CN103935364A - Automobile active anti-collision early warning system based on millimeter-wave radars - Google Patents

Automobile active anti-collision early warning system based on millimeter-wave radars Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103935364A
CN103935364A CN201410193393.2A CN201410193393A CN103935364A CN 103935364 A CN103935364 A CN 103935364A CN 201410193393 A CN201410193393 A CN 201410193393A CN 103935364 A CN103935364 A CN 103935364A
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spacing
target
automobile
module
critical
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CN201410193393.2A
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CN103935364B (en
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王建华
蒋林艳
王云成
谢飞
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吉林大学
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W30/00Purposes of road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub-unit, e.g. of systems using conjoint control of vehicle sub-units, or advanced driver assistance systems for ensuring comfort, stability and safety or drive control systems for propelling or retarding the vehicle
    • B60W30/08Active safety systems predicting or avoiding probable or impending collision or attempting to minimise its consequences
    • B60W30/09Taking automatic action to avoid collision, e.g. braking and steering
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W40/00Estimation or calculation of non-directly measurable driving parameters for road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub unit, e.g. by using mathematical models
    • B60W40/02Estimation or calculation of non-directly measurable driving parameters for road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub unit, e.g. by using mathematical models related to ambient conditions
    • B60W40/06Road conditions
    • B60W40/068Road friction coefficient
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W40/00Estimation or calculation of non-directly measurable driving parameters for road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub unit, e.g. by using mathematical models
    • B60W40/10Estimation or calculation of non-directly measurable driving parameters for road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub unit, e.g. by using mathematical models related to vehicle motion
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W40/00Estimation or calculation of non-directly measurable driving parameters for road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub unit, e.g. by using mathematical models
    • B60W40/10Estimation or calculation of non-directly measurable driving parameters for road vehicle drive control systems not related to the control of a particular sub unit, e.g. by using mathematical models related to vehicle motion
    • B60W40/105Speed
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W50/00Details of control systems for road vehicle drive control not related to the control of a particular sub-unit, e.g. process diagnostic or vehicle driver interfaces
    • B60W50/08Interaction between the driver and the control system
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2520/00Input parameters relating to overall vehicle dynamics
    • B60W2520/10Longitudinal speed
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2554/00Input parameters relating to objects
    • B60W2554/40Dynamic objects, e.g. animals, windblown objects
    • B60W2554/404Characteristics
    • B60W2554/4041Position
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2554/00Input parameters relating to objects
    • B60W2554/80Spatial relation or speed relative to objects
    • B60W2554/801Lateral distance
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B60VEHICLES IN GENERAL
    • B60WCONJOINT CONTROL OF VEHICLE SUB-UNITS OF DIFFERENT TYPE OR DIFFERENT FUNCTION; CONTROL SYSTEMS SPECIALLY ADAPTED FOR HYBRID VEHICLES; ROAD VEHICLE DRIVE CONTROL SYSTEMS FOR PURPOSES NOT RELATED TO THE CONTROL OF A PARTICULAR SUB-UNIT
    • B60W2554/00Input parameters relating to objects
    • B60W2554/80Spatial relation or speed relative to objects
    • B60W2554/804Relative longitudinal speed

Abstract

The invention discloses an automobile active anti-collision early warning system based on millimeter-wave radars. The automobile active anti-collision early warning system mainly comprises a signal acquiring and processing module I, an automobile information acquiring module II, a judgment recognition module III, a man-machine interaction module IV and an execution system module V. The signal acquiring and processing module I utilizes the millimeter-wave radars I-1 to obtain the speed, a distance and an azimuth angle of a target X relative to an automobile Z and outputs the information processed by a processor I-2. The automobile information acquiring module II utilizes an ABS wheel speed sensor II-1 to obtain the automobile speed and road adhesion coefficient of the automobile Z and outputs the information processed by an auxiliary II-2. The judgment recognition module III judges the type of the target X, transmits the target type to the man-machine interaction module IV and transmits a control strategy to the execution system module V. By taking corresponding avoidance control measures, the automobile active anti-collision early warning system can remind a drive to take the measures so as to ensure safe and comfortable driving in advance of enough time, effectively recognize a dangerous target, remind the driver and improve the system safety.

Description

Automobile based on millimeter wave radar is anti-collision early warning system initiatively

Technical field

The present invention relates to automobile active safety technical field, be specifically related to initiatively anti-collision early warning system of a kind of automobile based on millimeter wave radar.

