CN103967031A - Caisson and pile combined foundation of consolidated subsoil and construction method of caisson and pile combined foundation - Google Patents

Caisson and pile combined foundation of consolidated subsoil and construction method of caisson and pile combined foundation Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103967031A
CN103967031A CN201310027369.7A CN201310027369A CN103967031A CN 103967031 A CN103967031 A CN 103967031A CN 201310027369 A CN201310027369 A CN 201310027369A CN 103967031 A CN103967031 A CN 103967031A
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caisson
pile
stake
concrete
foundation
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CN103967031B (en
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刘高
张喜刚
过超
付佰勇
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CCCC Highway Consultants Co Ltd
CCCC Highway Long Bridge Construction National Engineering Research Center Co Ltd
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CCCC Highway Consultants Co Ltd
CCCC Highway Long Bridge Construction National Engineering Research Center Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention discloses a caisson and pile combined foundation of consolidated subsoil and a construction method of the caisson and pile combined foundation. The caisson and pile combined foundation of the consolidated subsoil comprises the consolidated subsoil, a sand-gravel cushion, a caisson, bored piles, pile bottom grout, top seal concrete and scour protection. The main construction method comprises the following steps: consolidating the foundation with an underwater compaction sand pile or a deep-layer cement mixing pile; laying the sand-gravel cushion on the consolidated subsoil; sinking the caisson with a skirt, pile sinking guide holes and grouting reserved pipes on the sand-gravel cushion; after the caisson is located, constructing bored piles through the pile sinking guide holes; after construction of the bored piles, casting the top seal concrete at the bottom in the caisson; grouting the bottom of the caisson through the grouting reserved pipes at the bottom of the caisson, carrying out pile bottom grouting through grouting pipes in the pile, and at last casting the top plate of the caisson. In the construction process, the scour protection shall be performed around the caisson according to requirements. The caisson and pile combined foundation of the consolidated subsoil and the construction method of the caisson and pile combined foundation, disclosed by the invention, can effectively improve vertical and horizontal bearing capacity of the caisson, and control sedimentation and horizontal displacement of the caisson.

Description

A kind of caisson of consolidated subsoil and stake combination foundation and construction method thereof
Technical field
The invention belongs to bridge technology field, be specifically related to the caisson and stake combination foundation and construction method thereof of a kind of soft foundation bridge laying foundation and foundation treatment technology, particularly a kind of consolidated subsoil.
Background technology
Along with bridge construction moves towards off-lying sea from inland, the construction conditions such as deep water, soft base, high wind, torrent, wave, macroseism are more complicated.Oversea bridge basis is often positioned at profundal zone, the thick-covering that exists weak soil, sand, cohesive soil, broken (ovum) stone soil to replace, and in covering layer, also may be distributed with uneven soft (firmly) interlayer; In addition,, except bearing huge vertical force, also bearing wave force, seismic forces, ship and hitting the levels such as power to load action.Above-mentioned construction condition has all proposed high requirement to the overall process of Oversea bridge deepwater foundation construction operation.
According to different bridge superstructure pattern and construction conditions, the conventional deep water foundation structural shapes such as current bridge pier, Sarasota, anchorage have multi-column pier foundation, laying foundation and open caisson foundation etc.
Space enclosing structure erection construction platform when multi-column pier foundation utilizes cofferdam as construction, can pass deep covering layer, and upper load is passed to the good bearing stratum in soil layer depths, has the ability of larger vertical bearing capacity and control settlement after construction; But along with the increase of the depth of water, the difficulty of construction in cofferdam increases, and the drift increase of stake causes resisting horizontal force ability and declines, and while bearing significant horizontal power effect basic in particular for Anchor Foundation etc., is difficult to meet horizontal rigidity requirement.Although open caisson foundation and laying foundation can be conducive to solve the difficult problems such as the drift of the setting up of Pile Installation Platform, stake is excessive, but it is closely related with geological conditions that can open caisson self sink smoothly, in Site Soil part, exist in hard interbedded layer or the stronger stratum of cementing properties and be difficult to effective sinking; Laying foundation has good integrity, the advantages such as the prefabricated minimizing operation on the sea of batch production, if but when there is thicker soft overburden and cannot effectively process again in bearing stratum, needs very large basic scale, and can cause larger Foundation displacement under huge vertical and horizontal loads.Therefore,, when running into the construction condition of deep water, thick-covering and uneven strata, the above base form is difficult to meet.
ZL200710053800.X discloses a kind of bridge caisson composite pile foundation and the contrary construction engineering method of doing thereof.This patent is by after bridge caisson sinking implantation, in caisson inside, carries out pile driving construction, and the top of stake and caisson bottom are connected into the whole caisson composite pile foundation that forms.The mode of piling is that personnel enter caisson inside from case top preformed hole, sets steel pipe pile.This patent has the following disadvantages: 1, seabed is without any the soft soil layer of processing, and the sedimentation of laying foundation initial stage is difficult to control, and especially adopts bridge tower and the mode of construction simultaneously of driving piles, and will cause excessive s Settlement in Construction Period and inclination risk; 2, the construction space of caisson internal steel pile tube is narrow and small, and steel pipe pile construction is very difficult; 3, the concrete indication of the sealed waterproof device between this patent not clear and definite caisson bottom and stake, comparatively ambiguous, is difficult to guarantee complete Mi Shui in practice of construction; 4,, because seabed is without any treatment measures, to the poor weak soil of permeability, caisson subsoil and pile foundation that this patent is contemplated are jointly stressed, will more difficult realization.
