CN103935364B - Automobile actively anti-collision early warning system based on millimetre-wave radar - Google Patents

Automobile actively anti-collision early warning system based on millimetre-wave radar Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103935364B
CN103935364B CN201410193393.2A CN201410193393A CN103935364B CN 103935364 B CN103935364 B CN 103935364B CN 201410193393 A CN201410193393 A CN 201410193393A CN 103935364 B CN103935364 B CN 103935364B
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target
spacing
control strategy
module
safety
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CN201410193393.2A
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CN103935364A (en
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王建华
蒋林艳
王云成
谢飞
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吉林大学
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W30/00Purposes of road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub-unit, e.g. of systems using conjoint control of vehicle sub-units, or advanced driver assistance systems for ensuring comfort, stability and safety or drive control systems for propelling or retarding the vehicle
    • B60W30/08Active safety systems predicting or avoiding probable or impending collision or attempting to minimise its consequences
    • B60W30/09Taking automatic action to avoid collision, e.g. braking and steering
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W40/00Estimation or calculation of non-directly measurable driving parameters for road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub unit, e.g. by using mathematical models
    • B60W40/02Estimation or calculation of non-directly measurable driving parameters for road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub unit, e.g. by using mathematical models related to ambient conditions
    • B60W40/06Road conditions
    • B60W40/068Road friction coefficient
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W40/00Estimation or calculation of non-directly measurable driving parameters for road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub unit, e.g. by using mathematical models
    • B60W40/10Estimation or calculation of non-directly measurable driving parameters for road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub unit, e.g. by using mathematical models related to vehicle motion
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W40/00Estimation or calculation of non-directly measurable driving parameters for road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub unit, e.g. by using mathematical models
    • B60W40/10Estimation or calculation of non-directly measurable driving parameters for road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub unit, e.g. by using mathematical models related to vehicle motion
    • B60W40/105Speed
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W50/00Details of control systems for road vehicle drive control not related to the control of a particular sub-unit, e.g. process diagnostic or vehicle driver interfaces
    • B60W50/08Interaction between the driver and the control system
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2520/00Input parameters relating to overall vehicle dynamics
    • B60W2520/10Longitudinal speed
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2554/00Input parameters relating to objects
    • B60W2554/40Dynamic objects, e.g. animals, windblown objects
    • B60W2554/404Characteristics
    • B60W2554/4041Position
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2554/00Input parameters relating to objects
    • B60W2554/80Spatial relation or speed relative to objects
    • B60W2554/801Lateral distance
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2554/00Input parameters relating to objects
    • B60W2554/80Spatial relation or speed relative to objects
    • B60W2554/804Relative longitudinal speed

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of automobile based on millimetre-wave radar actively anti-collision early warning system, mainly include signals collecting and processing module I, from car information acquisition module II, it is judged that identification module III, human-computer interaction module IV and execution system module V.Described signals collecting and processing module I utilize millimetre-wave radar I-1 to obtain target X relatively from the speed of car Z, distance and bearing angle, and output after processor I-2 processes;ABS wheel speed sensors II-1 is utilized to obtain the speed from car Z and coefficient of road adhesion output after auxiliary processor II-2 processes from car information acquisition module II;Judge that identification module III judges the type of target X and target type is transferred to human-computer interaction module IV, control strategy is transferred to execution system module V.Take to evade accordingly control measure.The present invention can shift to an earlier date enough time and remind driver to take measures to ensure that safety and comfort travel, and effectively identifies risk object and reminds driver, improving the safety of system.

Description

Automobile actively anti-collision early warning system based on millimetre-wave radar

Technical field

The present invention relates to automobile active safety technical field, be specifically related to a kind of automobile based on millimetre-wave radar actively anti-collision early warning system.

Background technology

Along with the development of World Economics and science and technology, auto industry has obtained development at full speed since birth from 19th-century latter stage.But, vehicle accident is always up the disadvantage brought with development of automobile, vehicle accident quantity in the last few years and occupant's number of casualties remain high always, become one of major reason of global disease or unexpected death, and therefore traffic safety problem has become the subject matter that the whole world is urgently to be resolved hurrily.By a large amount of vehicle accident producing cause are analyzed, summing up mainly driver factor, vehicle factor and environmental factors these three aspect, especially driver factor is the most prominent.Careless and inadvertent, drive over the speed limit, fatigue driving, judgement error and the factor such as drive when intoxicated are the main causes causing vehicle accident to occur.For helping driver safety to drive thus reducing the generation of vehicle accident, the research of automobile actively anti-collision early warning system is extremely urgent.

