CN103947494A - Cultivation method for oxygenation, drainage and irrigation to gleyed paddy fields - Google Patents

Cultivation method for oxygenation, drainage and irrigation to gleyed paddy fields Download PDF

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CN103947494A
CN103947494A CN201410186461.2A CN201410186461A CN103947494A CN 103947494 A CN103947494 A CN 103947494A CN 201410186461 A CN201410186461 A CN 201410186461A CN 103947494 A CN103947494 A CN 103947494A
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rice
soil
fertilizer
cultivation
oxygenation
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CN103947494B (en
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张玉屏
朱德峰
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China National Rice Research Institute
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China National Rice Research Institute
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Abstract

The invention relates to the technical field of rice cultivation, in particular to a cultivation method for oxygenation, drainage and irrigation to gleyed paddy fields. The cultivation method comprises the following steps: (1), plowing and sunning the upturned soil; (2), screening gleization resistant rice varieties; (3), raising strong rice seedlings on upland fields; (4), additionally applying a silicon fertilizer; (5), carrying out network ditching; (6), applying an additional fertilizer; (7), carrying out oxygenation and root promoting irrigation. Since cultivation measures are taken, the oxygen content of a plough layer is increased, surface soil is enabled to be loosened, the soil structure is improved, the soil surface temperature rises, root activity and tillering generating capability are enhanced, nutrient decomposition is promoted, and soil is promoted to form stable granular structures by using calcium and magnesium ions. Therefore, the fertilizer maintaining capability of soil is improved, and the rice yields of low-yield fields are improved.

Description

Gleying rice field oxygenation irrigation and drainage cultivation
Technical field
The present invention relates to Rice Cropping technical field, is a kind of gleying rice field oxygenation irrigation and drainage cultivations specifically.
Background technology
China's rice yield accounts for the half of national total output of grain.South Rice Region of China rice growing area accounts for the more than 80% of the total cultivated area of national paddy rice, but because low-yield land paddy rice is planted area and remains on more than 1/3 and (be about 100,000,000 mu) always, restrict the yield potential of south rice, affecting China's rice and even national grain security.Wherein gleying field accounts for the half of whole low-yield land, is mainly distributed in Hunan, Hubei, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jiangsu and Zhejiang.Hunan is the large province of Rice Production, but because the regional cereal crops that have are single, continuous cropping continuous cropping, land used is inadequate with the combination of increasing soil fertility, and soil plough horizon is shoaled, tillage pan thickening, farmland accumulated water is serious, also not in time, gleying area reaches 1,260 ten thousand mu to irrigation and drainage inconvenience, and soil permeability is poor, nutrient is difficult for discharging,, easily there is stiff seedling in quick-acting phosphorus potassium deficiency, rice yield is low.Therefore, for the gleying rice field especially feature of stretch of flatland in a hilly area gleyed soil, take suitable oxygenation cultivation method, neither increase cost, can guarantee again rice safety production, situation is extremely urgent.
Specifically, stretch of flatland in a hilly area gleying rice field has following features:
Soil temperature degree is low: especially, between early rice nursery stage and during rice transplanting, stretch of flatland in a hilly area gleying rice field soil temperature is lower 1~2 DEG C than improvement field, thereby makes Seedling Quality in Rice variation, and after transplanting, rice tillering is sent out less or do not send out.
Available nutrient content is low: soil oxygen content is low, and soil microbial activities weakens, and soil produces a large amount of reducing substances~ferrous ions and sulphide under the long-term state of being sick of.The paddy rice of directly causing harm, hinders the absorption of paddy rice to nutrition, can not provide paddy rice needed nutrient.
The These characteristics in gleying field can cause paddy rice early onset poor, and number of productive ear is few, and root growth is bad, and rice yield is low, and the feature of quality variation, if do not taken measures, increases soil oxygen content, even if fertilizing and planting rice yield is also difficult to improve.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is mainly the stretch of flatland in a hilly area field for China's hypsography low-lying, impeded drainage, the bad problem of paddy growth that soil gleying causes, adopting in the fall turns over after crop harvesting zanjon+the enrich siliceous fertilizer of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up+open, make topsoil soils loose, increase topsoil oxygen content, improve soil structure, soil table temperature is raise, be conducive to strengthen improving activity of root system and the generating ability of tillering, promote decompose of nutrient, utilize calcium, magnesium ion to promote that soil forms stable granular structure, thereby improve the fertilizer-preserving ability of soil, improve rice yield.