ZL200810113289.2 discloses a kind of construction method of steel cavity stranded caisson-pile inverse-way composite base.Provide the water filling of employing steel cavity inside, bedding has been carried out to preconsolidation, after having constructed, by drawing water and supply gas in cavity, utilized the construction method of caisson buoyancy.The arrangement of pile foundation of this patent is in caisson border, and pile foundation is not arranged in caisson inside.In the less soft soil layer of permeability, the effect of water filling precompressed is also not obvious.Because substrate bearing capacity under soft foundation is limited, for guaranteeing bridge tower and pile foundation synchronous construction, must there is larger area of base, thereby cause the waste of caisson material.
Summary of the invention
(1) technical problem that will solve
In view of this, main purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of caisson and stake combination foundation and construction method thereof of consolidated subsoil, to solve the bridge foundation construction difficulty in soft soil layer condition under ocean deepwater environment, reach the vertical and level of effective raising caisson to the object of supporting capacity, control caisson sedimentation and horizontal movement.
(2) technical scheme
For achieving the above object, the invention provides a kind of caisson and stake combination foundation of consolidated subsoil, the caisson of this consolidated subsoil comprises with stake combination foundation: consolidated subsoil, sand-gravel cushion, caisson, drilled pile, pile grouting, caisson rising pouring slurry, bottom concrete and scour protection, wherein: consolidated subsoil is positioned at below foundation trench bottom surface, on it, lay sand-gravel cushion, on sand-gravel cushion, place caisson, the separation inside of caisson is provided with the pile sinking pilot hole that a plurality of temporary steel leading trucks form, by the stake of pile sinking pilot hole construction drill, through consolidated subsoil, arrive ground deep bearing stratum, caisson inner bottom part is built bottom concrete and is realized being connected of caisson and drilled pile, filling case rising pouring slurry between caisson bottom surface and bed course, at the bottom of drilled pile, grouting forms pile grouting, and caisson surrounding fill block stone throwing forms scour protection.
In such scheme, described consolidated subsoil is to adopt the reinforcing mode of underwater sand compaction pile, Underwater Deep Silt cement mixing method or steel pipe pile or the combination of these three kinds of reinforcing modes that riverbed face or the following shallow layer foundation of sea bed face are reinforced and formed.The layout of the underwater sand compaction pile of described consolidated subsoil, Underwater Deep Silt cement mixing method or steel pipe pile adopts equilateral triangle or arranged in squares mode, facade arranges that employing waits a long or long arrangement of change stake, and the plane reinforcing scope of described consolidated subsoil is Bottom plate of sinkbox border extension s 1=5~30m, reinforcement depth h 1=10~30m.
In such scheme, described caisson is steel concrete casing, is provided with top board, base plate, exterior panel, separation, separation wallboard, shirt rim, pile sinking pilot hole, slip casting provided pipe and bottom concrete.
In such scheme, described bottom concrete adopts light weight aggregate concrete or conventional concrete, and Bottom plate of sinkbox is box hat armored concrete slab or armored concrete slab, and the base plate border of described caisson is with box hat concrete shirt rim; The plane form of caisson end face, bottom surface is nose circle shape, circle, chamfering rectangle or nose circle dumbbell shape, and end face and bottom surface adopt respectively Different Plane form; The separation inside of described caisson is provided with the pile sinking pilot hole that a plurality of temporary steel leading trucks form.
In such scheme, described caisson, the thick t of top board 1=2~6m, the thick t of base plate 2=1~4m, outer wall thickness of slab t 3=1~3m, bulkhead thickness of slab t 4=1~2m.
In such scheme, described Bottom plate of sinkbox is the thick t of shell bag 5the box hat armored concrete slab of=20~40mm steel plate, is connected side at steel plate with steel concrete shear connector is set, and forms steel plate-reinforced concrete composite structure; Shear connector is selected diameter d 1=10~30mm, high h 2weldering nail connector or the thick t of=100~300mm 6=10~30mm, high h 3the composite connector of the perforated panel connector of=100~300mm or weldering nail connector and the combination of perforated panel connector.
In such scheme, described shirt rim is box hat concrete shirt rim, and this bottom, box hat concrete shirt rim is provided with sword pin, the high h in shirt rim 4=3~6m, thick t 7=1~3m, shell bag t 8=20~40mm steel plate, arranges steel truss structure between steel plate; Shirt rim relies on water filling in caisson deadweight and caisson separation to be pressed into sand-gravel cushion, as permanent structure, participates in stressed; When carrying out mud jacking at the bottom of caisson, as slip casting space enclosing structure, prevent slurries outflow; And as space enclosing structure, prevent that caisson substrate soil is subject to current scour.
In such scheme, described drilled pile is up big and down small reinforced concrete pile, the diameter d of top stake 2=1~4m, its outside can be surrounded by steel casing, its length h 5>=h 1; The diameter d of bottom stake 3=1~3m, its length requires to determine according to structure stress.Quantity n >=2 of described drilled pile, it is arranged according to structure stress and requires to determine.Described drilled pile utilizes described caisson as operation platform, by the inner leading truck arranging of described caisson, constructs, and avoids carrying out Construction of Deep-water Pile under current, wave environment, reduces difficulty of construction.
In such scheme, after the construction of described drilled pile is completed, between described caisson inner bottom part and described drilled pile, pour into a mould at twice bottom concrete, wet cast for the first time, after drilled pile construction completes, the bottom concrete in underwater pouring case between temporary steel leading truck bottom and drilled pile top; Being dry cast for the second time, is in caisson separation, to draw water to form dry environment, second pouring bottom concrete at the bottom of caisson; By above-mentioned twice pouring type, guaranteed reliable be connected of caisson with stake.The caisson of this consolidated subsoil by caisson rising pouring slurry and pile grouting measure, guarantees the jointly stressed of consolidated subsoil, caisson and drilled pile with stake combination foundation.The Grouting Pipe of described pile grouting and described caisson rising pouring slurry is diameter d 4the steel pipe of=50~200mm or pvc pipe, the slurries of slip casting are cement paste or cement mortar.