Automobile actively anti-collision early warning system, by being arranged on the target that the target detection unit monitor in real time vehicle periphery of vehicle front occurs, automatically identifies the vehicle, barrier or the pedestrian that are likely to collide with vehicle.In vehicle traveling process, when danger occurs, system energy automatic alarm reminds driver to watch out for, thus taking steps to avoid the generation of accident in advance;Take measures if driver remains without, then this system can pass through the control realization automatic retarding function to drive systems such as electromotor, clutch and change speed gear boxes, if the situation of danger still can not be broken away from after slowing down, then this system is by the control realization emergency braking function to brake and electromotor etc., avoids the generation of accident as much as possible.

The emphasis of current automobile actively anti-collision early warning system is still in that how to identify the movement state information of target, and have ignored the foundation of safe distance between vehicles model and control strategy, or unified sets up safe distance between vehicles model and control strategy, therefore reduces the reliability of system.The present invention proposes set up the safe distance between vehicles model of refinement and alternative evade control strategy, it is thus possible to time enough reminds driver to take measures to ensure that safety and comfort travel in advance.

Summary of the invention

It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of automobile based on millimetre-wave radar actively anti-collision early warning system, can effectively identify risk object and remind driver, if driver does not take measures, Braking mode or guarantee of slowing down drive safely.

In conjunction with accompanying drawing, it is seen that the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:

A kind of automobile based on millimetre-wave radar is anti-collision early warning system actively, mainly includes signals collecting and processing module I, from car information acquisition module II, it is judged that identification module III, and human-computer interaction module IV and execution system module V.

Described signals collecting and processing module I utilize millimetre-wave radar I-1 to obtain target X relatively from the speed of car Z, distance and bearing angle, and output after processor I-2 processes;ABS wheel speed sensors II-1 is utilized to obtain the speed from car Z and coefficient of road adhesion output after auxiliary processor II-2 processes from car information acquisition module II;Judge speed, distance and bearing angular data that identification module III inputs according to processor I-2, and auxiliary processor II-2 input from car Z speed and coefficient of road adhesion, utilize evaluator III-1 judge the type of target X and target type is transferred to human-computer interaction module IV, control strategy is transferred to execution system module V.Human-computer interaction module IV passes through display lamp and the sound etc. of display alarm IV-1 and reminds driver's target type and the measure that should take;Performing system module V is when driver does not take action, and utilization is evaded controller V-1 and automatically taked according to target type corresponding braking or deceleration etc. to evade control measure.

Preferably, described evaluator III-1 adopts first azimuth Preliminary screening, the evaluator algorithm that rear safe distance between vehicles accurately identifies when judging the type of target X, efficiently identify out target type and flow to subsequent module.

Preferably, the present invention adopts following 4 kinds of safe distance between vehicles models: safety critical spacing, lock onto target spacing, dangerous critical spacing and the critical spacing of the limit.Segment the distance between automobile and target, improve the safety of system.

Preferably, described execution system module V evades the controller V-1 control strategy of evading taked and is divided into the control strategy of relatively safety and takes into account the control strategy of comfortableness, select voluntarily according to the requirement of driver, more humane.

Motion conditions during according to automobile brake sets up the model of safe distance between vehicles:

D=d1-d2+d0(1)

Wherein d is safe distance between vehicles, d1For from the car Z distance crossed, d2For the target X distance crossed, d0For representing the two cars rear minimum safe spacing to retain out of danger, generally take 2~5m.

The present invention establishes four kinds of safe distance between vehicles models according to car braking theory: safety critical spacing, lock onto target spacing, dangerous critical spacing and the critical spacing of the limit.

Safety critical spacing is the index of the operation conditions whether safety of anticipation vehicle, higher than this value just safety;Whether the operating condition of corresponding danger critical spacing anticipation vehicle is dangerous, then dangerous lower than this value.Lock onto target spacing is to increase by a segment distance on safety critical spacing, is set by human-computer interaction module IV voluntarily according to the proficiency level of driver;The critical spacing of the limit is that the required limit spacing maintained of rear-end collision does not occur automobile.