Background technology

Along with world economy and scientific and technological development, auto-industry have obtained development at full speed since birth from 19th-century latter stage.But, traffic accident is the disadvantage of following development of automobile to bring always, traffic accident quantity in the last few years and occupant's casualties are always high, become one of major reason of global disease or unexpected death, and therefore traffic safety problem has become whole world subject matter urgently to be resolved hurrily.Analyze by a large amount of traffic accidents are produced to reason, summing up is mainly that driver factor, vehicle factor and environmental factor these three aspects, especially driver factors are the most outstanding.Careless and inadvertent, drive over the speed limit, fatigue driving, judgement error and the factor such as drive when intoxicated be the major cause that causes traffic accident to occur.Thereby for helping driver's safe driving to reduce the generation of traffic accident, the research of automobile active anti-collision early warning system is extremely urgent.

The automobile target that initiatively anti-collision early warning system occurs by being arranged on the real-time monitoring round of vehicle of target detecting device of vehicle front, automatically identify may with the vehicle of collision happens, obstacle or pedestrian.In vehicle traveling process, in the time that danger occurs, system energy automatic alarm reminds chaufeur vigilant, thereby takes measures in advance to avoid the generation of accident; If chaufeur is not still taken measures, this system can be by realizing automatic retarding function to the control of the driving systems such as driving engine, power-transfer clutch and change speed gear box, if still can not break away from dangerous situation after slowing down, this system realizes emergency braking function by the control to drg and driving engine etc., avoids as much as possible the generation of accident.

The emphasis of the anti-collision early warning system of automobile active at present is still how to identify the state of kinematic motion information of target, and ignore the foundation of safe distance between vehicles model and control policy, or safe distance between vehicles model and control policy are set up in unification, have therefore reduced the reliability of system.The present invention proposes to set up safe distance between vehicles model and alternative control policy of evading of refinement, takes measures to ensure that safety and comfort travel thereby can shift to an earlier date time enough prompting chaufeur.

Summary of the invention

The object of this invention is to provide initiatively anti-collision early warning system of a kind of automobile based on millimeter wave radar, can effectively identify risk object and remind chaufeur, autobrake or the guarantee safety traffic of slowing down if chaufeur is not taken measures.

By reference to the accompanying drawings, visible the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:

Automobile based on millimeter wave radar is an anti-collision early warning system initiatively, mainly comprises acquisition of signal and processing module I, from car information acquisition module II, judges identification module III, human-computer interaction module IV and actuating system module V.

Described acquisition of signal and processing module I utilize millimeter wave radar I-1 to obtain target X relatively from speed, the distance and bearing angle of car Z, and output after treater I-2 processes; Utilize ABS wheel speed sensors II-1 to obtain the speed of a motor vehicle and the coefficient of road adhesion from car Z from car information acquisition module II, and output after auxiliary processor II-2 processes; Judge that identification module III is according to speed, the distance and bearing angular data of treater I-2 input, and auxiliary processor II-2 input from the car Z speed of a motor vehicle and coefficient of road adhesion, utilize recognizer III-1 to judge the type of target X and target type is transferred to human-computer interaction module IV, control policy is transferred to actuating system module V.Human-computer interaction module IV is by the prompting such as indicator lamp and the sound chaufeur target type of display alarm IV-1 and the measure that should take; Actuating system module V is in the situation that chaufeur is not taken action, and utilization is evaded controller V-1 and automatically taked corresponding braking or deceleration etc. to evade measure of control according to target type.

Preferably, described recognizer III-1 adopts first azimuth preliminary screening while judging the type of target X, and rear safe distance between vehicles is the recognizer algorithm of identification accurately, effectively identifies target type and flows to subsequent module.

Preferably, the present invention adopts following 4 kinds of safe distance between vehicles models: safety critical spacing, lock onto target spacing, dangerous critical spacing and the critical spacing of the limit.Segment the distance between automobile and target, improved the safety of system.

Preferably, in described actuating system module V, evade the control policy of evading that controller V-1 takes and be divided into the control policy of being partial to safe control policy and take into account traveling comfort, select voluntarily according to the requirement of chaufeur, more humane.

The model that motion conditions during according to automobile brake is set up safe distance between vehicles is:

d=d 1-d 2+d 0?????????????????(1)

Wherein d is safe distance between vehicles, d 1for the distance crossing from car Z, d 2for the distance that target X crosses, d 0for representing the two cars rear minimum safe spacing that will retain out of danger, generally get 2~5m.

The present invention has set up four kinds of safe distance between vehicles models according to car brakeing theory: safety critical spacing, lock onto target spacing, dangerous critical spacing and the critical spacing of the limit.