In such scheme, described sand-gravel cushion thickness is t 9=2~6m.
For achieving the above object, the present invention also provides a kind of construction method of caisson with stake combination foundation of consolidated subsoil, it is characterized in that, this construction method adopts underwater sand compaction pile, the combination of the reinforcing mode of Underwater Deep Silt cement mixing method or steel pipe pile or these three kinds of reinforcing modes is reinforced riverbed face or the following shallow layer foundation of sea bed face, on consolidated subsoil, lay sand-gravel cushion, on sand-gravel cushion, sinking is provided with shirt rim, the caisson of pile sinking pilot hole and slip casting provided pipe, after caisson is in place, pass through the stake of pile sinking pilot hole construction drill, after completing, drilled pile construction builds bottom concrete at caisson bottom pour mold, by case rising pouring slurry provided pipe, carry out slip casting at the bottom of to caisson, by Grouting Pipe in stake, carry out pile grouting, finally pour into a mould caisson top board.
In such scheme, this construction method comprises the steps:
Foundation trench excavation: adopt dredge boat, put slope excavation foundation trench, cutting depth 5~10m, the grooving gradient is less than 1: 5;
Ground stabilization: adopt in underwater sand compaction pile ship, Underwater Deep Silt cement mixing ship or the foundation trench of steel pipe pile workboat after excavation and carry out ground stabilization, reinforcement depth 5~30m; Bored piles position district does not reinforce, and has reinforced rear removing surface elevation;
Lay bed course: the end face at consolidated subsoil is laid the thick leveling sand-gravel cushion of 2~6m;
Precast Caisson: prefabricated without top caisson in dry dock, base plate and shirt rim adopt box hat structure, concrete perfusion in the box hat of shirt rim, Bottom plate of sinkbox is provided with a plurality of pile sinking pilot holes that formed by temporary steel leading truck in case, between leading truck and base plate by carry out pouring concrete in dock, guarantee closely to connect, make the dry environment of the interior formation of separation of caisson; Bottom plate of sinkbox is buried slip casting provided pipe underground, keeps sealing state before slip casting;
Caisson transportation by driving: dock is poured water, caisson floating, adopts high-power tugboat transportation by driving to bridge location;
Caisson sinking: sinking that caisson is located, the interior separation of case is poured water, utilize deadweight that sand-gravel cushion is run through in caisson shirt rim, scour protection is for the first time carried out in caisson periphery, guarantees that caisset is reliable and stable within the construction period;
Drilled pile construction: utilize operation platform that caisson separation sets up and temporary steel leading truck as guiding, complete the construction of drilled pile by pile sinking pilot hole;
Cast bottom concrete: adopting twice pouring type, is wet cast for the first time, is after drilled pile construction completes, the bottom concrete in underwater pouring case between temporary steel leading truck bottom and drilled pile top; Being dry cast for the second time, is in caisson separation, to draw water to form dry environment, second pouring bottom concrete at the bottom of caisson; By above-mentioned twice pouring type, guaranteed reliable be connected of caisson with stake;
Pile grouting at the bottom of case: using shirt rim as slip casting space enclosing structure, by case rising pouring slurry provided pipe, complete case rising pouring slurry, the space producing due to drilled pile construction between Bottom plate of sinkbox and sand-gravel cushion is filled closely knit.The synchronous interior Grouting Pipe of stake of utilizing, carries out pile grouting, improves stake end bearing capacity;
Top board construction: remove temporary steel leading truck in case, erection construction platform, cast caisson top board;
Scour protection: caisson periphery secondary jackstone, forms the scour protection of operation phase.
In such scheme, this construction method is carried out scour protection in caisson surrounding as required in work progress.
(3) beneficial effect
From technique scheme, can find out, the present invention has following beneficial effect:
1, the caisson of consolidated subsoil provided by the invention and stake combination foundation and construction method thereof, caisson can adopt light weight aggregate concrete to alleviate deadweight; Bottom plate of sinkbox shell bag 20~40mm steel plate, prevents underplate concrete crack in tension; Utilize box hat concrete shirt rim to participate in as permanent structure stressed, when carrying out mud jacking at the bottom of caisson, as slip casting space enclosing structure, prevent slurries outflow, and as space enclosing structure, prevent that caisson substrate soil is subject to current scour.So solved the bridge foundation construction difficulty in soft soil layer condition under ocean deepwater environment.
2, the caisson of consolidated subsoil provided by the invention and stake combination foundation, reinforce by shallow layer foundation, the bearing capacity of former soft foundation at the bottom of caisson can be brought up to original 1.5~3 times, and the scale that can effectively dwindle caisson, reduces the difficulty of constructing.Meanwhile, compacted soil physical efficiency is further diffused into load in the wider deep layer soil body, reduces the imposed load of the beneath sleeping soil layer of caisson.
3, the caisson of consolidated subsoil provided by the invention and stake combination foundation, caisson can be used as side form and the bed die of Pile Installation Platform and cast bottom concrete, facilitates drilled pile construction, has strengthened the horizontal rigidity of a clump of piles.Caisson, after bottom concrete casting complete, extracts the water in caisson separation, and its suffered buoyancy can be offset most of caisson deadweight.
4, the caisson of consolidated subsoil provided by the invention and a stake combination foundation, drilled pile can with consolidated subsoil shared load at the bottom of caisson, can effectively improve the vertical and level of caisson to supporting capacity, control caisson sedimentation and horizontal movement.