Safety critical spacing is:

d s = 1 3.6 ( t 1 + t 2 ) u 1 + t 3 3.6 × 2 u rel + u 1 2 - ( u 1 - u rel ) 2 25.92 a μ + d 0 - - - ( 2 )

Wherein, dsFor safety critical spacing, u1For the movement velocity from car Z;u2Movement velocity for target X;urel=u1-u2, it is the relative velocity of two cars;t1For from car Z time of driver's reaction, this time length varies with each individual;t2For eliminating the brake clearance time from car Z;t3It is the build-up time of braking force of two cars, it is assumed that identical;A1=a2=aμ, it is the braking deceleration of the two cars maximum braking deceleration that all originates from ground, ground attaching coefficient determines, aμ=μ g, μ are ground attaching coefficient, and g is acceleration of gravity.

Lock onto target spacing is:

d t = 1 3.6 ( t 0 + t 1 + t 2 ) u 1 + t 3 3.6 × 2 u rel + u 1 2 - ( u 1 - u rel ) 2 25.92 a μ + d 0 - - - ( 3 )

Wherein, dtFor lock onto target spacing, t0For the time predicted in advance, being based on set by driver characteristics and driving habits, the driving age, shorter or driving technology shortcoming driver wished to grow during this period of time, in order to help to predict the unsafe condition that namely will appear from;Skilled or that reaction is quick driver wishes shorter during this period of time, or even eliminates during this period of time, in order to reduces the sensitivity of actively anti-collision early warning system and reduces unnecessary alarm number of times, it is proposed that t0Take 0~1s.

Dangerous critical spacing is:

d d = t 2 3.6 u 1 + t 3 3.6 × 2 u rel + u 1 2 - ( u 1 - u rel ) 2 25.92 a μ + d 0 - - - ( 4 )

The critical spacing of the limit is:

d L = 1 3.6 ( t 2 + t 3 2 ) u 1 + 1 25.92 [ u 1 2 a &mu; - ( u 1 - u rel ) 2 a 2 ] + d 0 a 2 > u 1 - u rel u 1 a &mu; 1 3.6 ( t 2 + t 3 2 ) u 1 + u rel 2 25.92 ( a &mu; - a 2 ) + d 0 a 2 < u 1 - u rel u 1 a &mu; - - - ( 5 )

Wherein, a2For target X braking deceleration.

Driving wheel rotating speed and secondary speed can be obtained from the ABS wheel speed sensors II-1 being arranged on from car Z.The product that rolling speed is driving wheel rotating speed and radius of wheel of automobile, the product that actual travel speed is secondary speed and radius of wheel of automobile.

Sliding ratio:

s = u w - r r 0 &omega; w u w &times; 100 % - - - ( 6 )

Wherein, s is sliding ratio, uwFor the actual vehicle speed of automobile, rr0ωwRolling speed for automobile.

The numerical value of coefficient of road adhesion μ is obtained in coefficient of road adhesion-sliding ratio curve (μ-s curve) interpolation by sliding ratio s.

Additionally, it is meansigma methods that the present invention gives tacit consent to the response time of driver, from car Z eliminate off time be meansigma methods, two car build-up time of braking forces are meansigma methods.System is according to relative velocity, actual vehicle speed, coefficient of road adhesion, and time value calculates safe distance between vehicles in real time.

Judging first identification module III directly judges whether it is risk object according to the scope of azimuth angle theta, θ is then directly judged as benign target more than critical aspects angle, and θ then calculates safe distance between vehicles less than critical aspects angle.Secondly, distance is compared with safe distance between vehicles, it is determined that target type.Critical aspects angle can take 25 °-35 °, is introduced for critical aspects angle equal to 30 ° below.

Judge that target type is flowed to human-computer interaction module IV by identification module III.In human-computer interaction module IV, the man machine interface of display alarm IV-1 includes information and shows and parameter setting two parts.Wherein information display section includes threatening target prompting, danger classes shows, buzzer, speed spacing LED show, parameter setting includes selection and evades control strategy, sets the distinctive vehicle parameter of driver etc..

Meanwhile, it is judged that the control strategy that should take is flowed to execution system module V by identification module III.The controller V-1 that evades performing system module V has formulated for target type and different has evaded control strategy.Evade control strategy be divided into the control strategy of relatively safety and take into account the control strategy of comfortableness.Wherein relatively the control strategy of safety is using lock onto target spacing, safety critical spacing and the critical spacing of danger as separation;Taking into account the control strategy of comfortableness is using safety critical spacing, dangerous critical spacing and the critical spacing of the limit as separation.Which kind of control strategy is adopted to be set on human-computer interaction interface by driver.

