CN103926127B - Frozen soil side slope modelling and frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test device and test method - Google Patents

Frozen soil side slope modelling and frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test device and test method Download PDF

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CN103926127B
CN103926127B CN201410179108.1A CN201410179108A CN103926127B CN 103926127 B CN103926127 B CN 103926127B CN 201410179108 A CN201410179108 A CN 201410179108A CN 103926127 B CN103926127 B CN 103926127B
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slope
frozen soil
transparent
test
particle diameter
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CN201410179108.1A
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CN103926127A (en
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孔纲强
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湖南城市学院
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of visual frozen soil side slope modelling and frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test device and test method, transparent frozen soil side slope modelling adopts fluoropolymer to be prepare the transparent solid material in transparent frozen soil, described fluoropolymer is the particle of particle diameter 0.25 ㎜ ~ 2.0 ㎜, for the Teflon that du pont company produces? AF? 1600, refractive index 1.31, density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.3g/ ㎝ 3; Described test unit comprises the analogue means of the simulating nature side slope such as transparent model groove, transparent frozen soil side slope model, the hourly observation device comprising digital camera and treating apparatus; Test method of the present invention is feasible, and the transparent native transparency of preparation is high, cheap, nontoxic, good with the similarity of natural frozen soil soil mass property, extensively can substitute nature frozen soil; Test unit is easy and simple to handle, is easy to realize, repeatable strong; Can be used to the geologic condition of Simulation of Complex, effectively for the model test in Geotechnical Engineering.

Description

Frozen soil side slope modelling and frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test device and test method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of directional blasting test unit and test method of the soil body, specifically frozen soil side slope modelling and frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test device and a test method, particularly relate to a kind of visual frozen soil side slope modelling and frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test device and test method.
Background technology
In model test in Geotechnical Engineering, research soil body internal deformation rule and mechanism, as controlled blasting, piling construction process, Excavation Process etc., significant to exploration geotechnical engineering problems essence.Particularly the area of ever frost on the earth, seasonal frozen ground and permafrost region in short-term accounts for 50 ﹪ of land surface, wherein, and permafrost distribution area 3500 Wan ㎞ 2, account for 25 ﹪ of land surface.And the engineering characteristic of frozen soil differs comparatively large with the engineering characteristic of routine soil, therefore, carry out the engineering characteristic of frozen soil and construction are seemed extremely important at the characteristic research in frozen soil region.
Controlled blasting refer to in engineering explosion process due to a kind of blasting technique that explosive is controlled by certain technological means in public hazards such as the flying produced by the blast of explosion object, earthquake, air-shock wave, flue dust, noises, be used widely in engineering construction.As: directional blasting, presplitting blasting, smooth[-surface, chock blasting, Millisecond Controlled Blasting, demolition blasting, static blasting, throwing explosion, weak standing shot, incendiary agent blasting etc.Directional blasting is the effect utilizing explosive charge, the cubic metre of earth and stone throwing in a certain area to the area of specifying, and be roughly piled into a kind of blasting technique of required form, be mainly used in repairing dam (dam or tailing dam), build the road (embankment and roadbed), level land (industrial sites and farmland construction) etc., labour is lacked, have inconvenient traffic and work point without construction site particularly suitable.
The patent No. is 201110074794.2, denomination of invention is that the high technical method containing freezing soil sample prepared by a kind of a kind of conventional equipment that utilizes that patent discloses containing the preparation method of freezing soil sample for height, this method can size according to actual needs make high containing ice Artificial Frozen Soil sample, based on making the frozen soil sample of having joined, the engineering characteristic of geotechnical testament instrument to frozen soil is utilized to test.