5, the caisson of consolidated subsoil provided by the invention and stake combination foundation, the measure of caisson rising pouring slurry has reduced the impact of pile foundation construction on sand-gravel cushion, has guaranteed the close contact of caisson subsoil body and caisson.Pile grouting measure, can 1~10% be increased to 20~30% by what account for total bearing capacity before slip casting by end resistance, reduces quantity and the embedded depth of stake.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the elevational schematic view of caisson with the stake combination foundation of consolidated subsoil provided by the invention;
Fig. 2 be consolidated subsoil provided by the invention caisson with stake the end face of combination foundation, the plane form of bottom surface is the floor map of nose circle shape;
Fig. 3 be the caisson of consolidated subsoil provided by the invention with the stake end face of combination foundation, the plane form of bottom surface is circular floor map;
Fig. 4 be consolidated subsoil provided by the invention caisson with stake the end face of combination foundation, the plane form of bottom surface is the floor map of chamfering rectangle;
Fig. 5 be consolidated subsoil provided by the invention caisson with stake the end face of combination foundation, the plane form of bottom surface is the floor map of nose circle dumbbell shape;
Fig. 6 be consolidated subsoil provided by the invention caisson with stake the end face of combination foundation, the plane form of bottom surface is the elevational schematic view of nose circle dumbbell shape;
Fig. 7 is caisson provided by the invention shirt rim organigram.
Fig. 8 is foundation trench excavation construction schematic diagram;
Fig. 9 is foundation stabilization construction schematic diagram;
Figure 10 is for laying bed course schematic diagram;
Figure 11 is Precast Caisson schematic diagram;
Figure 12 is caisson transportation by driving schematic diagram;
Figure 13 is caisson water filling sinking construction schematic diagram;
Figure 14 is drilled pile construction schematic diagram;
Figure 15 is bottom concrete pouring construction schematic diagram in separation;
Figure 16 is at the bottom of caisson and pile grouting construction schematic diagram;
Figure 17 is caisson top board pouring construction schematic diagram;
Figure 18 is caisson periphery scour protection construction schematic diagram.
Reference numeral: caisson 1; Caisson top board 2; Bottom plate of sinkbox 3; Separation 4; Separation wallboard 5; Shirt rim 6; Exterior panel 7; Temporary steel leading truck 8 in case; Pile sinking pilot hole 9; Case rising pouring slurry provided pipe 10; Consolidated subsoil 11; Sand-gravel cushion 12; Drilled pile 13; Bottom concrete 14; Case rising pouring slurry 15; Pile grouting 16; Scour protection 17; Foundation trench 18; Shear connector 19; Shirt rim sword pin 20; Shirt rim encased steel plate 21; In shirt rim, steel truss structure 22.
The specific embodiment
For making the object, technical solutions and advantages of the present invention clearer, below in conjunction with specific embodiment, and with reference to accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in more detail.
As shown in Figures 1 to 7, the invention provides a kind of caisson and stake combination foundation of consolidated subsoil of the bridge deepwater foundation for soft foundation, the caisson of this consolidated subsoil comprises caisson 1, consolidated subsoil 11, sand-gravel cushion 12, drilled pile 13, bottom concrete 14, case rising pouring slurry 15, pile grouting 16 and scour protection 17 with stake combination foundation.
Wherein, described consolidated subsoil 11 is to adopt the reinforcing mode of underwater sand compaction pile, Underwater Deep Silt cement mixing method or steel pipe pile or the combination of these three kinds of reinforcing modes that face following shallow layer foundation in riverbed (sea bed) is reinforced and formed, the layout of underwater sand compaction pile, Underwater Deep Silt cement mixing method or steel pipe pile adopts equilateral triangle or arranged in squares mode, facade arranges that employing waits a long or long arrangement of change stake, and the reinforcing planar dimension of described consolidated subsoil 11 is Bottom plate of sinkbox 3 border extension s 1=5~15m, reinforcement depth h 1=10~30m.On described consolidated subsoil 11, lay thickness t 9the sand-gravel cushion 12 of=2~6m.On described sand-gravel cushion 12, place caisson 1, described caisson 1 is steel concrete casing, is provided with top board 2, base plate 3, separation 4, separation wallboard 5, shirt rim 6, exterior panel 7, pile sinking pilot hole 9, slip casting provided pipe 10 and bottom concrete 14 etc.The plane form of caisson end face, bottom surface is nose circle rectangle, circle, chamfering rectangle or nose circle dumbbell shape; The casing concrete of described caisson can adopt light weight aggregate concrete or conventional concrete, and Bottom plate of sinkbox 3 is box hat armored concrete slab or armored concrete slab, and described Bottom plate of sinkbox 3 borders are with box hat concrete shirt rim 6; The separation inside of described caisson is provided with the pile sinking pilot hole 9 that a plurality of temporary steel leading trucks 8 form, described drilled pile 13 utilizes described caisson 1 as operation platform, by the inner pile sinking pilot hole 9 arranging of described caisson 1, construct, through consolidated subsoil 11, arrive ground deep bearing stratum, avoid carrying out Construction of Deep-water Pile under current, wave environment, reduce difficulty of construction.
The thick t of described caisson top board 2 1=2~6m, the thick t of base plate 3 2=1~4m, bulkhead thickness of slab t 4=1~2m.