Specifically, relatively the control strategy process of safety is:

First, it is determined that identification module III is according to the scope of azimuth angle theta directly judges whether it is risk object, θ is directly judged as benign target more than 30 °, and θ then calculates safe distance between vehicles less than 30 °;

Secondly, by distance R and lock onto target spacing d from car Z Yu target XtRelatively, if more than, it is benign target, takes safety control strategy;If less than, continue and safety critical spacing dsRelatively, if more than, it is borderline risk target, takes controlling alarm dypass;If less than, continue and the critical spacing d of dangerdRelatively, if more than, it is borderline risk target, takes deceleration control strategy, if less than, it is risk object, takes braking control strategy.

Specifically, the process of the control strategy taking into account comfortableness is:

First, it is determined that identification module III is according to the scope of azimuth angle theta directly judges whether it is risk object, θ is directly judged as benign target more than 30 °, and θ then calculates safe distance between vehicles less than 30 °;

Secondly, by distance R and safety critical spacing d from car Z Yu target XsRelatively, if more than, it is benign target, takes safety control strategy;If less than, continue and the critical spacing d of dangerdRelatively, if more than, it is borderline risk target, takes controlling alarm dypass;If less than, continue and the critical spacing d of the limitLRelatively, if more than, it is borderline risk target, takes deceleration control strategy, if less than, it is risk object, takes braking control strategy.

Distance be divide into four scopes by three separations evading control strategy, and each scope has different displays in man machine interface.Man machine interface green indicating lamp Chang Liang within the scope of first, is called " safety control strategy ";Within the scope of second, there is " careful driving " " dripping " warning with low frequency in man machine interface, and yellow green display lamp glimmers, and is called " controlling alarm strategy ";Within the scope of 3rd, there is " Reduced Speed Now " " dripping " warning with higher-frequency in man machine interface, and automatic retarding simultaneously, orange-yellow display lamp glimmers, and is called " deceleration control strategy ";There is " brake hard " " dripping " warning with high frequency in 4th scope man machine interface, and fast braking, red led is bright, is called " braking control strategy ".

The beneficial effects of the present invention is: propose a kind of safe distance between vehicles model setting up refinement and alternative evade control strategy, it is thus possible to time enough reminds driver to take measures to ensure that safety and comfort travel in advance.Effectively identifying risk object and remind driver, if driver does not take measures, Braking mode or guarantee of slowing down drive safely.The present invention adopts following 4 kinds of safe distance between vehicles models.Segment the distance between automobile and target, improve the safety of system.What the present invention taked evades the control strategy that control strategy is divided into relatively safe control strategy and takes into account comfortableness, selects voluntarily according to the requirement of driver, more humane.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is the overall system diagram of the present invention;

The automobile that Fig. 2 is the present invention calculates safe distance between vehicles illustraton of model;

Fig. 3 is azimuthal schematic diagram;

Fig. 4 is the judgement identification module figure of the relatively control strategy of safety of the present invention;

Fig. 5 is the judgement identification module figure of the control strategy taking into account comfortableness of the present invention.

In figure:

I, signals collecting and processing module, II, from car information acquisition module,

III, judge identification module, IV, human-computer interaction module, V, perform system module

I-1, millimetre-wave radar, I-2, processor,

II-1, ABS wheel speed sensors, II-2, auxiliary processor,

III-1, evaluator, IV-1, display alarm, V-1, avoidance obstacle device,

X, target, Z, from car.

Detailed description of the invention

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in detail.

As it is shown in figure 1, a kind of automobile based on millimetre-wave radar of the present invention actively anti-collision early warning system, mainly include signals collecting and processing module I, from car information acquisition module II, it is judged that identification module III, human-computer interaction module IV and execution system module V.

Described signals collecting and processing module I utilize millimetre-wave radar I-1 to obtain target X relatively from the speed of car Z, distance and bearing angle, and output after processor I-2 processes;ABS wheel speed sensors II-1 is utilized to obtain the speed from car Z and coefficient of road adhesion output after auxiliary processor II-2 processes from car information acquisition module II;Judge speed, distance and bearing angular data that identification module III inputs according to processor I-2, and auxiliary processor II-2 input from car Z speed and coefficient of road adhesion, utilize evaluator III-1 judge the type of target X and target type is transferred to human-computer interaction module IV, control strategy is transferred to execution system module V.Human-computer interaction module IV passes through display lamp and the sound etc. of display alarm IV-1 and reminds driver's target type and the measure that should take;Performing system module V is when driver does not take action, and utilization is evaded controller V-1 and automatically taked according to target type corresponding braking or deceleration etc. to evade control measure.