For achieving the above object, the technical solution used in the present invention is: a kind of gleying rice field oxygenation irrigation and drainage cultivation, comprises the steps:
(1) turn over and sun the earth which has been ploughed up: after autumn crops results, turn over, ploughing depth 18~22cm, the rotary tillage degree of depth 12~16cm, the field of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up of turning over is for Second Year Rice Cropping;
(2) screen resistance to latent property rice varieties: using kind sensitivity coefficient (VSC) and kind Sensitivity Index (VSI) as screening index, screening is suitable for Varieties In Late Rice morning in gleying rice field;
(3) drought is educated strong seedling: select that high-land, quality are loose, subterranean water level is low, drainage condition good, the nonirrigated farmland of convenient management or vegetable plot, every square metre of seedbed evenly applies 60~80 grams, ammonium sulfate, 80 grams of superphosphate, 40 grams, potassium chloride, overall ploughing bed soil repeatedly after fertilising, reaching loam evenly mixes, broadcast by every square metre of seedbed the bud paddy 140~190g that shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally, cultivate the strong seedling of band tiller;
(4) enrich siliceous fertilizer: transplant and apply azophoska the last week, enrich siliceous fertilizer 30kg as base manure by every mu simultaneously, then turn over and rake by furrow face;
(5) network trench digging: use at base manure, field face smooth after, longitudinally every 5~10m, open dark 50cm, wide 20cm ditch along rice field, laterally open dark 20cm, wide 20cm traverse furrow every 30~50m;
(6) use and topdress: in the time that rice shoot grows to 4.5~5.5 leaf, transplant, transplant and use the tillering fertilizer that is mixed with weed killer herbicide after 5~7 days;
(7) the short root of oxygenation is irrigated: tillering stage, full field kept flat ditch-water to half ditch-water, flat ditch-water reciprocation cycle again, to stem tiller number reach target spike number 80% time drain in time Gou Zhongshui and carry out dry field, shine solid to field face, people goes to the field to walk and does not fall into pin, there is minute crack in field face, keep par in ditch in Rice Panicle idiophase and flowering stage, keep half ditch-water other period.
Further, in described step (2), kind sensitivity coefficient and kind Sensitivity Index are all less than 1.10.
Further, described step (4) applies amount of nitrogenous fertilizer and accounts for 65% of life individual breeding time of consumption, and phosphate fertilizer amount accounts for 100% of life individual breeding time of consumption, and potash fertilizer amount accounts for 50% of life individual breeding time of consumption.
Useful technique effect of the present invention is: the resistance to latent property kind of screening for the present invention, turn over sun the earth which has been ploughed up, soil layer subsoiling that network zanjon irrigable culture method can promote gleying field, oxygen content increases, temperature raises, paddy rice early sends out, spike number increases, output improves.So need turn over and sun the earth which has been ploughed up after autumn crops results the first year, adopt resistance to latent property kind, drought is educated the strong seedling with tiller; Before transplanting, in conjunction with again turning over and rake, deep placement base manure and enrich siliceous fertilizer, adopts ditching machine to open network zanjon, transplants when 4.5~5.5 leaf at the length of time rice seedlings grow, and 5~7 days applied onces after transplanting that topdress, so that tiller estranged early after rice striking root; The water management of Honda phase is mainly the depth control by moisture in zanjon.Tillering stage flat ditch-water~half ditch-water~flat ditch water circulation, stem tiller number reach target spike number 80% time carry out timely dry field, anhydrous in ditch, keep flat ditch-water in Rice Panicle idiophase and flowering stage, keep half ditch-water other period.As rainy season, by the timely draining of irrigation canals and ditches.Cultivating relevant research about paddy rice oxygenation both at home and abroad is at present mainly to carry out oxygenation processing by methods such as dry field, Different Irrigation Methods, micro-nano bubble water irrigation or inflator pump oxygenations, because the reason of technical operation difficulty, weather and cost, the oxygenation effect that makes these rice make technology is difficult to be not fully exerted in gleying rice field; About soil conditioner carries out oxygenation and heats processing the improvement of soil, due to its complicated component, production process is many, and cost is very high, is also difficult to large area and adopts; Increasing application phosphorus