Safety critical spacing is the whether safe index of operation conditions of anticipation vehicle, is worth just safety higher than this; Whether the operating condition of the corresponding critical spacing anticipation of danger vehicle is dangerous, dangerous lower than this value.Lock onto target spacing is on safety critical spacing, to increase by a segment distance, sets voluntarily according to the skill level of chaufeur by human-computer interaction module IV; The critical spacing of the limit is that the required limit spacing maintaining of rear-end collision does not occur automobile.

Safety critical spacing is:

d s = 1 3.6 ( t 1 + t 2 ) u 1 + t 3 3.6 × 2 u rel + u 1 2 - ( u 1 - u rel ) 2 25.92 a μ + d 0 - - - ( 2 )

Wherein, d sfor safety critical spacing, u 1for the kinematic velocity from car Z; u 2for the kinematic velocity of target X; u rel=u 1-u 2, be the relative velocity of two cars; t 1for from car Z time of driver's reaction, this time length varies with each individual; t 2for eliminating the brake clearance time from car Z; t 3be the build-up time of braking force of two cars, suppose identical; A1=a 2=a μ, be that the braking deceleration of two cars is all the maximum braking decelerations from ground, determined a by ground attaching coefficient μ=μ g, μ is ground attaching coefficient, g is acceleration due to gravity.

Lock onto target spacing is:

d t = 1 3.6 ( t 0 + t 1 + t 2 ) u 1 + t 3 3.6 × 2 u rel + u 1 2 - ( u 1 - u rel ) 2 25.92 a μ + d 0 - - - ( 3 )

Wherein, d tfor lock onto target spacing, t 0for the time of predicting in advance, set according to driver characteristics and driving habit, the driving age, chaufeur shorter or driving technique shortcoming wished to grow during this period of time, to help advance notice to be about to the dangerous situation of appearance; Chaufeur skilled or that react quick is wished shorter during this period of time, or even eliminates during this period of time, to reduce initiatively sensitivity and the unnecessary alarm number of times of minimizing of anti-collision early warning system, suggestion t 0get 0~1s.

Dangerous critical spacing is:

d d = t 2 3.6 u 1 + t 3 3.6 × 2 u rel + u 1 2 - ( u 1 - u rel ) 2 25.92 a μ + d 0 - - - ( 4 )

The critical spacing of the limit is:

d L = 1 3.6 ( t 2 + t 3 2 ) u 1 + 1 25.92 [ u 1 2 a &mu; - ( u 1 - u rel ) 2 a 2 ] + d 0 a 2 > u 1 - u rel u 1 a &mu; 1 3.6 ( t 2 + t 3 2 ) u 1 + u rel 2 25.92 ( a &mu; - a 2 ) + d 0 a 2 < u 1 - u rel u 1 a &mu; - - - ( 5 )

Wherein, a 2for target X braking deceleration.

Can obtain drive wheel rotating speed and secondary speed from the ABS wheel speed sensors II-1 being arranged on from car Z.The rolling speed of a motor vehicle of automobile is the product of drive wheel rotating speed and radius of wheel, and the actual travel speed of a motor vehicle of automobile is the product of secondary speed and radius of wheel.

Sliding ratio:

s = u w - r r 0 &omega; w u w &times; 100 % - - - ( 6 )

Wherein, s is sliding ratio, u wfor the actual vehicle speed of automobile, r r0ω wfor the rolling speed of a motor vehicle of automobile.

Obtain the numerical value of coefficient of road adhesion μ by sliding ratio s in coefficient of road adhesion-sliding ratio curve (μ-s curve) interpolation.

In addition, the reaction time that the present invention gives tacit consent to chaufeur is aviation value, and eliminating off time from car Z is aviation value, and two car build-up time of braking force are aviation value.System is according to relative velocity, actual vehicle speed, coefficient of road adhesion, the real-time computationally secure spacing of time value.

Judge first identification module III directly judges whether it is risk object according to the scope of azimuth angle theta, θ is greater than critical azimuth and is directly judged as non-risk object, and θ is less than computationally secure spacing of critical azimuth.Secondly, will apart from safe distance between vehicles comparison, determine target type.Critical azimuth can be got 25 °-35 °, below equals 30 ° taking critical azimuth and is introduced as example.

Judge that target type is flowed to human-computer interaction module IV by identification module III.In human-computer interaction module IV, the man-machine interface of display alarm IV-1 comprises that information shows and setting parameter two parts.Wherein information display section is divided and is comprised the prompting of threat target, hazard level demonstration, buzzer phone, speed of a motor vehicle spacing LED demonstration etc., and setting parameter comprises selects to evade control policy, the distinctive driving parameter of setting chaufeur etc.