Described evaluator III-1 adopts first azimuth Preliminary screening, the evaluator algorithm that rear safe distance between vehicles accurately identifies when judging the type of target X, efficiently identify out target type and flow to subsequent module.

The present invention adopts following 4 kinds of safe distance between vehicles models: safety critical spacing, lock onto target spacing, dangerous critical spacing and the critical spacing of the limit.Segment the distance between automobile and target, improve the safety of system.

Described execution system module V evades the controller V-1 control strategy of evading taked be divided into the control strategy of relatively safety and take into account the control strategy of comfortableness, select voluntarily according to the requirement of driver, more humane.

As in figure 2 it is shown, the model that the motion conditions when present invention is according to automobile brake sets up safe distance between vehicles is:

D=d1-d2+d0(1)

Wherein d is safe distance between vehicles, d1For from the car Z distance crossed, d2For the target X distance crossed, d0For representing the two cars rear minimum safe spacing to retain out of danger, generally take 2~5m.

The present invention establishes four kinds of safe distance between vehicles models according to car braking theory: safety critical spacing, lock onto target spacing, dangerous critical spacing and the critical spacing of the limit.

Safety critical spacing is the index of the operation conditions whether safety of anticipation vehicle, higher than this value just safety;Whether the operating condition of corresponding danger critical spacing anticipation vehicle is dangerous, then dangerous lower than this value.Lock onto target spacing is to increase by a segment distance on safety critical spacing, is set by human-computer interaction module IV voluntarily according to the proficiency level of driver;The critical spacing of the limit is that the required limit spacing maintained of rear-end collision does not occur automobile.

Safety critical spacing is:

d s = 1 3.6 ( t 1 + t 2 ) u 1 + t 3 3.6 &times; 2 u rel + u 1 2 - ( u 1 - u rel ) 2 25.92 a &mu; + d 0 - - - ( 2 )

Wherein, dsFor safety critical spacing, u1For the movement velocity from car Z;u2Movement velocity for target X;urel=u1-u2, it is the relative velocity of two cars;t1For from car Z time of driver's reaction, this time length varies with each individual;t2For eliminating the brake clearance time from car Z;t3It is the build-up time of braking force of two cars, it is assumed that identical;a1=a2=aμ, it is the braking deceleration of the two cars maximum braking deceleration that all originates from ground, ground attaching coefficient determines, aμ=μ g, μ are ground attaching coefficient, and g is acceleration of gravity.

Lock onto target spacing is:

d t = 1 3.6 ( t 0 + t 1 + t 2 ) u 1 + t 3 3.6 &times; 2 u rel + u 1 2 - ( u 1 - u rel ) 2 25.92 a &mu; + d 0 - - - ( 3 )

Wherein, dtFor lock onto target spacing, t0For the time predicted in advance, being based on set by driver characteristics and driving habits, the driving age, shorter or driving technology shortcoming driver wished to grow during this period of time, in order to help to predict the unsafe condition that namely will appear from;Skilled or that reaction is quick driver wishes shorter during this period of time, or even eliminates during this period of time, in order to reduces the sensitivity of actively anti-collision early warning system and reduces unnecessary alarm number of times, it is proposed that t0Take 0~1s.

Dangerous critical spacing is:

d d = t 2 3.6 u 1 + t 3 3.6 &times; 2 u rel + u 1 2 - ( u 1 - u rel ) 2 25.92 a &mu; + d 0 - - - ( 4 )

The critical spacing of the limit is:

d L = 1 3.6 ( t 2 + t 3 2 ) u 1 + 1 25.92 [ u 1 2 a &mu; - ( u 1 - u rel ) 2 a 2 ] + d 0 a 2 > u 1 - u rel u 1 a &mu; 1 3.6 ( t 2 + t 3 2 ) u 1 + u rel 2 25.92 ( a &mu; - a 2 ) + d 0 a 2 < u 1 - u rel u 1 a &mu; - - - ( 5 )

Wherein, a2For target X braking deceleration.