potassium fertilizer, formula fertilizer special or use calper calcium peroxide, because the gleying rice field content of organic matter is abundant and nitrogen phosphorus potassium also has no lack of, but absorption of nutrient ingredients difficulty blindly increases the supply of soil nutrient and enriches high price fertilizer, might not fully absorb, only can cause the increase of cost; Engineering improvement bury covered conduit, hidden pipe etc. underground, get rid of field internal water accumulation, lowering of watertable, can alleviate the soil gleying degree in rice field, but unit are investment is larger, for the stretch of flatland in a hilly area field that there is no river construction support be expected untouchable.So for stretch of flatland in a hilly area gleying paddy field drainage difficulty, the long-term accumulated water of soil hardens, air capacity of soils is poor, reducing substances increases, soil temperature is low, feeder capability is poor, make paddy rice early onset poor, number of productive ear is few, root growth is bad, rice yield is low, the feature of quality variation, select resistance to latent property kind, cultivate strong seedling, turn over and sun the earth which has been ploughed up, enrich siliceous fertilizer, dig trenches to drain the water away, for the oxygenation high-yield cultivating method of the integrated control of core, the method can significantly promote paddy rice early to send out, increase spike number, improve soil oxygen content and redox potential, promote the absorption of available nutrient, improving yield.
It is poor that the inventive method is specially adapted to paddy fields paddy soil permeability, and nutrient is difficult for discharging, and quick-acting phosphorus potassium deficiency, stiff seedling easily occurs, the rice field that rice yield is low.
Figure of description
In order to be illustrated more clearly in the embodiment of the present invention or technical scheme of the prior art, to the accompanying drawing of required use in embodiment or description of the Prior Art be briefly described below, apparently, accompanying drawing in the following describes is only some embodiments of the present invention, for those of ordinary skill in the art, do not paying under the prerequisite of creative work, can also obtain according to these accompanying drawings other accompanying drawing.
Fig. 1 is after processing by the inventive method, in good early 17 and Hunan early Xian 45 number of grain per ears improve design sketch;
Fig. 2 is after processing by the inventive method, in good early 17 and Hunan early Xian 45 every mu of spike numbers improve design sketch.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with the embodiment of the present invention, the technical scheme in the embodiment of the present invention is clearly and completely described, obviously, described embodiment is only the present invention's part embodiment, instead of whole embodiment.Based on the embodiment in the present invention, those of ordinary skill in the art, not making the every other embodiment obtaining under creative work prerequisite, belong to the scope of protection of the invention.
Embodiment 1
Gleying rice field oxygenation irrigation and drainage cultivation, is characterized in that, comprises the steps:
(1) turn over and sun the earth which has been ploughed up: after autumn crops results, turn over, ploughing depth 18~22cm, the rotary tillage degree of depth 12~16cm, the field of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up of turning over is for Second Year Rice Cropping;
(2) screen resistance to latent property rice varieties: be all less than 1.10 as index taking kind sensitivity coefficient and kind Sensitivity Index, screening is suitable for Varieties In Late Rice morning in gleying rice field;
(3) drought is educated strong seedling: select that high-land, quality are loose, subterranean water level is low, drainage condition good, the nonirrigated farmland of convenient management or vegetable plot, every square metre of seedbed evenly applies 60~80 grams, ammonium sulfate, 80 grams of superphosphate, 40 grams, potassium chloride, overall ploughing bed soil repeatedly after fertilising, reaching loam evenly mixes, broadcast by every square metre of seedbed the bud paddy 140~190g that shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally, cultivate the strong seedling of band tiller;
(4) enrich siliceous fertilizer: transplant and apply azophoska the last week, enrich siliceous fertilizer 30kg as base manure by every mu simultaneously, then turn over and rake by furrow face; Apply amount of nitrogenous fertilizer and account for 65% of life individual breeding time of consumption, phosphate fertilizer amount accounts for 100% of life individual breeding time of consumption, and potash fertilizer amount accounts for 50% of life individual breeding time of consumption.
