CN103966425A - Efficient vanadium smelting decarbonization calcination boiler - Google Patents

Efficient vanadium smelting decarbonization calcination boiler Download PDF

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CN103966425A
CN103966425A CN 201310030431 CN201310030431A CN103966425A CN 103966425 A CN103966425 A CN 103966425A CN 201310030431 CN201310030431 CN 201310030431 CN 201310030431 A CN201310030431 A CN 201310030431A CN 103966425 A CN103966425 A CN 103966425A
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furnace
slag
outlet
secondary
wind
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CN 201310030431
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CN103966425B (en )
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陈彩东
王新建
向友富
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长沙高新开发区大沅能源科技有限公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E20/00Combustion technologies with mitigation potential
    • Y02E20/30Technologies for a more efficient combustion or heat usage
    • Y02E20/34Indirect CO2 mitigation, i.e. by acting on non CO2 directly related matters of the process, e.g. more efficient use of fuels
    • Y02E20/348Air pre-heating

Abstract

The invention relates to an efficient vanadium smelting decarbonization calcination boiler, which comprises a furnace hearth and a furnace hearth water cooling wall, wherein the furnace hearth is separated through a wall separation pipe, the lower portion of the furnace hearth is provided with a buried pipe, a wind distribution plate, a wind cap and a wind chamber, a flue gas outlet, a high temperature separator, a superheater, an economizer, a multi-pipe separator, an air preheater, a dust collector, a induced fan and a chimney are sequentially connected on the upper portion of the furnace hearth, a secondary calcination device is arranged below the furnace hearth, and comprises a slag falling pipe, a chain, a grate, a secondary calcination device wind chamber, a hot wind outlet, a cold slag outlet and a furnace wall, and the hot slag outlet on the bottom end of the furnace hearth is connected and communicated with the grate hot slag inlet of the secondary calcination device. The efficient vanadium smelting decarbonization calcination boiler has characteristics of high recovery rate, equipment efficiency improving, substantial investment and operation cost reducing, substantial energy source saving, and environmental pollution avoiding.

Description

高效炼钒脱碳焙烧锅炉 Efficient decarburization refining vanadium fired boiler

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及锅炉冶炼技术领域,具体是指一种高效炼钒脱碳焙烧锅炉。 [0001] The present invention relates to the field of smelting technology boiler, specifically refers to an efficient decarburization refining vanadium fired boiler.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 含钒石煤在提炼五氧化二钒时需进行脱碳及氧化焙烧。 [0002] stone coal vanadium pentoxide in extracting the required decarburization and oxidation roasting. 第一道工序脱碳目的主要是燃尽含钒石煤中的碳,老式生产工艺采用露天堆烧,现在已发展到循环流化床锅炉脱碳。 The main purpose of the first process is to burn the decarburization vanadium containing carbon in the coal stone, old pile production process using open burning, has now developed to the circulating fluidized bed boiler decarburization. 第二道工序氧化焙烧,目的主要是要低价钒氧化为高价钒,生成可溶性组分,老式生产工艺堆烧区浓烟滚滚,不但极大的浪费能源,而且污染环境。 Roasting second step, the main purpose is to low-valent vanadium oxide, vanadium is high, generating a soluble component, bulk production process to burn the old region smoke, not only a great waste of energy, and polluting the environment. 虽然现在许多钒厂脱碳采用循环流化床锅炉脱碳,但氧化焙烧投资大,转化率低,浪费能源。 Although many vanadium plant using circulating fluidized bed boiler decarbonization decarbonization, but roasting large investment, the conversion rate is low, waste of energy.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0003] 本发明所要解决的技术问题是:针对上述现有技术存在的问题,而提供一种高效炼钒脱碳焙烧锅炉,实现石煤型钒矿脱碳、焙烧工序在一个设备中同时进行,充分利用低热值石煤在脱碳过程中产生的热量,节约能源,避免环境污染,回收率高,提高设备效率,大幅降低投资及运行成本。 [0003] The present invention solves the technical problem: for the presence of the above-described prior art problems, and to provide an efficient decarburization refining vanadium fired boilers, stone coal vanadium ore to achieve decarburization, calcination step is performed simultaneously in one device full use of stone coal of low calorific value of heat generated in the process of decarbonization, energy conservation, to avoid environmental pollution, high recovery, improve equipment efficiency and significantly reduce investment and operating costs.