Document 1 " model investigation of Frozen-soil Blasting funnel and Frozensoil Blastability " (Ma Qinyong. coal journal, 1997,22 (3): 288-293.) disclose the blasting cone model test scheme of frozen clay under a set of different temperatures, sand; Document 2 " Preliminary Study On Blasting Parameters For Shaft Excavation In Frozensoil " (ancestor's fine jade, Yang Lvjun. engineering explosion, 1999,5 (2): 25-29.), document 3 " model investigation of frozen soil in mine freezing shaft smooth[-surface " (Jiang Yusong. Huainan Polytechnique College's journal, 2001,21 (4): 31-34.) a set of Frozen Sand Cut Blasting and smooth[-surface model test scheme is disclosed; Document 4 " explosion bulge test of ever frost and Artificial Frozen Soil and technique study " (Ma Qinyong. civil engineering work journal, 2004,37 (9): 75-78.) progress of review paper Frozen-soil Blasting funnel, Cut Blasting and smooth[-surface test and achievement.These model test schemes are all based on conventional test means, effectively cannot obtain the concrete ruptured type of frozen soil after explosion bulge test.And traditional soil deformation measuring method buries a series of sensor underground at inside soil body, obtain the displacement of some discrete point, but sensor is easily by the impact of external environment disturbance, and measurement result is often not accurate enough, the whole displacement field of inside soil body continuous modification can not be provided simultaneously.Modern digital image technology is also confined to measure the macroscopic view of the soil body or border deformation, and what can not realize soil body internal deformation is visual; X-ray, gamma-radiation, Computerized chromatographic scanning (cat scan) and mr imaging technique (MRI) although can be used for measuring the continuous modification of inside soil body, the widespread use of these technology of the costs constraints of costliness.
Utilize the transparent soil of Prof. Du Yucang can realize the visual of soil body internal deformation in conjunction with optical observation and image processing techniques, its low cost, easy and simple to handle, can be widely used in the model test of Geotechnical Engineering aspect, research inside soil body rule and mechanism, significant to exploration geotechnical engineering problems essence.Its prerequisite is that acquisition transparency is higher, and the transparent soil of Prof. Du Yucang that character is similar to natural rock-filled.At present, existing employing different materials is made and is joined transparent soil, and obtains some achievements.But, prior art data shows, the solid particle preparing transparent soil mainly selects quartz-like material, the refractive index of its solid particle itself is between 1.44 ~ 1.46, select borosilicate glass material, the refractive index of its solid particle itself between 1.46 ~ 1.48, much larger than 1.33 refractive indexes of water and 1.31 refractive indexes of ice.Therefore, the solid particle of the transparent soil of existing preparation is utilized cannot to make saturated transparent frozen soil sample.
Fluoropolymer is the TeflonAF1600 that du pont company produces, refractive index 1.31, density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.3g/ ㎝ 3; There is the characteristic of high temperature resistant, low temperature resistant, resistance to chemical attack, inviscid, nontoxic, pollution-free, the high grade of transparency, low-refraction, also there is the characteristics such as gas permeability structure, hydrophobicity, chemical inertness, good with the similarity of natural rock-filled character.TeflonAF1600 is dissolvable in water in fluorine series solvent, can form film or melting compression forming; At present, it is mainly used in coating, floods or makes fiber, and the liquid core waveguide made also has utilization at numerous areas such as absorption, fluorescence, Raman spectrum analysis, gas sensors.Because fluoropolymer has the high grade of transparency, refractive index is identical with ice, therefore, can be used as transparent solid material in the transparent frozen soil of preparation.
Summary of the invention
The object of this invention is to provide a kind of frozen soil side slope modelling and frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test device and test method, particularly a kind of visual frozen soil side slope modelling and frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test device and test method.
The present invention adopts following technical scheme to realize its goal of the invention, a kind of frozen soil side slope model production method, and it comprises the following steps:
(1) get the raw materials ready: the mould first making simulating nature side slope model according to testing requirements, then calculate the consumption determining fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid according to test condition and die size size; Described fluoropolymer is the particle of particle diameter 0.25 ㎜ ~ 2.0 ㎜, and cleaning impurity is also dried, and its particle is irregularly shaped, is the TeflonAF1600 that du pont company produces, refractive index 1.31, density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.3g/ ㎝ 3; Described granular ice is smashed to pieces by the monoblock ice freezed, and its particle diameter is 0.1 ㎜ ~ 0.5 ㎜; Described colourless pore liquid is water;
The present invention step (1) in, that described fluoropolymer particles 0.25 ㎜≤particle diameter < 0.5 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 0.5 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.0 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 1.0 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.5 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 1.5 ㎜≤particle diameter≤2.0 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, by weight, 100 ﹪ are added up to.