Meanwhile, judge that the control policy that identification module III should take flows to actuating system module V.The controller V-1 that evades of actuating system module V has formulated the different control policies of evading for target type.Evade control policy and be divided into the control policy of being partial to safe control policy and take into account traveling comfort.Wherein being partial to safe control policy is using lock onto target spacing, safety critical spacing and dangerous critical spacing as train spacing point; The control policy of taking into account traveling comfort is using safety critical spacing, dangerous critical spacing and the critical spacing of the limit as train spacing point.Adopt which kind of control policy to be set on human-computer interaction interface by chaufeur.

Particularly, being partial to safe control policy process is:

First, judge identification module III directly judges whether it is risk object according to the scope of azimuth angle theta, θ is greater than 30 ° and is directly judged as non-risk object, and θ is less than 30 ° of computationally secure spacings;

Secondly, by the distance R from car Z and target X and lock onto target spacing d trelatively, be non-risk object if be greater than, take safety control strategy; Continue and safety critical spacing d if be less than srelatively, be borderline risk target if be greater than, take alarm control dypass; Continue and dangerous critical spacing d if be less than drelatively, be borderline risk target if be greater than, the control policy of taking to slow down, is risk object if be less than, and takes braking control strategy.

Particularly, the process of taking into account the control policy of traveling comfort is:

First, judge identification module III directly judges whether it is risk object according to the scope of azimuth angle theta, θ is greater than 30 ° and is directly judged as non-risk object, and θ is less than 30 ° of computationally secure spacings;

Secondly, by the distance R from car Z and target X and safety critical spacing d srelatively, be non-risk object if be greater than, take safety control strategy; Continue and dangerous critical spacing d if be less than drelatively, be borderline risk target if be greater than, take alarm control dypass; Continue and the critical spacing d of the limit if be less than lrelatively, be borderline risk target if be greater than, the control policy of taking to slow down, is risk object if be less than, and takes braking control strategy.

Three train spacing points evading control policy will be apart from being divided into four scopes, and each scope has different demonstrations in man-machine interface.Within the scope of first, man-machine interface green indicating lamp Chang Liang, is called " safety control strategy "; Within the scope of second there is " careful driving " " dripping " warning with low frequency in man-machine interface, and the flicker of yellow green indicator lamp, is called " alarm control strategy "; Within the scope of the 3rd there is " Reduced Speed Now " " dripping " warning with higher-frequency in man-machine interface, automatic retarding simultaneously, and orange-yellow indicator lamp flicker, is called " deceleration control policy "; There is " emergency braking " " dripping " warning with high frequency in the 4th scope man-machine interface, snap catch, and red indicating light is bright, is called " braking control strategy ".

Beneficial effect of the present invention is: proposed a kind of safe distance between vehicles model and alternative control policy of evading of setting up refinement, reminded chaufeur to take measures to ensure that safety and comfort travel thereby can shift to an earlier date time enough.Can effectively identify risk object and remind chaufeur, autobrake or the guarantee safety traffic of slowing down if chaufeur is not taken measures.The present invention adopts following 4 kinds of safe distance between vehicles models.Segment the distance between automobile and target, improved the safety of system.What the present invention taked evade control policy is divided into the control policy of being partial to safe control policy and take into account traveling comfort, selects voluntarily according to the requirement of chaufeur, more humane.

Brief description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is overall system diagram of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is automobile computationally secure spacing illustraton of model of the present invention;

Fig. 3 is azimuthal schematic diagram;

Fig. 4 is the judgement identification module figure that is partial to safe control policy of the present invention;

Fig. 5 is the judgement identification module figure of the control policy of taking into account traveling comfort of the present invention.

In figure:

I, acquisition of signal and processing module, II, from car information acquisition module,

III, judge identification module, IV, human-computer interaction module, V, actuating system module

I-1, millimeter wave radar, I-2, treater,

II-1, ABS wheel speed sensors, II-2, auxiliary processor,

III-1, recognizer, IV-1, display alarm, V-1, keep away barrier controller,

X, target, Z, from car.

Detailed description of the invention

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the present invention is described in detail.

As shown in Figure 1, initiatively anti-collision early warning system of a kind of automobile based on millimeter wave radar of the present invention, mainly comprises acquisition of signal and processing module I, from car information acquisition module II, judges identification module III, human-computer interaction module IV and actuating system module V.