Driving wheel rotating speed and secondary speed can be obtained from the ABS wheel speed sensors II-1 being arranged on from car Z.The product that rolling speed is driving wheel rotating speed and radius of wheel of automobile, the product that actual travel speed is secondary speed and radius of wheel of automobile.

Sliding ratio is:

s = u w - r r 0 &omega; w u w &times; 100 % - - - ( 6 )

Wherein, s is sliding ratio, uwFor the actual vehicle speed of automobile, rr0ωwRolling speed for automobile.

The numerical value of coefficient of road adhesion μ is obtained in coefficient of road adhesion-sliding ratio curve (μ-s curve) interpolation by sliding ratio s.

Additionally, it is meansigma methods that the present invention gives tacit consent to the response time of driver, from car Z eliminate off time be meansigma methods, two car build-up time of braking forces are meansigma methods.System is according to relative velocity, actual vehicle speed, coefficient of road adhesion, and time value calculates safe distance between vehicles in real time.

Judging first identification module III directly judges whether it is risk object according to the scope of azimuth angle theta, azimuth is as it is shown on figure 3, θ is directly judged as benign target more than 30 °, and θ then calculates safe distance between vehicles less than 30 °.Secondly, distance is compared with safe distance between vehicles, it is determined that target type.

Judge that target type is flowed to human-computer interaction module IV by identification module III.In human-computer interaction module IV, the man machine interface of display alarm IV-1 includes information and shows and parameter setting two parts.Wherein information display section includes threatening target prompting, danger classes shows, buzzer, speed spacing LED show, parameter setting includes selection and evades control strategy, sets the distinctive vehicle parameter of driver etc..

Meanwhile, it is judged that the control strategy that should take is flowed to execution system module V by identification module III.The controller V-1 that evades performing system module V has formulated for target type and different has evaded control strategy.Evade control strategy be divided into the control strategy of relatively safety and take into account the control strategy of comfortableness.Wherein relatively the control strategy of safety is using lock onto target spacing, safety critical spacing and the critical spacing of danger as separation;Taking into account the control strategy of comfortableness is using safety critical spacing, dangerous critical spacing and the critical spacing of the limit as separation.Which kind of control strategy is adopted to be set on human-computer interaction interface by driver.

Specifically, as shown in Figure 4, relatively the control strategy process of safety is:

First, it is determined that identification module III is according to the scope of azimuth angle theta directly judges whether it is risk object, θ is directly judged as benign target more than 30 °, and θ then calculates safe distance between vehicles less than 30 °;

Secondly, by distance R and lock onto target spacing d from car Z Yu target XtRelatively, if more than, it is benign target, takes safety control strategy;If less than, continue and safety critical spacing dsRelatively, if more than, it is borderline risk target, takes controlling alarm dypass;If less than, continue and the critical spacing d of dangerdRelatively, if more than, it is borderline risk target, takes deceleration control strategy, if less than, it is risk object, takes braking control strategy.

Specifically, as it is shown in figure 5, the process taking into account the control strategy of comfortableness is:

First, it is determined that identification module III is according to the scope of azimuth angle theta directly judges whether it is risk object, θ is directly judged as benign target more than 30 °, and θ then calculates safe distance between vehicles less than 30 °;

Secondly, by distance R and safety critical spacing d from car Z Yu target XsRelatively, if more than, it is benign target, takes safety control strategy;If less than, continue and the critical spacing d of dangerdRelatively, if more than, it is borderline risk target, takes controlling alarm dypass;If less than, continue and the critical spacing d of the limitLRelatively, if more than, it is borderline risk target, takes deceleration control strategy, if less than, it is risk object, takes braking control strategy.

Distance be divide into four scopes by three separations evading control strategy, and each scope has different displays in man machine interface.Man machine interface green indicating lamp Chang Liang within the scope of first, is called " safety control strategy ";Within the scope of second, there is " careful driving " " dripping " warning with low frequency in man machine interface, and yellow green display lamp glimmers, and is called " controlling alarm strategy ";Within the scope of 3rd, there is " Reduced Speed Now " " dripping " warning with higher-frequency in man machine interface, and automatic retarding simultaneously, orange-yellow display lamp glimmers, and is called " deceleration control strategy ";There is " brake hard " " dripping " warning with high frequency in 4th scope man machine interface, and fast braking, red led is bright, is called " braking control strategy ".