(2) mixture :-6.0 DEG C ~-8.0 DEG C low temperature test indoor, first by fluoropolymer particles and granular ice uniform stirring, sample processed in point 2 ~ 3 loading moulds, and reality is hit in layering; Again water is added in mould, the space between filling fluoropolymer particles and granular ice;
(3) vacuumize: the bubble utilizing vacuum extractor to extract to remain in sample inside, makes sample reach abundant state of saturation;
(4) freeze: loaded by mould after-20 DEG C of cryogenic boxes freeze 48 hours and remove mould, the saturated transparent frozen soil side slope model freezing sand natural slope of obtained simulation, its physical characteristics is: density 1.53g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.0g/ ㎝ 3, severe 15kN/m 3~ 20kN/m 3, packing 20 ﹪ ~ 80 ﹪; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 30 ° ~ 31 °, elastic modulus 8MPa ~ 61MPa, Poisson ratio 0.2 ~ 0.4.
A kind of frozen soil side slope model production method, it comprises the following steps:
(1) get the raw materials ready: the mould first making simulating nature side slope model according to testing requirements, then calculate the consumption determining fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid according to test condition and die size size; Described fluoropolymer is the particle of particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜, and cleaning impurity is also dried, and its particle is irregularly shaped, is the TeflonAF1600 that du pont company produces, refractive index 1.31, density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.3g/ ㎝ 3; Described granular ice is smashed to pieces by the monoblock ice freezed, its particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜; Described colourless pore liquid is water;
(2) mixture :-6.0 DEG C ~-8.0 DEG C low temperature test indoor, first by fluoropolymer particles and granular ice uniform stirring, sample processed in point 2 ~ 3 loading moulds, and reality is hit in layering; Again water is added in mould, the space between filling fluoropolymer particles and granular ice;
(3) vacuumize: the bubble utilizing vacuum extractor to extract to remain in sample inside, makes sample reach abundant state of saturation;
(4) consolidation: sample is placed in consolidometer and carries out consolidation, degree of consolidation OCR value 0.8 ~ 3;
(5) freeze: loaded by mould after-20 DEG C of cryogenic boxes freeze 48 hours and remove mould, the saturated transparent frozen soil side slope model freezing clay natural slope of obtained simulation, its physical characteristics is: density 1.63g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.1g/ ㎝ 3, severe 16kN/m 3~ 21kN/m 3, degree of consolidation OCR value 0.8 ~ 3; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 19 ° ~ 22 °, cohesiveness is 1kPa ~ 3kPa, elastic modulus 5MPa ~ 9MPa, Poisson ratio 0.2 ~ 0.3.
A kind of frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test device, it comprises transparent model groove, is provided with the transparent frozen soil side slope model of simulating nature side slope, transparent frozen soil side slope model is provided with blast hole according to design, is furnished with explosive and detonator in blast hole in transparent model groove; Face of facing outside transparent model groove, side-looking face and face of overlooking are provided with the digital camera of the whole transparent model slot space of observable, and digital camera is connected with treating apparatus by data line; During directional blasting, formed the process of Artificial Side-slope at different natural slope height, different blast hole diameter and directional blasting in the degree of depth, different explosive consumption situation by digital camera observational record transparent frozen soil side slope model, and record data are sent into treating apparatus by data line, complete the directional blasting test of frozen soil side slope model.
Transparent frozen soil side slope model of the present invention adopts transparent frozen soil material to make, when need obtain simulation saturated freeze the transparent frozen soil side slope model of sand natural slope time, described transparent frozen soil it by fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid through getting the raw materials ready, mixture, vacuumize, freezing step is formulated, described fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid consumption are calculated by test condition and model size; Described colourless pore liquid is water, and described fluoropolymer is the particle of particle diameter 0.25 ㎜ ~ 2.0 ㎜, and its particle is irregularly shaped, is the TeflonAF1600 that du pont company produces, refractive index 1.31, density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.3g/ ㎝ 3; The particle diameter of described granular ice is 0.1 ㎜ ~ 0.5 ㎜; The physical characteristics of described transparent frozen soil is: density 1.53g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.0g/ ㎝ 3, severe 15kN/m 3~ 20kN/m 3, packing 20 ﹪ ~ 80 ﹪; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 30 ° ~ 31 °, elastic modulus 8MPa ~ 61MPa, Poisson ratio 0.2 ~ 0.4; That described fluoropolymer particles 0.25 ㎜≤particle diameter < 0.5 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 0.5 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.0 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 1.0 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.5 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 1.5 ㎜≤particle diameter≤2.0 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, by weight, 100 ﹪ are added up to.