Described acquisition of signal and processing module I utilize millimeter wave radar I-1 to obtain target X relatively from speed, the distance and bearing angle of car Z, and output after treater I-2 processes; Utilize ABS wheel speed sensors II-1 to obtain the speed of a motor vehicle and the coefficient of road adhesion from car Z from car information acquisition module II, and output after auxiliary processor II-2 processes; Judge that identification module III is according to speed, the distance and bearing angular data of treater I-2 input, and auxiliary processor II-2 input from the car Z speed of a motor vehicle and coefficient of road adhesion, utilize recognizer III-1 to judge the type of target X and target type is transferred to human-computer interaction module IV, control policy is transferred to actuating system module V.Human-computer interaction module IV is by the prompting such as indicator lamp and the sound chaufeur target type of display alarm IV-1 and the measure that should take; Actuating system module V is in the situation that chaufeur is not taken action, and utilization is evaded controller V-1 and automatically taked corresponding braking or deceleration etc. to evade measure of control according to target type.

Described recognizer III-1 adopts first azimuth preliminary screening while judging the type of target X, rear safe distance between vehicles is the recognizer algorithm of identification accurately, effectively identifies target type and flows to subsequent module.

The present invention adopts following 4 kinds of safe distance between vehicles models: safety critical spacing, lock onto target spacing, dangerous critical spacing and the critical spacing of the limit.Segment the distance between automobile and target, improved the safety of system.

In described actuating system module V, evade the control policy of evading that controller V-1 takes and be divided into the control policy of being partial to safe control policy and take into account traveling comfort, select voluntarily according to the requirement of chaufeur, more humane.

As shown in Figure 2, the model that motion conditions when the present invention is according to automobile brake is set up safe distance between vehicles is:

d=d 1-d 2+d 0?????????????(1)

Wherein d is safe distance between vehicles, d 1for the distance crossing from car Z, d 2for the distance that target X crosses, d 0for representing the two cars rear minimum safe spacing that will retain out of danger, generally get 2~5m.

The present invention has set up four kinds of safe distance between vehicles models according to car brakeing theory: safety critical spacing, lock onto target spacing, dangerous critical spacing and the critical spacing of the limit.

Safety critical spacing is the whether safe index of operation conditions of anticipation vehicle, is worth just safety higher than this; Whether the operating condition of the corresponding critical spacing anticipation of danger vehicle is dangerous, dangerous lower than this value.Lock onto target spacing is on safety critical spacing, to increase by a segment distance, sets voluntarily according to the skill level of chaufeur by human-computer interaction module IV; The critical spacing of the limit is that the required limit spacing maintaining of rear-end collision does not occur automobile.

Safety critical spacing is:

d s = 1 3.6 ( t 1 + t 2 ) u 1 + t 3 3.6 &times; 2 u rel + u 1 2 - ( u 1 - u rel ) 2 25.92 a &mu; + d 0 - - - ( 2 )

Wherein, d sfor safety critical spacing, u 1for the kinematic velocity from car Z; u 2for the kinematic velocity of target X; u rel=u 1-u 2, be the relative velocity of two cars; t 1for from car Z time of driver's reaction, this time length varies with each individual; t 2for eliminating the brake clearance time from car Z; t 3be the build-up time of braking force of two cars, suppose identical; a 1=a 2=a μ, be that the braking deceleration of two cars is all the maximum braking decelerations from ground, determined a by ground attaching coefficient μ=μ g, μ is ground attaching coefficient, g is acceleration due to gravity.

Lock onto target spacing is:

d t = 1 3.6 ( t 0 + t 1 + t 2 ) u 1 + t 3 3.6 &times; 2 u rel + u 1 2 - ( u 1 - u rel ) 2 25.92 a &mu; + d 0 - - - ( 3 )

Wherein, d tfor lock onto target spacing, t 0for the time of predicting in advance, set according to driver characteristics and driving habit, the driving age, chaufeur shorter or driving technique shortcoming wished to grow during this period of time, to help advance notice to be about to the dangerous situation of appearance; Chaufeur skilled or that react quick is wished shorter during this period of time, or even eliminates during this period of time, to reduce initiatively sensitivity and the unnecessary alarm number of times of minimizing of anti-collision early warning system, suggestion t 0get 0~1s.

Dangerous critical spacing is:

d d = t 2 3.6 u 1 + t 3 3.6 &times; 2 u rel + u 1 2 - ( u 1 - u rel ) 2 25.92 a &mu; + d 0 - - - ( 4 )

The critical spacing of the limit is:

d L = 1 3.6 ( t 2 + t 3 2 ) u 1 + 1 25.92 [ u 1 2 a &mu; - ( u 1 - u rel ) 2 a 2 ] + d 0 a 2 > u 1 - u rel u 1 a &mu; 1 3.6 ( t 2 + t 3 2 ) u 1 + u rel 2 25.92 ( a &mu; - a 2 ) + d 0 a 2 < u 1 - u rel u 1 a &mu; - - - ( 5 )

Wherein, a 2for target X braking deceleration.