Described Bottom plate of sinkbox 3 is the thick t of shell bag 5the box hat armored concrete slab of=20~40mm steel plate, is connected side shear connector 19 is set with steel concrete at steel plate, form steel plate-reinforced concrete composite structure.Shear connector 19 can be selected diameter d 1=10~30mm, high h 2weldering nail connector or the thick t of=100~300mm 6=10~30mm, high h 3the composite connector of the perforated panel connector of=100~300mm or weldering nail connector and the combination of perforated panel connector.
6 bottoms, described box hat concrete shirt rim are provided with shirt rim sword pin 20, the high h in shirt rim 6 4=3~6m, thick t 7=1~3m, shell bag t 8=20~40mm steel plate 21, arranges steel truss structure 22 between steel plate 21.Shirt rim 6 relies on caisson 1 deadweight and the interior water filling of caisson separation 4 to be pressed into sand-gravel cushion 12, as permanent structure, participates in stressed; When carrying out mud jacking at the bottom of caisson, as slip casting space enclosing structure, prevent slurries outflow; And as space enclosing structure, prevent that caisson substrate soil is subject to current scour.Described drilled pile 13 is up big and down small reinforced concrete pile, the diameter d of top stake 2=1~4m, its outside can be surrounded by steel casing, its length h 5>=h 1; The diameter d of bottom stake 3=1~3m, its length requires to determine according to structure stress; Radical n>=2 of drilled pile, it is arranged according to structure stress and requires to determine.After the construction of described drilled pile 13 is completed, between described caisson 1 inner bottom part and described drilled pile 13, pour into a mould at twice bottom concrete 14, wet cast for the first time, after drilled pile 13 has been constructed, the bottom concrete 14 in underwater pouring case between temporary steel leading truck 8 bottoms and drilled pile 13 tops; Being dry cast for the second time, is in caisson separation, to draw water to form dry environment, second pouring bottom concrete 14 at the bottom of caisson; By above-mentioned twice pouring type, guaranteed that caisson 1 is connected with the reliable of drilled pile 13.The caisson of this consolidated subsoil by caisson rising pouring slurry 15 and pile grouting 16 measures, guarantees the jointly stressed of consolidated subsoil 11, caisson 1 and drilled pile 13 with a combination foundation.The reserved Grouting Pipe 10 of described pile grouting 16 and described caisson rising pouring slurry 15 is diameter d 4the steel pipe of=50~200mm or pvc pipe, the slurries of slip casting are cement paste or cement mortar.
The caisson of the consolidated subsoil based on shown in Fig. 1 to Fig. 7 and stake combination foundation, the present invention also provides the construction method of caisson with the stake combination foundation of this consolidated subsoil, this construction method comprises: adopt underwater sand compaction pile, the combination of the reinforcing mode of Underwater Deep Silt cement mixing method or steel pipe pile or these three kinds of reinforcing modes is reinforced the following shallow layer foundation of riverbed (sea bed) face, on consolidated subsoil, lay sand-gravel cushion, on sand-gravel cushion, sinking is provided with shirt rim, the caisson of pile sinking pilot hole and slip casting provided pipe, after caisson is in place, pass through the stake of pile sinking pilot hole construction drill, after completing, drilled pile construction builds bottom concrete at caisson inner bottom part, by case rising pouring slurry provided pipe, carry out slip casting at the bottom of to caisson, by Grouting Pipe in stake, carry out pile grouting, finally pour into a mould caisson top board.In above-mentioned work progress, in caisson surrounding, carry out scour protection as required.The present invention can effectively improve the vertical and level of caisson to supporting capacity, control caisson sedimentation and horizontal movement.
As shown in Fig. 8 to Figure 18, the construction method schematic diagram of the caisson that Fig. 8 to Figure 18 is consolidated subsoil provided by the invention and stake combination foundation, this construction method comprises the steps:
(1) foundation trench excavation: as shown in Figure 8, adopt dredge boat, put slope excavation foundation trench 18, cutting depth 5~10m, the grooving gradient is less than 1: 5;
(2) ground stabilization: as shown in Figure 9, adopt in underwater sand compaction pile ship, Underwater Deep Silt cement mixing ship or the foundation trench 18 of steel pipe pile workboat after excavation and carry out ground stabilization, reinforcement depth 10~30m, forms consolidated subsoil 11.Drilled pile 13Wei district does not reinforce, and has reinforced rear removing surface elevation;
(3) lay bed course: as shown in figure 10, at the end face of consolidated subsoil 11, lay the thick sand-gravel cushion 12 for leveling of 2~6m;
(4) Precast Caisson: as shown in figure 11, prefabricated without top caisson 1 in dry dock, base plate 3 adopts box hat reinforced concrete structure, at plate shell bag 20~40mm steel plate, at steel plate, be connected side with steel concrete shear connector is set, form steel plate-reinforced concrete composite structure.Shirt rim 6 adopts box hat concrete structure, Covered with Angles thickness of slab 20~40mm.Bottom plate of sinkbox 3 is provided with a plurality of pile sinking pilot holes 9 that formed by temporary steel leading truck 8 in case, and 3 of leading truck 8 and base plates guarantee closely to connect by carry out pouring concrete in dock, make the dry environment of the interior formation of separation 4 of caisson 1; Bottom plate of sinkbox 3 is buried slip casting provided pipe 10 underground, keeps sealing state before slip casting;
(5) caisson transportation by driving: as shown in figure 12, dock is poured water, caisson 1 floating, adopts high-power tugboat transportation by driving to bridge location;
(6) caisson sinking: sinking that as shown in figure 13, caisson 1 is located, the interior separation 4 of case is poured water, utilize deadweight that sand-gravel cushion 12 is run through in caisson shirt rim 6, scour protection for the first time 17 is carried out in caisson 1 periphery, guarantees that caisset is reliable and stable within the construction period;
(7) drilled pile construction: as shown in figure 14, utilize temporary steel leading truck 8 in caisson separation 4 erection construction platforms and case as guiding, to complete the construction of drilled pile 13 by pile sinking pilot hole 9;
(8) cast bottom concrete: as shown in figure 15, adopting twice pouring type, is wet cast for the first time, after drilled pile 13 has been constructed, the bottom concrete 14 between interior temporary steel leading truck 8 bottoms of pouring box and drilled pile 13 tops under water; Being dry cast for the second time, is in caisson separation 4, to draw water to form dry environment, and second pouring bottom concrete 14 at the bottom of caisson, guarantees that caisson 1 is connected with the reliable of drilled pile 13;
(9) pile grouting at the bottom of case: as shown in figure 16, using shirt rim 6 as slip casting space enclosing structure, by case rising pouring slurry provided pipe 10, complete case rising pouring slurry 15, by 12 of Bottom plate of sinkbox 3 and sand-gravel cushions because the space filling that drilled pile 13 constructions produce is closely knit.The synchronous interior Grouting Pipe of stake of utilizing is carried out pile grouting 16, improves bearing capacity of pile tip;
(10) top board construction: as shown in figure 17, remove temporary steel leading truck 8 in case, erection construction platform, cast caisson top board 2;
(11) scour protection: as shown in figure 18, caisson 1 periphery secondary jackstone, forms operation phase scour protection 17.