Transparent frozen soil side slope model of the present invention adopts transparent frozen soil material to make, when need obtain simulation saturated freeze the transparent frozen soil side slope model of clay natural slope time, described transparent frozen soil it by fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid through getting the raw materials ready, mixture, vacuumize, consolidation, freezing step be formulated, described fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid consumption are calculated by test condition and model size; Described colourless pore liquid is water, and described fluoropolymer is the particle of particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜, and its particle is irregularly shaped, is the TeflonAF1600 that du pont company produces, refractive index 1.31, density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.3g/ ㎝ 3; Particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜ of described granular ice; The physical characteristics of described transparent frozen soil is: density 1.63g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.1g/ ㎝ 3, severe 16kN/m 3~ 21kN/m 3, degree of consolidation OCR value 0.8 ~ 3; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 19 ° ~ 22 °, cohesiveness is 1kPa ~ 3kPa, elastic modulus 5MPa ~ 9MPa, Poisson ratio 0.2 ~ 0.3.
Transparent model groove of the present invention adopts transparent toughened glass to make.
A kind of frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test method, it comprises following process:
(1) modeling: the transparent frozen soil side slope model making transparent model groove and simulating nature frozen soil side slope model according to testing requirements and natural frozen soil side slope moulded dimension respectively, described transparent frozen soil side slope model adopts transparent frozen soil material to make, and reserved blast hole; Described transparent model groove adopts transparent toughened glass to make;
(2) install: transparent frozen soil side slope model is loaded transparent model groove, according to test design, in reserved blast hole, load detonator and explosive; Face of facing outside transparent model groove, side-looking face and face of overlooking arrange the digital camera of the whole transparent model slot space of observable, and digital camera is connected with treating apparatus by data line;
(3) test: detonating primer and explosive, observed by digital camera and record the process that the explosion of transparent frozen soil side slope model orientation forms Artificial Side-slope, and record data are sent into treating apparatus by data line;
Repetitive process (1) ~ process (3), the directional blasting process of different natural slope height, different blast hole diameter and transparent frozen soil side slope model in the degree of depth, different explosive consumption situation is observed by treating apparatus, to analyze frozen soil directional blasting mechanism, complete the directional blasting test of frozen soil side slope model.
When need obtain simulation saturated freeze the transparent frozen soil side slope model of sand natural slope time, the present invention process (1) in, the transparent frozen soil side slope model of described making comprise get the raw materials ready, mixture, vacuumize, freezing step:
Described mould of getting the raw materials ready as first making simulating nature side slope model according to testing requirements, then the consumption determining fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid is calculated according to test condition and die size size; Described fluoropolymer is the particle of particle diameter 0.25 ㎜ ~ 2.0 ㎜, and cleaning impurity is also dried, and its particle is irregularly shaped, is the TeflonAF1600 that du pont company produces, refractive index 1.31, density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.3g/ ㎝ 3; Described granular ice is smashed to pieces by the monoblock ice freezed, and its particle diameter is 0.1 ㎜ ~ 0.5 ㎜; Described colourless pore liquid is water;
That described fluoropolymer particles 0.25 ㎜≤particle diameter < 0.5 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 0.5 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.0 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 1.0 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.5 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 1.5 ㎜≤particle diameter≤2.0 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, by weight, 100 ﹪ are added up to.
Described mixture is-6.0 DEG C ~-8.0 DEG C low temperature test indoor, first by fluoropolymer particles and granular ice uniform stirring, and sample processed in point 2 ~ 3 loading moulds, and reality is hit in layering; Again water is added in mould, the space between filling fluoropolymer particles and granular ice;
Describedly vacuumizing the bubble remaining in sample inside for utilizing vacuum extractor to extract, making sample reach abundant state of saturation;
Described freezing removes mould for being loaded by mould after-20 DEG C of cryogenic boxes freeze 48 hours, and obtain and be modeled as the saturated transparent frozen soil side slope model freezing sand natural slope, its physical characteristics is: density 1.53g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.0g/ ㎝ 3, severe 15kN/m 3~ 20kN/m 3, packing 20 ﹪ ~ 80 ﹪; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 30 ° ~ 31 °, elastic modulus 8MPa ~ 61MPa, Poisson ratio 0.2 ~ 0.4.