Can obtain drive wheel rotating speed and secondary speed from the ABS wheel speed sensors II-1 being arranged on from car Z.The rolling speed of a motor vehicle of automobile is the product of drive wheel rotating speed and radius of wheel, and the actual travel speed of a motor vehicle of automobile is the product of secondary speed and radius of wheel.

Sliding ratio is:

s = u w - r r 0 &omega; w u w &times; 100 % - - - ( 6 )

Wherein, s is sliding ratio, u wfor the actual vehicle speed of automobile, r r0ω wfor the rolling speed of a motor vehicle of automobile.

Obtain the numerical value of coefficient of road adhesion μ by sliding ratio s in coefficient of road adhesion-sliding ratio curve (μ-s curve) interpolation.

In addition, the reaction time that the present invention gives tacit consent to chaufeur is aviation value, and eliminating off time from car Z is aviation value, and two car build-up time of braking force are aviation value.System is according to relative velocity, actual vehicle speed, coefficient of road adhesion, the real-time computationally secure spacing of time value.

Judge first identification module III directly judges whether it is risk object according to the scope of azimuth angle theta, as shown in Figure 3, θ is greater than 30 ° and is directly judged as non-risk object at azimuth, and θ is less than 30 ° of computationally secure spacings.Secondly, will apart from safe distance between vehicles comparison, determine target type.

Judge that target type is flowed to human-computer interaction module IV by identification module III.In human-computer interaction module IV, the man-machine interface of display alarm IV-1 comprises that information shows and setting parameter two parts.Wherein information display section is divided and is comprised the prompting of threat target, hazard level demonstration, buzzer phone, speed of a motor vehicle spacing LED demonstration etc., and setting parameter comprises selects to evade control policy, the distinctive driving parameter of setting chaufeur etc.

Meanwhile, judge that the control policy that identification module III should take flows to actuating system module V.The controller V-1 that evades of actuating system module V has formulated the different control policies of evading for target type.Evade control policy and be divided into the control policy of being partial to safe control policy and take into account traveling comfort.Wherein being partial to safe control policy is using lock onto target spacing, safety critical spacing and dangerous critical spacing as train spacing point; The control policy of taking into account traveling comfort is using safety critical spacing, dangerous critical spacing and the critical spacing of the limit as train spacing point.Adopt which kind of control policy to be set on human-computer interaction interface by chaufeur.

Particularly, as shown in Figure 4, be partial to safe control policy process and be:

First, judge identification module III directly judges whether it is risk object according to the scope of azimuth angle theta, θ is greater than 30 ° and is directly judged as non-risk object, and θ is less than 30 ° of computationally secure spacings;

Secondly, by the distance R from car Z and target X and lock onto target spacing d trelatively, be non-risk object if be greater than, take safety control strategy; Continue and safety critical spacing d if be less than srelatively, be borderline risk target if be greater than, take alarm control dypass; Continue and dangerous critical spacing d if be less than drelatively, be borderline risk target if be greater than, the control policy of taking to slow down, is risk object if be less than, and takes braking control strategy.

Particularly, as shown in Figure 5, the process of taking into account the control policy of traveling comfort is:

First, judge identification module III directly judges whether it is risk object according to the scope of azimuth angle theta, θ is greater than 30 ° and is directly judged as non-risk object, and θ is less than 30 ° of computationally secure spacings;

Secondly, by the distance R from car Z and target X and safety critical spacing d srelatively, be non-risk object if be greater than, take safety control strategy; Continue and dangerous critical spacing d if be less than drelatively, be borderline risk target if be greater than, take alarm control dypass; Continue and the critical spacing d of the limit if be less than lrelatively, be borderline risk target if be greater than, the control policy of taking to slow down, is risk object if be less than, and takes braking control strategy.

Three train spacing points evading control policy will be apart from being divided into four scopes, and each scope has different demonstrations in man-machine interface.Within the scope of first, man-machine interface green indicating lamp Chang Liang, is called " safety control strategy "; Within the scope of second there is " careful driving " " dripping " warning with low frequency in man-machine interface, and the flicker of yellow green indicator lamp, is called " alarm control strategy "; Within the scope of the 3rd there is " Reduced Speed Now " " dripping " warning with higher-frequency in man-machine interface, automatic retarding simultaneously, and orange-yellow indicator lamp flicker, is called " deceleration control policy "; There is " emergency braking " " dripping " warning with high frequency in the 4th scope man-machine interface, snap catch, and red indicating light is bright, is called " braking control strategy ".