Above-described specific embodiment; object of the present invention, technical scheme and beneficial effect are further described; institute is understood that; the foregoing is only specific embodiments of the invention; be not limited to the present invention; within the spirit and principles in the present invention all, any modification of making, be equal to replacement, improvement etc., within all should being included in protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (18)

  1. The caisson of a consolidated subsoil with stake a combination foundation, it is characterized in that, the caisson of this consolidated subsoil comprises with stake combination foundation: consolidated subsoil, sand-gravel cushion, caisson, drilled pile, pile grouting, caisson rising pouring slurry, bottom concrete and scour protection, wherein:
    Consolidated subsoil is positioned at below foundation trench bottom surface, on it, lay sand-gravel cushion, place caisson on sand-gravel cushion, the separation inside of caisson is provided with the pile sinking pilot hole that a plurality of temporary steel leading trucks form, by the stake of pile sinking pilot hole construction drill, through consolidated subsoil, arrive ground deep bearing stratum; Caisson inner bottom part is built bottom concrete and is realized being connected of caisson and drilled pile; Filling case rising pouring slurry between caisson bottom surface and bed course, at the bottom of drilled pile, grouting forms pile grouting, and caisson surrounding fill block stone throwing forms scour protection.
  2. The caisson of consolidated subsoil according to claim 1 with stake a combination foundation, it is characterized in that, described consolidated subsoil is to adopt the reinforcing mode of underwater sand compaction pile, Underwater Deep Silt cement mixing method or steel pipe pile or the combination of these three kinds of reinforcing modes that riverbed face or the following shallow layer foundation of sea bed face are reinforced and formed.
  3. The caisson of consolidated subsoil according to claim 2 with stake a combination foundation, it is characterized in that, the layout of the underwater sand compaction pile of described consolidated subsoil, Underwater Deep Silt cement mixing method or steel pipe pile adopts equilateral triangle or arranged in squares mode, facade arranges that employing waits a long or long arrangement of change stake, and the plane reinforcing scope of described consolidated subsoil is Bottom plate of sinkbox border extension s 1=5~30m, reinforcement depth h 1=10~30m.
  4. The caisson of consolidated subsoil according to claim 1 with stake a combination foundation, it is characterized in that, described caisson is steel concrete casing, is provided with top board, base plate, exterior panel, separation, separation wallboard, shirt rim, pile sinking pilot hole, slip casting provided pipe and bottom concrete.
  5. The caisson of consolidated subsoil according to claim 4 with stake a combination foundation, it is characterized in that, described bottom concrete adopts light weight aggregate concrete or conventional concrete, Bottom plate of sinkbox is box hat armored concrete slab or armored concrete slab, and the base plate border of described caisson is with box hat concrete shirt rim; The plane form of caisson end face, bottom surface is nose circle shape, circle, chamfering rectangle or nose circle dumbbell shape, and end face and bottom surface adopt respectively Different Plane form; The separation inside of described caisson is provided with the pile sinking pilot hole that a plurality of temporary steel leading trucks form.
  6. 6. the caisson of consolidated subsoil according to claim 4 and stake combination foundation, is characterized in that described caisson, the thick t of top board 1=2~6m, the thick t of base plate 2=1~4m, outer wall thickness of slab t 3=1~3m, bulkhead thickness of slab t 4=1~2m.
  7. 7. the caisson of consolidated subsoil according to claim 4 and stake combination foundation, is characterized in that, described Bottom plate of sinkbox is the thick t of shell bag 5the box hat armored concrete slab of=20~40mm steel plate, is connected side at steel plate with steel concrete shear connector is set, and forms steel plate-reinforced concrete composite structure; Shear connector is selected diameter d 1=10~30mm, high h 2weldering nail connector or the thick t of=100~300mm 6=10~30mm, high h 3the composite connector of the perforated panel connector of=100~300mm or weldering nail connector and the combination of perforated panel connector.
  8. 8. the caisson of consolidated subsoil according to claim 4 and stake combination foundation, is characterized in that, described shirt rim is box hat concrete shirt rim, and this bottom, box hat concrete shirt rim is provided with sword pin, the high h in shirt rim 4=3~6m, thick t 7=1~3m, shell bag t 8=20~40mm steel plate, arranges steel truss structure between steel plate; Shirt rim relies on water filling in caisson deadweight and caisson separation to be pressed into sand-gravel cushion, as permanent structure, participates in stressed; When carrying out mud jacking at the bottom of caisson, as slip casting space enclosing structure, prevent slurries outflow; And as space enclosing structure, prevent that caisson substrate soil is subject to current scour.