When need obtain simulation saturated freeze the transparent frozen soil side slope model of clay natural slope time, the present invention process (1) in, the transparent frozen soil side slope model of described making comprise get the raw materials ready, mixture, vacuumize, consolidation, freezing step:
Described mould of getting the raw materials ready as first making simulating nature side slope model according to testing requirements, then the consumption determining fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid is calculated according to test condition and die size size; Described fluoropolymer is the particle of particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜, and cleaning impurity is also dried, and its particle is irregularly shaped, is the TeflonAF1600 that du pont company produces, refractive index 1.31, density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.3g/ ㎝ 3; Described granular ice is smashed to pieces by the monoblock ice freezed, its particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜; Described colourless pore liquid is water;
Described mixture is-6.0 DEG C ~-8.0 DEG C low temperature test indoor, first by fluoropolymer particles and granular ice uniform stirring, and sample processed in point 2 ~ 3 loading moulds, and reality is hit in layering; Again water is added in mould, the space between filling fluoropolymer particles and granular ice;
Describedly vacuumizing the bubble remaining in sample inside for utilizing vacuum extractor to extract, making sample reach abundant state of saturation;
Described consolidation carries out consolidation, degree of consolidation OCR value 0.8 ~ 3 for being placed in consolidometer by sample;
Described freezing removes mould for being loaded by mould after-20 DEG C of cryogenic boxes freeze 48 hours, and obtain and be modeled as the saturated transparent frozen soil side slope model freezing clay natural slope, its physical characteristics is: density 1.63g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.1g/ ㎝ 3, severe 16kN/m 3~ 21kN/m 3, degree of consolidation OCR value 0.8 ~ 3; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 19 ° ~ 22 °, cohesiveness is 1kPa ~ 3kPa, elastic modulus 5MPa ~ 9MPa, Poisson ratio 0.2 ~ 0.3.
Owing to adopting technique scheme, the present invention achieves goal of the invention preferably, and test method is feasible, and the transparent native transparency of preparation is high, cheap, nontoxic, good with the similarity of natural frozen soil soil mass property, extensively can substitute nature frozen soil; Test unit is easy and simple to handle, is easy to realize, repeatable strong; Can be used to the geologic condition of Simulation of Complex, effectively for the model test in Geotechnical Engineering.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of test unit of the present invention.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, the invention will be further described.
Embodiment 1:
A kind of frozen soil side slope model production method, it comprises the following steps:
(1) get the raw materials ready: the mould first making simulating nature side slope model according to testing requirements, then calculate the consumption determining fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid according to test condition and die size size; Described fluoropolymer is the particle of particle diameter 0.25 ㎜ ~ 2.0 ㎜, and cleaning impurity is also dried, and its particle is irregularly shaped, is the TeflonAF1600 that du pont company produces, refractive index 1.31, density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.3g/ ㎝ 3; Described granular ice is smashed to pieces by the monoblock ice freezed, and its particle diameter is 0.1 ㎜ ~ 0.5 ㎜; Described colourless pore liquid is water;
The present invention step (1) in, that described fluoropolymer particles 0.25 ㎜≤particle diameter < 0.5 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 0.5 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.0 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 1.0 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.5 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 1.5 ㎜≤particle diameter≤2.0 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, by weight, 100 ﹪ are added up to.
For not affecting refractive index, the present invention step (1) in, described water is pure water.
The consumption determining fluoropolymer, granular ice and pure water is calculated according to specimen size size in test condition and mould:
Sample water cut 100.0 ﹪ of the present embodiment, dry density 0.55g/cm 3, volume of sample (374.0 ㎝ 3) and low temperature test room temperature-6.0 DEG C, conversing fluoropolymer particles quality (granular mass=dry density × volume of sample) needed for preparation sample is 206.0g, total Water (water cut 100.0 ﹪, the quality of total Water is equal with granular mass) is 206.0g; Because sand is when temperature is-6.0 DEG C, its unfrozen water content is about 15 ﹪, so should be 30.9g preparing in specimen the quality adding pure water, the quality of granular ice is 175.1g.