[0004] 本发明采用的技术方案是: [0004] aspect of the present invention is that:

一种高效炼钒脱碳焙烧锅炉,包括炉膛、炉膛水冷壁,炉膛由隔墙管进行分隔,炉膛下部安装有埋管、布风板、风帽和风室,炉膛上部烟气出口、高温分离器、过热器、省煤器、多管分离器、空气预热器、 除尘器、引风机、烟囱依次连接;在炉膛下方还安装有二次焙烧器,二次焙烧器由落渣管、链条、炉排、二次焙烧器风室、热风出口、冷渣出口和炉墙组成,炉膛底端的热渣出口通过热渣管与二次焙烧器的炉排热渣进口连接连通,二次焙烧器底下连接安装二次焙烧器风室及冷却风入口,二次焙烧器上端的热风出口通过返料系统连接连通炉膛及燃料预热器,炉排冷渣出口端连接输送带,输送带连接浸出工艺段。 An efficient decarburization refining vanadium fired boiler, including furnace, furnace wall, the furnace tubes are separated by partitions, is attached to the lower furnace borehole, the air distribution plate, hood and wind chambers, the upper portion of the furnace flue gas outlet, the high temperature separator, superheaters, economizers, multi-tube separator, air preheater, a dust collector, induced draft fan, in turn connected to the chimney; below the calcining furnace is also equipped with a secondary device, by the secondary burners slag off tube, chain, furnace row, the second plenum calcining apparatus, a hot air outlet, and the outlet of the furnace wall slag composition, hot slag outlet at the bottom of the furnace grate by hot slag communication connection inlet pipe and hot slag secondary calcining device, connected to the secondary burners under installation of the secondary burners and cooling air inlet plenum, the upper end of a hot air outlet of the secondary burners are connected by returning the fuel feed system and a communication preheater furnace, slag outlet end connected grate conveyor belt connected to the leaching process section.

[0005] 上述技术方案中,炉膛一侧还安装有依次连接的燃料细粉料仓、燃料预热器和风力给料管,风力给料管与炉膛下部的炉膛密相区连接连通。 [0005] In the above aspect, a side of the furnace is also equipped with a fuel fines silo sequentially connected, and preheater fuel feed pipe wind, wind dense phase to the furnace tube and the furnace is connected to a lower portion in communication.

[0006] 上述技术方案中,炉膛上部为炉膛稀相区,炉膛下部为炉膛密相区。 [0006] In the above technical solution, the upper portion of the furnace to the lower furnace freeboard zone, the furnace is a furnace dense phase.

[0007] 系统流程: [0007] The system processes:

磨机将原矿磨成一定粒度细粉后: Ore mill ground powder after a certain size:

1、原矿细粉和冷空气经预热到一定温度后进入风力给料器再进入炉膛燃烧: 1, and the powder ore is preheated to a certain temperature through the cold wind into the combustion furnace into the feeder and then:

原矿细粉一燃料预热器一风力给料器--炉膛(流化床); A fuel preheater ore fines hopper a wind - the furnace (fluidized bed);

冷空气一空气预热器一风室一炉膛(流化床); A cold air preheater a plenum a furnace (fluidized bed);

冷空气一二次焙烧器一二次风系统一炉膛(流化床)。 A secondary cold air is a calcining furnace a secondary air system (fluidized bed).

[0008] 2、烟气流程: [0008] 2, the flue gas flow:

烟气从炉膛上部进入高温分离器一过热器一省煤器一多管分离器一空气预热器一除尘器一引风机一烟囱。 Into the hot flue gas from the upper portion of the separator furnace superheater a a a multi-tube separator economizer an air preheater a precipitator an induced draft fan a chimney.

[0009] 3、汽水流程:软水一省煤器一锅筒一水冷系统(埋管、水冷壁、隔墙管)一锅筒一过热器一用热设备。 [0009] 3, soda process: a water softener economizer a drum a water cooling system (borehole, water wall, the tube wall) a a drum a superheater heating equipment.

[0010] 4、渣流程: [0010] 4, the slag flow:

热渣一二次焙烧器一浸出工序段。 A second roasting hot slag leaching step is a segment.

[0011] 本发明技术特点如下: [0011] Technical features of the present invention is as follows:

1、流化床燃烧。 1, fluidized bed combustion. 底部密相区采用低风速。 The bottom of the dense phase zone with low wind speed. 有利于粒子的富积,热容量大。 In favor of the particles of enrichment, large heat capacity. 在密相区适当少量布置受热面(埋管)以调整平衡密相区的放热量。 A small amount of a suitable heating surface disposed in the dense phase region (borehole) to adjust the balance exotherm dense phase zone.