  9. 9. the caisson of consolidated subsoil according to claim 1 and stake combination foundation, is characterized in that, described drilled pile is up big and down small reinforced concrete pile, the diameter d of top stake 2=1~4m, its outside can be surrounded by steel casing, its length h 5>=h 1; The diameter d of bottom stake 3=1~3m, its length requires to determine according to structure stress.
  10. 10. the caisson of consolidated subsoil according to claim 9 and stake combination foundation, is characterized in that, quantity n >=2 of described drilled pile, and it is arranged according to structure stress and requires to determine.
  11. The caisson of 11. consolidated subsoils according to claim 9 and stake combination foundation, it is characterized in that, described drilled pile utilizes described caisson as operation platform, by the inner leading truck arranging of described caisson, construct, avoid carrying out Construction of Deep-water Pile under current, wave environment, reduce difficulty of construction.
  12. The caisson of 12. consolidated subsoils according to claim 1 and stake combination foundation, it is characterized in that, after the construction of described drilled pile is completed, between described caisson inner bottom part and described drilled pile, pour into a mould at twice bottom concrete, wet cast for the first time, after drilled pile construction completes, the bottom concrete in underwater pouring case between temporary steel leading truck bottom and drilled pile top; Being dry cast for the second time, is in caisson separation, to draw water to form dry environment, second pouring bottom concrete at the bottom of caisson; By above-mentioned twice pouring type, guaranteed reliable be connected of caisson with stake.
  13. The caisson of 13. consolidated subsoils according to claim 12 and stake combination foundation, is characterized in that, the caisson of this consolidated subsoil by caisson rising pouring slurry and pile grouting measure, guarantees the jointly stressed of consolidated subsoil, caisson and drilled pile with stake combination foundation.
  14. The caisson of 14. consolidated subsoils according to claim 13 and stake combination foundation, is characterized in that, the Grouting Pipe of described pile grouting and described caisson rising pouring slurry is diameter d 4the steel pipe of=50~200mm or pvc pipe, the slurries of slip casting are cement paste or cement mortar.
  15. The caisson of 15. consolidated subsoils according to claim 1 and stake combination foundation, is characterized in that, described sand-gravel cushion thickness is t 9=2~6m.
  16. The construction method of the caisson of the consolidated subsoil in 16. 1 kinds of claims 1 to 15 described in any one and stake combination foundation, it is characterized in that, this construction method adopts underwater sand compaction pile, the combination of the reinforcing mode of Underwater Deep Silt cement mixing method or steel pipe pile or these three kinds of reinforcing modes is reinforced riverbed face or the following shallow layer foundation of sea bed face, on consolidated subsoil, lay sand-gravel cushion, on sand-gravel cushion, sinking is provided with shirt rim, the caisson of pile sinking pilot hole and slip casting provided pipe, after caisson is in place, pass through the stake of pile sinking pilot hole construction drill, after completing, drilled pile construction builds bottom concrete at caisson bottom pour mold, by case rising pouring slurry provided pipe, carry out slip casting at the bottom of to caisson, by Grouting Pipe in stake, carry out pile grouting, finally pour into a mould caisson top board.
  17. 17. construction methods according to claim 16, is characterized in that, this construction method comprises the steps:
    Foundation trench excavation: adopt dredge boat, put slope excavation foundation trench, cutting depth 5~10m, the grooving gradient is less than 1: 5;
    Ground stabilization: adopt in underwater sand compaction pile ship, Underwater Deep Silt cement mixing ship or the foundation trench of steel pipe pile workboat after excavation and carry out ground stabilization, reinforcement depth 5~30m; Bored piles position district does not reinforce, and has reinforced rear removing surface elevation;
    Lay bed course: the end face at consolidated subsoil is laid the thick leveling sand-gravel cushion of 2~6m;
    Precast Caisson: prefabricated without top caisson in dry dock, base plate and shirt rim adopt box hat structure, concrete perfusion in the box hat of shirt rim, Bottom plate of sinkbox is provided with a plurality of pile sinking pilot holes that formed by temporary steel leading truck in case, between leading truck and base plate by carry out pouring concrete in dock, guarantee closely to connect, make the dry environment of the interior formation of separation of caisson; Bottom plate of sinkbox is buried slip casting provided pipe underground, keeps sealing state before slip casting;
    Caisson transportation by driving: dock is poured water, caisson floating, adopts high-power tugboat transportation by driving to bridge location;
    Caisson sinking: sinking that caisson is located, the interior separation of case is poured water, utilize deadweight that sand-gravel cushion is run through in caisson shirt rim, scour protection is for the first time carried out in caisson periphery, guarantees that caisset is reliable and stable within the construction period;
    Drilled pile construction: utilize operation platform that caisson separation sets up and temporary steel leading truck as guiding, complete the construction of drilled pile by pile sinking pilot hole;
    Cast bottom concrete: adopting twice pouring type, is wet cast for the first time, is after drilled pile construction completes, the bottom concrete in underwater pouring case between temporary steel leading truck bottom and drilled pile top; Being dry cast for the second time, is in caisson separation, to draw water to form dry environment, second pouring bottom concrete at the bottom of caisson; By above-mentioned twice pouring type, guaranteed reliable be connected of caisson with stake;
    Pile grouting at the bottom of case: using shirt rim as slip casting space enclosing structure, by case rising pouring slurry provided pipe, complete case rising pouring slurry, the space producing due to drilled pile construction between Bottom plate of sinkbox and sand-gravel cushion is filled closely knit.The synchronous interior Grouting Pipe of stake of utilizing, carries out pile grouting, improves stake end bearing capacity;
    Top board construction: remove temporary steel leading truck in case, erection construction platform, cast caisson top board;
    Scour protection: caisson periphery secondary jackstone, forms the scour protection of operation phase.