The present embodiment selects density 2.3g/ ㎝ 3fluoropolymer particles, that fluoropolymer particles 0.25 ㎜≤particle diameter < 0.5 ㎜ is 20 ﹪, that 0.5 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.0 ㎜ is 30 ﹪, that 1.0 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.5 ㎜ is 30 ﹪, that 1.5 ㎜≤particle diameter≤2.0 ㎜ is 20 ﹪, by weight, add up to 100 ﹪, mixed;
(2) mixture :-6.0 DEG C ~-8.0 DEG C low temperature test indoor, first by fluoropolymer particles and granular ice uniform stirring, sample processed in point 2 ~ 3 loading moulds, and reality is hit in layering; Again water is added in mould, the space between filling fluoropolymer particles and granular ice;
The present embodiment-6.0 DEG C of low temperature test indoor, first by step (1) in the fluoropolymer particles determined and granular ice uniform stirring, point load samples processed in moulds 3 times, and reality is hit in layering, is depressed into and designs packing 70 ﹪; Again pure water is added in mould, the space between filling fluoropolymer particles and granular ice;
(3) vacuumize: the bubble utilizing vacuum extractor to extract to remain in sample inside, makes sample reach abundant state of saturation;
(4) freeze: loaded by mould after-20 DEG C of cryogenic boxes freeze 48 hours and remove mould, the saturated transparent frozen soil side slope model freezing sand natural slope of obtained simulation, its physical characteristics is: density 1.53g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.0g/ ㎝ 3, severe 15kN/m 3~ 20kN/m 3, packing 20 ﹪ ~ 80 ﹪; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 30 ° ~ 31 °, elastic modulus 8MPa ~ 61MPa, Poisson ratio 0.2 ~ 0.4.
The physical characteristics of the made transparent frozen soil side slope model of the present embodiment is: density 1.9g/ ㎝ 3, severe 19kN/m 3, packing 70 ﹪; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 31 °, elastic modulus 40MPa, Poisson ratio 0.3.
As shown in Figure 1, a kind of frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test device, it comprises transparent model groove 1, is provided with the transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 of simulating nature side slope 4 in transparent model groove 1, transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 is provided with blast hole 3 according to design, in blast hole 3, is furnished with explosive and detonator; Face of facing outside transparent model groove 1, side-looking face and face of overlooking are provided with the digital camera 6 in observable whole transparent model groove 1 space, and digital camera 6 is connected with treating apparatus 7 by data line; During directional blasting, formed the process of Artificial Side-slope 5 at different natural slope 4 height, different blast hole diameter and directional blasting in the degree of depth, different explosive consumption situation by digital camera 6 observational record transparent frozen soil side slope model 2, and data will be recorded by data line feeding treating apparatus 7, complete the directional blasting test of frozen soil side slope model.
Transparent model groove 1 of the present invention adopts transparent toughened glass to make.
Transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 of the present invention adopts transparent frozen soil material to make, when need obtain simulation saturated freeze the transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 of sand natural slope time, described transparent frozen soil it by fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid through getting the raw materials ready, mixture, vacuumize, freezing step is formulated, described fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid consumption are calculated by test condition and model size; Described colourless pore liquid is water, and described fluoropolymer is the particle of particle diameter 0.25 ㎜ ~ 2.0 ㎜, and its particle is irregularly shaped, is the TeflonAF1600 that du pont company produces, refractive index 1.31, density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.3g/ ㎝ 3; The particle diameter of described granular ice is 0.1 ㎜ ~ 0.5 ㎜; The physical characteristics of described transparent frozen soil is: density 1.53g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.0g/ ㎝ 3, severe 15kN/m 3~ 20kN/m 3, packing 20 ﹪ ~ 80 ﹪; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 30 ° ~ 31 °, elastic modulus 8MPa ~ 61MPa, Poisson ratio 0.2 ~ 0.4; That described fluoropolymer particles 0.25 ㎜≤particle diameter < 0.5 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 0.5 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.0 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 1.0 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.5 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 1.5 ㎜≤particle diameter≤2.0 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, by weight, 100 ﹪ are added up to.
For not affecting refractive index, water of the present invention is pure water.