[0012] 2、高风温。 [0012] 2, high air temperature. 一次风占总风量的80%,利用尾部空气预热器将空气温度加热到较高温度,有利于床料中石煤着火,床温容易稳定。 Primary air 80% of the total air flow, using the air preheater aft air heated to a temperature higher temperatures facilitate ignition stone coal bed material, the bed temperature stabilized easily. 运行中床温在80(T950°C范围内。 Bed temperature in operation 80 (T950 ° C range.

[0013] 3、高料温。 [0013] 3, a high-temperature material. 利用烟气余热加热给料。 The feedstock is heated using waste heat of flue gas.

[0014] 4、在炉膛下方增设二次焙烧器,利用炉膛底端出口的热渣进入二次焙烧器焙烧,实现石煤型钒矿的脱碳、焙烧两个工序在一个设备中同时进行,节约能源,避免环境污染,回收率高达80%,极大地提高了设备效率,大幅度降低投资及运行成本。 [0014] 4, addition of secondary burners beneath the furnace, the furnace bottom outlet using hot slag enters the secondary firing is fired, vanadium achieve decarburization stone coal mines, two calcination step is performed simultaneously in one device, save energy, avoid environmental pollution, the recovery rate up to 80%, greatly improved equipment efficiency, significantly reduce investment and operating costs.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0015] 图1为本发明剖面示意图。 [0015] FIG 1 a cross-sectional schematic view of the present disclosure.

[0016] 附图标注说明: [0016] BRIEF DESCRIPTION label:

1-炉膛稀相区,2-炉膛水冷壁,3-隔墙管,4-炉膛密相区,5-埋管,6-布风板,7-风室,8-烟气出口,9-锅筒,10-高温分离器,11-过热器,12-省煤器,13-多管分离器,14-返料器,15-空气预热器,16- 二次焙烧器,17-链条炉排,18- 二次焙烧器风室,19-热风出口,20-冷渣出口,21-风力给料器,22-燃料预热器,23-染料细粉料仓。 1- freeboard zone furnace, furnace wall 2-, 3- tube wall, dense phase zone furnace 4-, 5- borehole, the air distribution plate 6-, 7- plenum, flue gas outlet 8-, 9- drum, high temperature separator 10-, 11- superheater, economizer 12-, 13- multi-tube separator, 14- loop seal, an air preheater 15, 16 of the secondary burners, 17-chain grate, secondary burners plenum 18, 19 a hot air outlet, cold slag outlet 20, the wind feeder 21, the fuel preheater 22-, 23- dye powder silo.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0017] 参见图1,本发明的一种高效炼钒脱碳焙烧锅炉,包括炉膛、炉膛水冷壁2,炉膛由隔墙管3进行分隔,炉膛下部安装有埋管5、布风板6、风帽和风室7,炉膛上部烟气出口8、高温分离器10、过热器11、省煤器12、多管分离器13、空气预热器15、除尘器、引风机、烟囱依次连接;在炉膛下方还安装有二次焙烧器16,二次焙烧器16由落渣管、链条、炉排、二次焙烧器风室、热风出口19、冷渣出口20和炉墙组成,炉膛底端的热渣出口通过热渣管与二次焙烧器的炉排热渣进口连接连通,二次焙烧器底下连接安装二次焙烧器风室及冷却风入口,二次焙烧器上端的热风出口通过返料系统连接连通炉膛及燃料预热器,炉排冷渣出口端连接输送带,输送带连接浸出工艺段。 [0017] Referring to Figure 1, the present invention is one kind of efficient decarburization refining vanadium fired boiler, including furnace, furnace wall 2, the furnace tubes are separated by partitions 3, the lower furnace borehole 5 is mounted, the air distribution plate 6, wind hood chamber 7, an upper portion of the furnace flue gas outlet 8, the high temperature separator 10, the superheater 11, economizer 12, a multi-tube separator 13, an air preheater 15, a dust collector, induced draft fan, in turn connected to the chimney; firebox also mounted beneath the secondary burners 16, 16 by a secondary firing slag off tube, chain grate, secondary burners plenum, a hot air outlet 19, outlet 20 and the slag composition of the furnace wall, the bottom of the furnace hot slag hot slag through the outlet pipe of the grate and the secondary burners hot slag inlet connection communication, is mounted beneath the secondary firing secondary firing is connected and the cooling air inlet plenum, the upper end of a hot air outlet of the secondary burners are connected by feed back system communication and a fuel preheater furnace, slag outlet end connected grate conveyor belt connected to the leaching process section.