(5) network trench digging: use at base manure, field face smooth after, longitudinally every 5~10m, open dark 50cm, wide 20cm ditch along rice field, laterally open dark 20cm, wide 20cm traverse furrow every 30~50m;
(6) use and topdress: in the time that rice shoot grows to 4.5~5.5 leaf, transplant, transplant and use the tillering fertilizer that is mixed with weed killer herbicide after 5~7 days;
(7) the short root of oxygenation is irrigated: tillering stage, full field kept flat ditch-water to half ditch-water, flat ditch-water reciprocation cycle again, to stem tiller number reach target spike number 80% time drain in time Gou Zhongshui and carry out dry field, shine solid to field face, people goes to the field to walk and does not fall into pin, there is minute crack in field face, keep par in ditch in Rice Panicle idiophase and flowering stage, keep half ditch-water other period.
Embodiment 2
In the gleying rice field in Ningxiang County Hui Longpu swan village, Hunan, the same contrast field comparison of gleying field,
Organic matter and nitrogen and phosphorus content are abundant, and potassium and silicon are below critical value, and soil is faintly acid (table 1).
The soil texture in table 1 gleying field
Test 1: autumn crops were turned over and suned the earth which has been ploughed up in time after gathering in the crops the previous year, the wet rake of non watered ploughing when the beginning of spring, throwing is planted front in conjunction with basal dressing, then rake is weeded and loosen the soil field once.Output ditch on limit, field, be beneficial to the discharge of water.Late rice, because double rush for harvesting and sowing season is urgent, makes the best use of time plough shallowly to press after early rice harvesting and buries rice stubble, for the sticky heavy paddy field of soil, should strive for that two ploughs two rakes and short-term sun the earth which has been ploughed up not affecting the in the situation that timely throwing being planted, and makes soil in small, broken bits loose, in order to morning.
By turning over, in early rice, good early 17 number of grain per ears and spike number improve respectively 6.3% and 16.6% (Fig. 1); Hunan Xian 45 number of grain per ears morning and spike number improve respectively 0.2% and 13.2% (Fig. 2);
Test 2: select 20 of middle and lower reach of Yangtze River establishing in large scale early Varieties In Late Rice carry out the screening of resistance to latent property kind, evaluate by kind sensitivity coefficient (VSC) and kind Sensitivity Index (VSI), 20 early in rice varieties Hunan early No. 3, Xian and in good morning 17 the property sensitivity coefficient of diving reach more than 1.2, the property Sensitivity Index of diving reaches more than 1.1.And the kind Jinyou 458 of resistance to latent property and Hunan Xian morning 45 latent property sensitivity coefficients reach below 1.01, dive property Sensitivity Index below 1.1 (table 2).In 20 Varieties In Late Rices, yellow China accounts for a day excellent Hua Zhanqian sensitivity coefficient and reaches more than 1.3, and the property Sensitivity Index of diving reaches more than 1.35.And the kind two excellent 287 of resistance to latent property and Hunan No. 13 latent property sensitivity coefficients of Xian in evening reach below 1.05, dive property Sensitivity Index below 1.0 (table 3).Compared with 2011, Huang Huazhan and Hunan Xian in evening are reproducible.So by the rice varieties Jinyou 458 and early Xian 45 of Hunan morning of the resistance to latent property of experiment sieving, the morning of the property sensitivity of diving is in rice varieties good early 17 and early No. 3, Xian of Hunan; The Xian 13 and two excellent 287 in Varieties In Late Rice Hunan evening of resistance to latent property, the yellow China of Varieties In Late Rice of the property sensitivity of diving accounts for and day excellent China accounts for.
A table 220 early responsive evaluation of resistance to latent property of rice varieties
The responsive evaluation of resistance to latent property of table 320 Varieties In Late Rice
Test 3: oxygenation irrigation and drainage test.
1) cultivate strong seedling: early rice sowing on March 24, late rice sowing on June 20.Adopt rice transplanting, the seedling of plastics transplanting machine for seedlings, transplanting machine for seedlings specification 308 cave seedling dishes, every mu needs 80, seedling dish.Dish is broadcast 63 grams of even sowings.Every square metre of seedbed evenly applies 60~80 grams, ammonium sulfate, 80 grams of superphosphate, 40 grams, potassium chloride, and overall ploughing bed soil repeatedly after fertilising, reaches loam and evenly mix, and broadcasts by every square metre of seedbed the bud paddy 140~190g that shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally, and cultivates the strong seedling of band tiller; The resistance to latent property kind of early rice variety adoption Hunan is Xian 45 early, good morning 17 in the property sensitive varieties of diving.
