation method for rice
CN105993700A (en) * 2016-06-14 2016-10-12 广德华阳水稻种植家庭农场 High-yield rice planting method
CN106069031A (en) * 2016-06-20 2016-11-09 湖南省土壤肥料研究所 A kind of Rhizoma Solani tuber osi improving south double-ridged horn soil micelle poly structure and double cropping of rice rotation cropping method
CN106069080A (en) * 2016-06-27 2016-11-09 湛江市农业科学研究院 A kind of Rhizoma Dioscoreae esculentae and the cultural method of Oryza sativa L. crop rotation
CN109673410A (en) * 2017-07-28 2019-04-26 苏州三港农副产品配送有限公司 The method of rice field-upland field rotation improvement soil

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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104472070A (en) * 2014-11-28 2015-04-01 上海海丰现代农业有限公司 Large-scale integrated mechanized water handling mode after direct sowing of rice
CN104521504A (en) * 2014-12-22 2015-04-22 重庆市农业科学院 Half-drought type rice- ercai alternate culture method
CN104838858A (en) * 2015-05-19 2015-08-19 湖南农业大学 Rape stubble soil ploughing-free direct transplanting rice cultivation method
CN104938267A (en) * 2015-06-02 2015-09-30 江苏沿江地区农业科学研究所 Rice planting method for efficiently applying nitrogenous fertilizer in quantity reducing mode
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CN105028076A (en) * 2015-07-31 2015-11-11 河南科技大学 Method for improving seedling rate of wheat-residue to field launching direct seeding rice
CN105145215A (en) * 2015-07-31 2015-12-16 江苏省农业科学院 Culturing method maintaining eating quality of south round-grained nonglutinous No.46 paddy rice
CN105191748B (en) * 2015-11-02 2017-09-19 扬州大学 It is a kind of to promote assimilation quotient transhipment and the irrigation method of kernel grouting in the rear stem of paddy rice
CN105191748A (en) * 2015-11-02 2015-12-30 扬州大学 Irrigation method for promoting assimilation substance transfer in stems after paddy flowering and grain filling
CN105706811A (en) * 2016-02-04 2016-06-29 信阳市农业科学院 Two-stage cultivation method for rice
CN105993700A (en) * 2016-06-14 2016-10-12 广德华阳水稻种植家庭农场 High-yield rice planting method
CN106069031A (en) * 2016-06-20 2016-11-09 湖南省土壤肥料研究所 A kind of Rhizoma Solani tuber osi improving south double-ridged horn soil micelle poly structure and double cropping of rice rotation cropping method
CN106069080A (en) * 2016-06-27 2016-11-09 湛江市农业科学研究院 A kind of Rhizoma Dioscoreae esculentae and the cultural method of Oryza sativa L. crop rotation
CN109673410A (en) * 2017-07-28 2019-04-26 苏州三港农副产品配送有限公司 The method of rice field-upland field rotation improvement soil

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