The present embodiment selects density 2.3g/ ㎝ 3fluoropolymer particles, that fluoropolymer particles 0.25 ㎜≤particle diameter < 0.5 ㎜ is 20 ﹪, that 0.5 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.0 ㎜ is 30 ﹪, that 1.0 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.5 ㎜ is 30 ﹪, that 1.5 ㎜≤particle diameter≤2.0 ㎜ is 20 ﹪, by weight, 100 ﹪ are added up to.
The consumption determining fluoropolymer, granular ice and pure water is calculated according to specimen size size in test condition and mould:
Sample water cut 100.0 ﹪ of the present embodiment, dry density 0.55g/cm 3, volume of sample (374.0 ㎝ 3) and low temperature test room temperature-6.0 DEG C, conversing fluoropolymer particles quality (granular mass=dry density × volume of sample) needed for preparation sample is 206.0g, total Water (water cut 100.0 ﹪, the quality of total Water is equal with granular mass) is 206.0g; Because sand is when temperature is-6.0 DEG C, its unfrozen water content is about 15 ﹪, so should be 30.9g preparing in specimen the quality adding pure water, the quality of granular ice is 175.1g.
Described mixture is-6.0 DEG C ~-8.0 DEG C low temperature test indoor, first by fluoropolymer particles and granular ice uniform stirring, and sample processed in point 2 ~ 3 loading moulds, and reality is hit in layering; Again water is added in mould, the space between filling fluoropolymer particles and granular ice;
The present embodiment ,-6.0 DEG C of low temperature test indoor, first by the fluoropolymer particles determined and granular ice uniform stirring, point load samples processed in moulds 3 times, and reality is hit in layering, is depressed into and designs packing 70 ﹪; Again pure water is added in mould, the space between filling fluoropolymer particles and granular ice;
The described bubble utilizing vacuum extractor to extract to remain in sample inside, makes sample reach abundant state of saturation;
Described freezing removes mould for being loaded by mould after-20 DEG C of cryogenic boxes freeze 48 hours, and the saturated transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 freezing sand natural slope of obtained simulation, its physical characteristics is: density 1.53g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.0g/ ㎝ 3, severe 15kN/m 3~ 20kN/m 3, packing 20 ﹪ ~ 80 ﹪; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 30 ° ~ 31 °, elastic modulus 8MPa ~ 61MPa, Poisson ratio 0.2 ~ 0.4.
The physical characteristics of the made transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 of the present embodiment is: density 1.9g/ ㎝ 3, severe 19kN/m 3, packing 70 ﹪; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 31 °, elastic modulus 40MPa, Poisson ratio 0.3.
Digital camera 6 of the present invention is high definition high-speed digital camera, and its resolution is 50w ~ 500w(the present embodiment is 500w), exposed frame, frame number 25, time shutter 10 μ s ~ 10s(the present embodiment is 10 μ s).
A kind of frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test method, it comprises following process:
(1) modeling: the transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 making transparent model groove 1 and simulating nature frozen soil side slope model according to testing requirements and natural frozen soil side slope moulded dimension respectively, described transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 adopts transparent frozen soil material to make, and reserved blast hole 3; Described transparent model groove 1 adopts transparent toughened glass to make;
When need obtain simulation saturated freeze the transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 of sand natural slope time, the present invention process (1) in, the transparent frozen soil side slope model of described making comprise get the raw materials ready, mixture, vacuumize, freezing step:
Described mould of getting the raw materials ready as first making simulating nature side slope model according to testing requirements, then the consumption determining fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid is calculated according to test condition and die size size; Described fluoropolymer is the particle of particle diameter 0.25 ㎜ ~ 2.0 ㎜, and cleaning impurity is also dried, and its particle is irregularly shaped, is the TeflonAF1600 that du pont company produces, refractive index 1.31, density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.3g/ ㎝ 3; Described granular ice is smashed to pieces by the monoblock ice freezed, and its particle diameter is 0.1 ㎜ ~ 0.5 ㎜; Described colourless pore liquid is water;
That described fluoropolymer particles 0.25 ㎜≤particle diameter < 0.5 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 0.5 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.0 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 1.0 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.5 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 1.5 ㎜≤particle diameter≤2.0 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, by weight, 100 ﹪ are added up to.
For not affecting refractive index, water of the present invention is pure water.