2) enrich siliceous fertilizer: in the field of turning over and sunning the earth which has been ploughed up, transplant/throw cultivation and apply azophoska the last week, enrich siliceous fertilizer 30kg as base manure by every mu simultaneously, then turn over and rake by furrow face, total amount of nitrogen is at 12 kgs/acre, 30 kgs/acre, phosphate fertilizer, 10 kgs/acre, potash fertilizer.In base manure, amount of nitrogenous fertilizer accounts for 65% of a raw breeding time, phosphate fertilizer 100%, potash fertilizer 50%.
3) network zanjon: use at base manure, after field face is smooth, longitudinally open dark 50cm, wide 20cm zanjon every 5~10m with ditching machine in rice field, laterally open dark 20cm, wide 20cm traverse furrow every 30~50m;
4) rice transplanting: the early rice length of time rice seedlings grow 3.5~4.0 leaf, the late rice length of time rice seedlings grow when 4.5~5.5 leaf, can be thrown cultivation.Density of seedling broadcasting early rice 2.0 ten thousand/mu, late rice 1.7 ten thousand/mu.In order to ensure that rice shoot is evenly distributed, every Tian Kefen throws for 2 times, first answers 60%~70% of rice transplanting seedling to throw once in this piece field comprehensively, and then throws sparse place with remaining rice shoot, mends evenly.After rice transplanting, between Tanaka, stay working line, the rice shoot in working line is mended to sparse place.
5) spraying fertilizer early: throw plant after 5~7 days, topdress 1 time, the middle amount of nitrogenous fertilizer that topdresses account for raw breeding time consumption 35%, potash fertilizer accounts for 50%.
6) the short root of oxygenation is irrigated: tillering stage, full field kept flat ditch-water to half ditch-water flat ditch-water reciprocation cycle again, to stem tiller number reach target spike number 80% time (200,000 seedling/mu) start gently to put field, after 1~2 day, drain Gou Zhongshui and carry out dry field, control seedling peak, make Gao Miao be no more than 350,000, reach leaf look and turn light, blade is straight and upright, and Miao Feng declines.General solarization is solid to field face, and people goes to the field to walk and do not fall into pin, and minute crack appears in field face.Keep par in ditch in Rice Panicle idiophase and flowering stage, keep half ditch-water other period.
7) sick Chinese caterpillar fungus control: control of weeds, in the time of spraying fertilizer, the weed killer herbicides such as available fourth benzyl, mix thoroughly and execute down., rice seedling bed keypoint control rice thrips, after disinfection seed clear water is cleaned, sows with Imidacloprid seed dressing again, and Honda is tillered to heading keypoint control snout moth's larva, rice fulgorid, leaf-roller.Keypoint control banded sclerotial blight, mid or late June starts with liking the double stalk breaks of controlling of prevention banded sclerotial blight such as seedling.
8) test adopts great Qu contrast, great Qu area 667 (m 2), repeat 3 times.Measure rice field topsoil redox potential in rice plant of tillering stage, panicle spike primordium differentiation stage, heading stage and milk ripe stage, get root sample and investigate Root Characters in Sheng tiller phase and full heading time, the maturing stage samples and measures output.
Test shows: sun the earth which has been ploughed up and the rice field of opening network zanjon through turning over, soil redox potential amplification reaches 30.0~50.0mV, and 20cm soil oxygen content is brought up to 7.1mg/l by original 1.0mg/l, and air capacity of soils is good.Due to the improvement of soil structure, the comparable plate of the rice field daily mean temperature of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up field is improved 1~2 DEG C again;
The table 4 Ningxiang County Hui Longpu town swan village side's of demonstration output and structure thereof (Hunan is Xian 45 early)
Application oxygenation irrigable culture method, can promote soil redox potential to raise, and soil oxygen content increases, and temperature improves, and promotes rice tillering to occur, and spike number increases, and ripening rate improves, and finally increases output.