  18. 18. according to the construction method described in claim 16 or 17, it is characterized in that, this construction method is carried out scour protection in caisson surrounding as required in work progress.
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CN105544597A (en) * 2015-12-14 2016-05-04 中铁大桥局集团有限公司 Combined foundation structure suitable for lagoon face island-reef environment and construction method thereof
CN108956105A (en) * 2018-05-16 2018-12-07 福州大学 Technology of Deepwater Mooring System body bearing capacity simulation test device and test method
CN109122271A (en) * 2018-08-01 2019-01-04 中国水利水电科学研究院 Adopt the Ecosystem restoration system in sand riverbed
CN110106907A (en) * 2019-05-10 2019-08-09 东南大学 A kind of suction caisson foundation and cement mixing method reinforce association
CN110424440A (en) * 2019-08-23 2019-11-08 东北大学 A kind of composite pile foundation basis of open caisson staking
CN112031014A (en) * 2020-08-17 2020-12-04 浙江舜杰建筑集团股份有限公司 Caisson and pile combined foundation for reinforcing foundation and construction method thereof
CN112074640A (en) * 2019-04-02 2020-12-11 株式会社璞莱克斯 Concrete foundation structure and construction method thereof
CN112319716A (en) * 2020-11-09 2021-02-05 河海大学 Floating construction platform constructed in water curtain and installation and use method thereof
CN112663664A (en) * 2020-12-21 2021-04-16 中国能源建设集团浙江省电力设计院有限公司 Combined foundation construction method for ultra-large open caisson structure
CN113277816A (en) * 2020-07-16 2021-08-20 江苏坤泽科技股份有限公司 Solidified soil, underwater structure foundation protection structure and construction method
CN113373902A (en) * 2021-06-17 2021-09-10 南京东土建设科技有限公司 Grouting device suitable for soil solidification around stake of crowd under water
CN113718833A (en) * 2021-09-16 2021-11-30 中国华能集团清洁能源技术研究院有限公司 Offshore wind power anti-scouring foundation
CN113774887A (en) * 2021-08-24 2021-12-10 中国二十冶集团有限公司 Composite foundation treatment method for open caisson engineering

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CN104314042B (en) * 2014-10-22 2016-06-22 天津港航工程有限公司 Adopt the levee construction method of pile formula case barrel structure
CN104314042A (en) * 2014-10-22 2015-01-28 天津港航工程有限公司 Construction method of breakwater in pile-supported cylindrical caisson structure
CN105544597A (en) * 2015-12-14 2016-05-04 中铁大桥局集团有限公司 Combined foundation structure suitable for lagoon face island-reef environment and construction method thereof
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CN108956105A (en) * 2018-05-16 2018-12-07 福州大学 Technology of Deepwater Mooring System body bearing capacity simulation test device and test method
CN109122271B (en) * 2018-08-01 2020-08-11 中国水利水电科学研究院 Adopt ecological remediation system of sand riverbed
CN109122271A (en) * 2018-08-01 2019-01-04 中国水利水电科学研究院 Adopt the Ecosystem restoration system in sand riverbed
CN112074640A (en) * 2019-04-02 2020-12-11 株式会社璞莱克斯 Concrete foundation structure and construction method thereof
CN112074640B (en) * 2019-04-02 2021-12-21 株式会社璞莱克斯 Concrete foundation structure and construction method thereof
US11047103B2 (en) 2019-04-02 2021-06-29 Prex Co., Ltd Concrete foundation structure and method for constructing same
CN110106907A (en) * 2019-05-10 2019-08-09 东南大学 A kind of suction caisson foundation and cement mixing method reinforce association
CN110424440A (en) * 2019-08-23 2019-11-08 东北大学 A kind of composite pile foundation basis of open caisson staking
CN113277816B (en) * 2020-07-16 2022-06-03 江苏坤泽科技股份有限公司 Solidified soil, underwater structure foundation protection structure and construction method
CN113277816A (en) * 2020-07-16 2021-08-20 江苏坤泽科技股份有限公司 Solidified soil, underwater structure foundation protection structure and construction method
CN112031014A (en) * 2020-08-17 2020-12-04 浙江舜杰建筑集团股份有限公司 Caisson and pile combined foundation for reinforcing foundation and construction method thereof
CN112319716A (en) * 2020-11-09 2021-02-05 河海大学 Floating construction platform constructed in water curtain and installation and use method thereof
CN112663664A (en) * 2020-12-21 2021-04-16 中国能源建设集团浙江省电力设计院有限公司 Combined foundation construction method for ultra-large open caisson structure
CN113373902A (en) * 2021-06-17 2021-09-10 南京东土建设科技有限公司 Grouting device suitable for soil solidification around stake of crowd under water
CN113373902B (en) * 2021-06-17 2022-05-31 南京东土建设科技有限公司 Grouting device suitable for soil solidification around stake of crowd under water
CN113774887A (en) * 2021-08-24 2021-12-10 中国二十冶集团有限公司 Composite foundation treatment method for open caisson engineering
CN113718833A (en) * 2021-09-16 2021-11-30 中国华能集团清洁能源技术研究院有限公司 Offshore wind power anti-scouring foundation

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