Claims (9)

1. initiatively anti-collision early warning system of the automobile based on millimeter wave radar, comprise acquisition of signal and processing module (I), from car information acquisition module (II), judge identification module (III), human-computer interaction module (IV) and actuating system module (V), is characterized in that;
Described acquisition of signal and processing module (I) utilize millimeter wave radar (I-1) to obtain target (X) relatively from speed, the distance and bearing angle of car (Z), and output after treater (I-2) is processed;
Utilize ABS wheel speed sensors (II-1) to obtain the speed of a motor vehicle and the coefficient of road adhesion from car (Z) from car information acquisition module (II), and output after auxiliary processor (II-2) is processed;
Judge that identification module (III) is according to speed, the distance and bearing angular data of treater (I-2) input, and auxiliary processor (II-2) input from car (Z) speed of a motor vehicle and coefficient of road adhesion, utilize recognizer (III-1) to judge the type of target (X) and target type is transferred to human-computer interaction module (IV), control policy is transferred to actuating system module (V);
Human-computer interaction module (IV) is by indicator lamp and the sound prompting chaufeur target type and the measure that should take of display alarm (IV-1);
Actuating system module (V) is in the situation that chaufeur is not taken action, and utilization is evaded controller (V-1) and automatically taked corresponding braking or slow down to evade measure of control according to target type.
2. initiatively anti-collision early warning system of a kind of automobile based on millimeter wave radar according to claim 1, is characterized in that;
Described recognizer (III-1) adopts first azimuth preliminary screening while judging the type of target (X), rear safe distance between vehicles is the recognizer algorithm of identification accurately;
The recognizer (III-1) that judges identification module (III) first directly judges whether it is risk object according to the scope of azimuth angle theta, θ is greater than critical azimuth and is directly judged as non-risk object, and θ is less than computationally secure spacing of critical azimuth; Secondly, will apart from safe distance between vehicles comparison, determine target type; And then target type is flowed to human-computer interaction module (IV);
Described critical azimuth is got 25 °-35 °.
3. initiatively anti-collision early warning system of a kind of automobile based on millimeter wave radar according to claim 2, is characterized in that;
The universal computer model of described safe distance between vehicles is:
d=d 1-d 2+d 0?????????????????(1)
Wherein d is safe distance between vehicles, d 1for the distance crossing from car (Z), d 2for the distance that target (X) crosses, d 0for representing the two cars rear minimum safe spacing that will retain out of danger, get 2~5m;
Described safe distance between vehicles adopts following 4 kinds of safe distance between vehicles models to calculate: safety critical spacing, lock onto target spacing, dangerous critical spacing and the critical spacing of the limit;
Described safety critical spacing is the whether safe index of operation conditions of anticipation vehicle, is worth just safety higher than this;
The corresponding critical spacing of danger is whether the operating condition of anticipation vehicle is dangerous, dangerous lower than this value;
Lock onto target spacing is on safety critical spacing, to increase by a segment distance, sets voluntarily according to the skill level of chaufeur by human-computer interaction module (IV);
The critical spacing of the limit is that the required limit spacing maintaining of rear-end collision does not occur automobile.
4. initiatively anti-collision early warning system of a kind of automobile based on millimeter wave radar according to claim 3, is characterized in that;
Described safety critical spacing is:
d s = 1 3.6 ( t 1 + t 2 ) u 1 + t 3 3.6 &times; 2 u rel + u 1 2 - ( u 1 - u rel ) 2 25.92 a &mu; + d 0 - - - ( 2 )
Wherein, d sfor safety critical spacing, u 1for the kinematic velocity from car (Z); u 2for the kinematic velocity of target (X); u rel=u 1-u 2, be the relative velocity of two cars; t 1for from car (Z) time of driver's reaction, this time length varies with each individual; t 2for eliminating the brake clearance time from car (Z); t 3be the build-up time of braking force of two cars, suppose identical; a 1=a 2=a μ, be that the braking deceleration of two cars is all the maximum braking decelerations from ground, determined a by ground attaching coefficient μ=μ g, μ is ground attaching coefficient, g is acceleration due to gravity;
Described lock onto target spacing is:
d t = 1 3.6 ( t 0 + t 1 + t 2 ) u 1 + t 3 3.6 &times; 2 u rel + u 1 2 - ( u 1 - u rel ) 2 25.92 a &mu; + d 0 - - - ( 3 )
Wherein, d tfor lock onto target spacing, t 0for the time of predicting in advance, set according to driver characteristics and driving habit, the driving age, chaufeur shorter or driving technique shortcoming wished to grow during this period of time, to help advance notice to be about to the dangerous situation of appearance; Chaufeur skilled or that react quick is wished shorter during this period of time, or even eliminates during this period of time, to reduce initiatively sensitivity and the unnecessary alarm number of times of minimizing of anti-collision early warning system, t 0get 0~1s;