Claims (6)

1. the actively anti-collision early warning system of the automobile based on millimetre-wave radar, including signals collecting and processing module (I), from car information acquisition module (II), judge identification module (III), human-computer interaction module (IV) and execution system module (V), it is characterised in that;
Described signals collecting and processing module (I) utilize millimetre-wave radar (I-1) to obtain target (X) relatively from the speed of car (Z), distance and bearing angle, and output after processor (I-2) processes;
ABS wheel speed sensors (II-1) is utilized to obtain the speed from car (Z) and coefficient of road adhesion output after auxiliary processor (II-2) processes from car information acquisition module (II);
Judge speed, distance and bearing angular data that identification module (III) inputs according to processor (I-2), and auxiliary processor (II-2) input from car (Z) speed and coefficient of road adhesion, utilize evaluator (III-1) judge the type of target (X) and target type is transferred to human-computer interaction module (IV), control strategy is transferred to execution system module (V);
Human-computer interaction module (IV) is by the display lamp of display alarm (IV-1) and sound prompting driver's target type and the measure that should take;
Performing system module (V) is when driver does not take action, and utilization is evaded controller (V-1) and automatically taked according to target type corresponding braking or deceleration to evade control measure;
Described evaluator (III-1) adopts first azimuth Preliminary screening, the evaluator algorithm that rear safe distance between vehicles accurately identifies when judging the type of target (X);
Judge the evaluator (III-1) of identification module (III) first directly judges whether it is risk object according to the scope of azimuth angle theta, θ is then directly judged as benign target more than critical aspects angle, and θ then calculates safe distance between vehicles less than critical aspects angle;Secondly, distance is compared with safe distance between vehicles, it is determined that target type;And then target type is flowed to human-computer interaction module (IV);
Described critical aspects angle takes 25 °-35 °;
The universal computer model of described safe distance between vehicles is:
D=d1-d2+d0(1)
Wherein d is safe distance between vehicles, d1For the distance crossed from car (Z), d2For the distance that target (X) crosses, d0For representing the two cars rear minimum safe spacing to retain out of danger, take 2~5m;
Described safe distance between vehicles adopts following 4 kinds of safe distance between vehicles models to be calculated: safety critical spacing, lock onto target spacing, dangerous critical spacing and the critical spacing of the limit;
Described safety critical spacing is the index of the operation conditions whether safety of anticipation vehicle, higher than this value just safety;
Whether the operating condition that the corresponding critical spacing of danger is anticipation vehicle is dangerous, then dangerous lower than this value;
Lock onto target spacing is to increase by a segment distance on safety critical spacing, is set by human-computer interaction module (IV) voluntarily according to the proficiency level of driver;
The critical spacing of the limit is that the required limit spacing maintained of rear-end collision does not occur automobile;
Described safety critical spacing is:
d s = 1 3.6 ( t 1 + t 2 ) u 1 + t 3 3.6 &times; 2 u r e l + u 1 2 - ( u 1 - u r e l ) 2 25.92 a &mu; + d 0 - - - ( 2 )
Wherein, dsFor safety critical spacing, u1For the movement velocity from car (Z);u2Movement velocity for target (X);urel=u1-u2, it is the relative velocity of two cars;t1For from car (Z) time of driver's reaction, this time length varies with each individual;t2For eliminating the brake clearance time from car (Z);t3It is the build-up time of braking force of two cars, it is assumed that identical;a1=a2=aμ, it is the braking deceleration of the two cars maximum braking deceleration that all originates from ground, ground attaching coefficient determines, aμ=μ g, μ are ground attaching coefficient, and g is acceleration of gravity;
Described lock onto target spacing is:
d t = 1 3.6 ( t 0 + t 1 + t 2 ) u 1 + t 3 3.6 &times; 2 u r e l + u 1 2 - ( u 1 - u r e l ) 2 25.92 a &mu; + d 0 - - - ( 3 )
Wherein, dtFor lock onto target spacing, t0For the time predicted in advance, being based on set by driver characteristics and driving habits, the driving age, shorter or driving technology shortcoming driver wished to grow during this period of time, in order to help to predict the unsafe condition that namely will appear from;Skilled or that reaction is quick driver wishes shorter during this period of time, or even eliminates during this period of time, in order to reduces the sensitivity of actively anti-collision early warning system and reduces unnecessary alarm number of times, t0Take 0~1s;
The critical spacing of described danger is:
d d = t 2 3.6 u 1 + t 3 3.6 &times; 2 u r e l + u 1 2 - ( u 1 - u r e l ) 2 25.92 a &mu; + d 0 - - - ( 4 )
The critical spacing of the described limit is:
d L = 1 3.6 ( t 2 + t 3 2 ) u 1 + 1 25.92 &lsqb; u 1 2 a &mu; - ( u 1 - u r e l ) 2 a 2 &rsqb; + d 0 a 2 > u 1 - u r e l u 1 a &mu; 1 3.6 ( t 2 + t 3 2 ) u 1 + u r e l 2 25.92 ( a &mu; - a 2 ) + d 0 a 2 < u 1 - u r e l u 1 a &mu; - - - ( 5 )
Wherein, a2For target (X) braking deceleration.
2. a kind of automobile based on millimetre-wave radar according to claim 1 actively anti-collision early warning system, it is characterised in that;
Described ground attaching coefficient μ adopts following methods to obtain:
Driving wheel rotating speed and secondary speed is recorded from the ABS wheel speed sensors (II-1) being arranged on from car (Z), the product that rolling speed is driving wheel rotating speed and radius of wheel of automobile, the product that actual travel speed is secondary speed and radius of wheel of automobile, then sliding ratio:
s = u w - r r 0 &omega; w u w &times; 100 % - - - ( 6 )
Wherein, s is sliding ratio, uwFor the actual vehicle speed of automobile, rr0ωwRolling speed for automobile;
The numerical value of coefficient of road adhesion μ is obtained in coefficient of road adhesion-sliding ratio curve (μ-s curve) interpolation by sliding ratio s.
3. a kind of automobile based on millimetre-wave radar according to claim 1 actively anti-collision early warning system, it is characterised in that;
In described human-computer interaction module (IV), the man machine interface of display alarm (IV-1) includes information and shows and parameter setting two parts, wherein information display section includes threatening target to remind, danger classes show, buzzer and speed, spacing show, parameter setting includes selection and evades control strategy, setting driver drives vehicle parameter.
4. a kind of automobile based on millimetre-wave radar according to claim 1 actively anti-collision early warning system, it is characterised in that;
Described execution system module (V) is evaded the control strategy of evading that controller (V-1) takes be divided into the control strategy of relatively safety and take into account the control strategy of comfortableness, select voluntarily according to the requirement of driver;
The control strategy of described relatively safety is using lock onto target spacing, safety critical spacing and the critical spacing of danger as separation;
The described control strategy taking into account comfortableness is using safety critical spacing, dangerous critical spacing and the critical spacing of the limit as separation;
Which kind of control strategy is adopted to be set on human-computer interaction interface by driver.
5. a kind of automobile based on millimetre-wave radar according to claim 4 actively anti-collision early warning system, it is characterised in that;
The detailed process of the described relatively control strategy of safety is:
First, it is determined that identification module (III) is according to the scope of azimuth angle theta directly judges whether it is risk object, θ is then directly judged as benign target more than critical aspects angle, and θ then calculates safe distance between vehicles less than critical aspects angle;
Secondly, will from the distance R and lock onto target spacing d of car (Z) Yu target (X)tRelatively, if more than, it is benign target, takes safety control strategy;If less than, continue and safety critical spacing dsRelatively, if more than, it is borderline risk target, takes controlling alarm dypass;If less than, continue and the critical spacing d of dangerdRelatively, if more than, it is borderline risk target, takes deceleration control strategy, if less than, it is risk object, takes braking control strategy.
6. a kind of automobile based on millimetre-wave radar according to claim 4 actively anti-collision early warning system, it is characterised in that;
The detailed process of the described control strategy taking into account comfortableness is:
First, it is determined that identification module (III) is according to the scope of azimuth angle theta directly judges whether it is risk object, θ is then directly judged as benign target more than critical aspects angle, and θ then calculates safe distance between vehicles less than critical aspects angle;
Secondly, will from the distance R and safety critical spacing d of car (Z) Yu target (X)sRelatively, if more than, it is benign target, takes safety control strategy;If less than, continue and the critical spacing d of dangerdRelatively, if more than, it is borderline risk target, takes controlling alarm dypass;If less than, continue and the critical spacing d of the limitLRelatively, if more than, it is borderline risk target, takes deceleration control strategy, if less than, it is risk object, takes braking control strategy.
CN201410193393.2A 2014-05-08 2014-05-08 Automobile actively anti-collision early warning system based on millimetre-wave radar CN103935364B (en)

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