The foregoing is only preferred embodiment of the present invention, in order to limit the present invention, within the spirit and principles in the present invention not all, any amendment of doing, be equal to replacement, improvement etc., all should be included in
Within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. gleying rice field oxygenation irrigation and drainage cultivation, is characterized in that, comprises the steps:
(1) turn over and sun the earth which has been ploughed up: after autumn crops results, turn over, ploughing depth 18~22cm, the rotary tillage degree of depth 12~16cm, the field of sunning the earth which has been ploughed up of turning over is for Second Year Rice Cropping;
(2) screen resistance to latent property rice varieties: using kind sensitivity coefficient and kind Sensitivity Index as screening index, screening is suitable for Varieties In Late Rice morning in gleying rice field;
(3) drought is educated strong seedling: select that high-land, quality are loose, subterranean water level is low, drainage condition good, the nonirrigated farmland of convenient management or vegetable plot, every square metre of seedbed evenly applies 60~80 grams, ammonium sulfate, 80 grams of superphosphate, 40 grams, potassium chloride, overall ploughing bed soil repeatedly after fertilising, reaching loam evenly mixes, broadcast by every square metre of seedbed the bud paddy 140~190g that shows money or valuables one carries unintentionally, cultivate the strong seedling of band tiller;
(4) enrich siliceous fertilizer: transplant and apply azophoska the last week, enrich siliceous fertilizer 30kg as base manure by every mu simultaneously, then turn over and rake by furrow face;
(5) network trench digging: use at base manure, field face smooth after, longitudinally every 5~10m, open dark 50cm, wide 20cm ditch along rice field, laterally open dark 20cm, wide 20cm traverse furrow every 30~50m;
(6) use and topdress: in the time that rice shoot grows to 4.5~5.5 leaf, transplant, transplant and use the tillering fertilizer that is mixed with weed killer herbicide after 5~7 days;
(7) the short root of oxygenation is irrigated: tillering stage, full field kept flat ditch-water to half ditch-water, flat ditch-water reciprocation cycle again, to stem tiller number reach target spike number 80% time drain in time Gou Zhongshui and carry out dry field, shine solid to field face, people goes to the field to walk and does not fall into pin, there is minute crack in field face, keep par in ditch in Rice Panicle idiophase and flowering stage, keep half ditch-water other period.
2. gleying rice field oxygenation irrigation and drainage cultivation according to claim 1, is characterized in that, in described step (2), kind sensitivity coefficient and kind Sensitivity Index are all less than 1.10.
3. gleying rice field oxygenation irrigation and drainage cultivation according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described step (4) applies amount of nitrogenous fertilizer and accounts for 65% of life individual breeding time of consumption, and phosphate fertilizer amount accounts for 100% of life individual breeding time of consumption, and potash fertilizer amount accounts for 50% of life individual breeding time of consumption.
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CN104285757A (en) * 2014-09-28 2015-01-21 湖南农业大学 Method for conducting mechanical oxygen increasing irrigation on super rice at day time
CN104285758A (en) * 2014-09-28 2015-01-21 湖南农业大学 Night mechanical aerobic irrigation method for super rice
CN104285757B (en) * 2014-09-28 2016-08-24 湖南农业大学 A kind of super hybridization rice mechanical enhancement on daytime irrigation method
CN105248206A (en) * 2015-10-20 2016-01-20 华中农业大学 Compartment trench controlled irrigating paddy rice water-saving culturing method
CN105248206B (en) * 2015-10-20 2018-04-13 华中农业大学 A kind of railway carriage or compartment ditch control is poured water rice water-saving cultivation method
CN105900757A (en) * 2016-04-20 2016-08-31 四川省农业科学院土壤肥料研究所 Method for preventing root decline of winter paddy rice
CN106034881A (en) * 2016-06-02 2016-10-26 中国水稻研究所 High-yield rice cultivating method capable of increasing oxygen for root systems, strengthening stalks and preventing rice from lodging
CN105941095A (en) * 2016-07-05 2016-09-21 湖南农业大学 Paddy field water circulation oxygenation irritation method and irrigation system
CN106613584A (en) * 2016-09-23 2017-05-10 文捷 Rice planting method
CN109479428A (en) * 2018-12-10 2019-03-19 湖南袁禾农业科技有限公司 Rice soil improves restorative procedure

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