[0018] 上述技术方案中,炉膛一侧还安装有依次连接的燃料细粉料仓23、燃料预热器22和风力给料器21,风力给料器与炉膛下部的炉膛密相区连接连通。 [0018] In the above aspect, a side of the furnace is also equipped with a fuel fines silo 23 connected sequentially, the fuel preheater feeder 21 wind, the wind to the furnace and the furnace dense phase hopper 22 and a lower communicating connection .

[0019] 上述技术方案中,炉膛上部为炉膛稀相区1,炉膛下部为炉膛密相区4。 [0019] In the above technical solution, the upper portion of the furnace to the lower furnace freeboard zone 1, the furnace is a furnace dense phase 4.

[0020] 焙烧是炼钒工艺中的重要工序,直接关系到金属回收率,且技术难度大,设备投资多。 [0020] The calcination step is important vanadium refining processes, directly related to metal recovery, and technical difficulties, equipment investment and more. 焙烧工艺已成为钒厂成败的关键,传统技术采用平窑、立窑或回转窑焙烧,成本较高,且生产率极低。 Firing process vanadium plant has become the key to success, the conventional technology uses a flat kiln, shaft kiln or a rotary kiln firing, high cost and low productivity.

[0021] 本发明的高效炼钒脱碳焙烧锅炉进行了一系列实验,在炉内进行脱碳、焙烧实验,焙烧转化率达80%。 [0021] Vanadium efficient decarburization refining fired boiler according to the present invention, a series of experiments, decarburization, firing experiment, the conversion rate of 80% in the calcination furnace. 证明本发明锅炉内脱碳、焙烧可同步进行,即在一个设备中完成原炼钒工艺中的两个工序。 Decarburization proof boiler of the present invention, firing may be carried out simultaneously, i.e., to complete the original vanadium smelting process in two steps in one apparatus. [0022] 用洪江石煤型钒矿细粉在本发明的20吨高效炼钒脱碳、焙烧锅炉进行脱碳碚烧工序合一工业实验。 [0022] with hongjiang stone coal vanadium ore fines in the present invention 20 t efficient decarburization refining vanadium, boiler firing step of firing the decarburization Bei Industrial Experiments unity.

[0023] 实验基础及根据脱碳、焙烧均为氧化反应。 [0023] The experimental basis and decarburization, the oxidation reaction are calcined.

[0024] 本发明的高效炼钒脱碳焙烧锅炉的脱碳、焙烧小试实验实验原理 [0024] Vanadium efficient decarburization refining decarburization fired boiler of the present invention, the small scale test firing principle experiment

氧化焙烧机理 Mechanism of oxidation roasting

老工艺窑炉中氧化焙烧过程: Old process kiln fired oxidation process:

焙烧前先将脱碳后的石煤矿与原矿按一定比例配料,再经过破碎球磨至一定细度,然后制球,再在窑中焙烧,氧化过程控制温度为800~850°C,将低价钒氧化为高价钒,有利于钒的浸出。 Prior to firing the first stone coal ore decarburized certain proportion of ingredients, and then through a ball mill to a certain fineness of crushed and balls, and then fired in a kiln, the temperature of the oxidation process control 800 ~ 850 ° C, the low-valent vanadium vanadium oxide is expensive, in favor of vanadium extraction. [0025] 本发明新工艺炉中脱碳氧化焙烧过程: [0025] The new process of the decarburization furnace roasting process of the present invention:

将原矿经过破碎球磨至一定细度,然后直接送入本发明的高效炼钒脱碳焙烧锅炉,通过适当的运行调整,使脱碳焙烧氧化反应同步进行,氧化过程控制温度为80(T85(TC,既达到脱碳目的又将低价钒氧化为高价钒,生成可溶性组分。 The crushed ore milled to a certain fineness, and then fed directly into efficient decarburization refining vanadium fired boiler according to the present invention, by suitably adjusting operation, so that the decarburization reaction simultaneously roasted for oxidation, the oxidation temperature of the process control 80 (T85 (TC , both to achieve the purpose of decarburization turn low-valent vanadium oxide, vanadium is high, generating a soluble component.

[0026] 焙烧化学反应原理: [0026] The calcination chemical reaction principle:

空白焙烧是依据含钒石煤特定的冶化性能决定的,当石煤中的钒主要以“钒云母”的形式存在时,并且在焙烧时无负面干扰的情况下,钒云母发生热分解和氧化反应,钒便生成可溶性组分。 Blank firing is based on the determined specific rule of performance vanadium containing stone coal, and when the stone coal vanadium mainly in the form of a "V mica", and in the absence of negative interference during firing, the vanadium mica is thermally decomposed and the oxidation reaction, it generates a soluble vanadium component.