The critical spacing of described danger is:
d d = t 2 3.6 u 1 + t 3 3.6 &times; 2 u rel + u 1 2 - ( u 1 - u rel ) 2 25.92 a &mu; + d 0 - - - ( 4 )
The critical spacing of the described limit is:
d L = 1 3.6 ( t 2 + t 3 2 ) u 1 + 1 25.92 [ u 1 2 a &mu; - ( u 1 - u rel ) 2 a 2 ] + d 0 a 2 > u 1 - u rel u 1 a &mu; 1 3.6 ( t 2 + t 3 2 ) u 1 + u rel 2 25.92 ( a &mu; - a 2 ) + d 0 a 2 < u 1 - u rel u 1 a &mu; - - - ( 5 )
Wherein, a 2for target (X) braking deceleration.
5. initiatively anti-collision early warning system of a kind of automobile based on millimeter wave radar according to claim 3, is characterized in that;
Described ground attaching coefficient μ adopts following methods to obtain:
Record drive wheel rotating speed and secondary speed from the ABS wheel speed sensors (II-1) being arranged on from car (Z), the rolling speed of a motor vehicle of automobile is the product of drive wheel rotating speed and radius of wheel, the actual travel speed of a motor vehicle of automobile is the product of secondary speed and radius of wheel, sliding ratio:
s = u w - r r 0 &omega; w u w &times; 100 % - - - ( 6 )
Wherein, s is sliding ratio, u wfor the actual vehicle speed of automobile, r r0ω wfor the rolling speed of a motor vehicle of automobile;
Obtain the numerical value of coefficient of road adhesion μ by sliding ratio s in coefficient of road adhesion-sliding ratio curve (μ-s curve) interpolation.
6. initiatively anti-collision early warning system of a kind of automobile based on millimeter wave radar according to claim 1, is characterized in that;
In described human-computer interaction module (IV), the man-machine interface of display alarm (IV-1) comprises that information shows and setting parameter two parts, wherein information display section is divided and is comprised that threatening target prompting, hazard level demonstration, buzzer phone and the speed of a motor vehicle, spacing demonstration, setting parameter to comprise selects to evade control policy, the distinctive driving parameter of setting chaufeur.
7. initiatively anti-collision early warning system of a kind of automobile based on millimeter wave radar according to claim 4, is characterized in that;
In described actuating system module (V), evade the control policy of evading that controller (V-1) takes and be divided into the control policy of being partial to safe control policy and take into account traveling comfort, select voluntarily according to the requirement of chaufeur;
The described safe control policy of being partial to is using lock onto target spacing, safety critical spacing and dangerous critical spacing as train spacing point;
The described control policy of taking into account traveling comfort is using safety critical spacing, dangerous critical spacing and the critical spacing of the limit as train spacing point;
Adopt which kind of control policy to be set on human-computer interaction interface by chaufeur.
8. initiatively anti-collision early warning system of a kind of automobile based on millimeter wave radar according to claim 7, is characterized in that;
The described detailed process of being partial to safe control policy is:
First, judge identification module (III) directly judges whether it is risk object according to the scope of azimuth angle theta, θ is greater than critical azimuth and is directly judged as non-risk object, and θ is less than computationally secure spacing of critical azimuth;
Secondly, will be from distance R and the lock onto target spacing d of car (Z) and target (X) trelatively, be non-risk object if be greater than, take safety control strategy; Continue and safety critical spacing d if be less than srelatively, be borderline risk target if be greater than, take alarm control dypass; Continue and dangerous critical spacing d if be less than drelatively, be borderline risk target if be greater than, the control policy of taking to slow down, is risk object if be less than, and takes braking control strategy.
9. initiatively anti-collision early warning system of a kind of automobile based on millimeter wave radar according to claim 7, is characterized in that;
The detailed process of the described control policy of taking into account traveling comfort is:
First, judge identification module (III) directly judges whether it is risk object according to the scope of azimuth angle theta, θ is greater than critical azimuth and is directly judged as non-risk object, and θ is less than computationally secure spacing of critical azimuth;
Secondly, will be from distance R and the safety critical spacing d of car (Z) and target (X) srelatively, be non-risk object if be greater than, take safety control strategy; Continue and dangerous critical spacing d if be less than drelatively, be borderline risk target if be greater than, take alarm control dypass; Continue and the critical spacing d of the limit if be less than lrelatively, be borderline risk target if be greater than, the control policy of taking to slow down, is risk object if be less than, and takes braking control strategy.
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