[0027] 脱碳原理主要是碳的氧化反应,空白焙烧有碳的氧化反应,更希望有低价钒氧化为高价钒生成可溶性组分的氧化反应。 [0027] The principle is the decarburization reaction of carbon oxidation, blank firing reaction of carbon oxide, vanadium oxide, and more desirably low oxidation reaction generates a soluble vanadium is an expensive component. 除了足够的温度,氧化性气氛是脱碳、焙烧成功的关键。 In addition to a sufficient temperature, oxidizing atmosphere is critical decarburization, successful firing. 而本发明锅炉很好的解决了这一问题。 The boiler of the invention a good solution to this problem. 满足高温度,高氧化性气氛,高停留时间(高氧化反应速度)。 Meet the high temperature, highly oxidizing atmosphere, high residence time (higher rate of oxidation).

[0028]结论: [0028] Conclusion:

将设计的一台lm2高效炼钒脱碳焙烧锅炉进行实验,将细粉直接送入炉内,在炉内进行脱碳、焙烧同步进行实验,焙烧转化率达到80%,证明在高效炼钒脱碳焙烧锅炉内脱碳、焙烧可同步进行,在一个设备中成功地完成了原炼钒工艺中的两个工序。 The design of a lm2 efficient decarburization refining vanadium firing boiler experiments, the powder directly into the furnace, in the decarburization furnace, synchronized firing experiment, the conversion rate of 80% calcined, proved efficient in the removal of vanadium refining decarburization of carbon in the boiler firing, firing may be carried out simultaneously, in a single device successfully completed the original vanadium smelting process in two steps.

Claims (3)

  1. 1.一种高效炼钒脱碳焙烧锅炉,其特征在于:包括炉膛、炉膛水冷壁,炉膛由隔墙管进行分隔,炉膛下部安装有埋管、布风板、风帽和风室,炉膛上部烟气出口、高温分离器、过热器、省煤器、多管分离器、空气预热器、除尘器、引风机、烟囱依次连接;在炉膛下方还安装有二次焙烧器,二次焙烧器由落渣管、链条、炉排、二次焙烧器风室、热风出口、冷渣出口和炉墙组成,炉膛底端的热渣出口通过热渣管与二次焙烧器的炉排热渣进口连接连通,二次焙烧器底下连接安装二次焙烧器风室及冷却风入口,二次焙烧器上端的热风出口通过返料系统连接连通炉膛及燃料预热器,炉排冷渣出口端连接输送带,输送带连接浸出工艺段。 An efficient decarburization refining vanadium fired boiler, characterized by: a furnace, furnace wall, the furnace tubes are separated by partitions, is attached to the lower furnace borehole, the air distribution plate, hood and wind chambers, the upper portion of the furnace flue gas outlet temperature separator, superheaters, economizers, multi-tube separator, air preheater, a dust collector, induced draft fan, in turn connected to the chimney; below the calcining furnace is also equipped with a secondary device, by the secondary burners colonies slag tube, chain grate, secondary burners plenum, a hot air outlet, and the outlet of the furnace wall slag composition, hot slag outlet at the bottom of the furnace grate by hot slag communication connection inlet pipe and hot slag of secondary burners, calcining the secondary connector is mounted underneath the secondary burners plenum and the cooling air inlet, a hot air outlet is connected to the upper end of the secondary communication calcining furnace and preheater by returning the fuel feed system, connected to the outlet end of grate slag belt conveyor leaching of the connection sections of the belt.
  2. 2.根据权利要求1所述的高效炼钒脱碳焙烧锅炉,其特征在于:炉膛一侧还安装有依次连接的燃料细粉料仓、燃料预热器和风力给料管,风力给料管与炉膛下部的炉膛密相区连接连通。 The efficient decarburization refining vanadium fired boiler according to claim 1, wherein: one side of the furnace is also equipped with a fuel fines silo sequentially connected, and preheater fuel feed pipe wind, wind feeds connected to the lower portion of the furnace hearth dense area communication.
  3. 3.根据权利要求1所述的高效炼钒脱碳焙烧锅炉,其特征在于:炉膛上部为炉膛稀相区,炉膛下部为炉膛密相区。 The efficient decarburization refining vanadium fired boiler according to claim 1, wherein: an upper portion of the furnace to the lower furnace freeboard zone, the furnace is a furnace dense phase.
CN 201310030431 2013-01-28 2013-01-28 Efficient decarburization refining vanadium fired boiler CN103966425B (en)

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