The consumption determining fluoropolymer, granular ice and pure water is calculated according to specimen size size in test condition and mould:
Sample water cut 100.0 ﹪ of the present embodiment, dry density 0.55g/cm 3, volume of sample (374.0 ㎝ 3) and low temperature test room temperature-6.0 DEG C, conversing fluoropolymer particles quality (granular mass=dry density × volume of sample) needed for preparation sample is 206.0g, total Water (water cut 100.0 ﹪, the quality of total Water is equal with granular mass) is 206.0g; Because sand is when temperature is-6.0 DEG C, its unfrozen water content is about 15 ﹪, so should be 30.9g preparing in specimen the quality adding pure water, the quality of granular ice is 175.1g.
The present embodiment selects density 2.3g/ ㎝ 3fluoropolymer particles, that fluoropolymer particles 0.25 ㎜≤particle diameter < 0.5 ㎜ is 20 ﹪, that 0.5 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.0 ㎜ is 30 ﹪, that 1.0 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.5 ㎜ is 30 ﹪, that 1.5 ㎜≤particle diameter≤2.0 ㎜ is 20 ﹪, by weight, add up to 100 ﹪, mixed;
Described mixture is-6.0 DEG C ~-8.0 DEG C low temperature test indoor, first by fluoropolymer particles and granular ice uniform stirring, and sample processed in point 2 ~ 3 loading moulds, and reality is hit in layering; Again water is added in mould, the space between filling fluoropolymer particles and granular ice;
The present embodiment ,-6.0 DEG C of low temperature test indoor, first by the fluoropolymer particles determined and granular ice uniform stirring, point load samples processed in moulds 3 times, and reality is hit in layering, is depressed into and designs packing 70 ﹪; Again pure water is added in mould, the space between filling fluoropolymer particles and granular ice;
Describedly vacuumizing the bubble remaining in sample inside for utilizing vacuum extractor to extract, making sample reach abundant state of saturation;
Described freezing removes mould for being loaded by mould after-20 DEG C of cryogenic boxes freeze 48 hours, and obtain and be modeled as the saturated transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 freezing sand natural slope, its physical characteristics is: density 1.53g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.0g/ ㎝ 3, severe 15kN/m 3~ 20kN/m 3, packing 20 ﹪ ~ 80 ﹪; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 30 ° ~ 31 °, elastic modulus 8MPa ~ 61MPa, Poisson ratio 0.2 ~ 0.4.
The physical characteristics of the made transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 of the present embodiment is: density 1.9g/ ㎝ 3, severe 19kN/m 3, packing 70 ﹪; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 31 °, elastic modulus 40MPa, Poisson ratio 0.3.
(2) install: transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 is loaded transparent model groove 1, according to test design, in reserved blast hole 3, load detonator and explosive, explosive dose requires to determine according to test design; Face of facing outside transparent model groove 1, side-looking face and face of overlooking arrange the digital camera 6 in observable whole transparent model groove 1 space, and digital camera 6 is connected with treating apparatus 7 by data line;
Digital camera 6 of the present invention is high definition high-speed digital camera, and its resolution is 50w ~ 500w(the present embodiment is 500w), exposed frame, frame number 25, time shutter 10 μ s ~ 10s(the present embodiment is 10 μ s).
(3) test: detonating primer and explosive, observed by digital camera 6 and record the process that transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 directional blasting forms Artificial Side-slope 5, and data will be recorded by data line feeding treating apparatus 7;
In test, PIV technology (ParticleImageVelocimetry particle image velocimetry method) combining image process software PIVview2C is utilized to process the picture information gathered by digital camera 6.
Repetitive process (1) ~ process (3), the directional blasting process of different natural slope 4 height, different blast hole 3 diameter and transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 in the degree of depth, different explosive consumption situation is observed by treating apparatus 7, to analyze frozen soil directional blasting mechanism, complete the directional blasting test of frozen soil side slope model 2.
Embodiment 2:
In the preparation of frozen soil side slope model 2, select density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3fluoropolymer particles, that fluoropolymer particles 0.25 ㎜≤particle diameter < 0.5 ㎜ is 20 ﹪, that 0.5 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.0 ㎜ is 30 ﹪, that 1.0 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.5 ㎜ is 30 ﹪, that 1.5 ㎜≤particle diameter≤2.0 ㎜ is 20 ﹪, by weight, add up to 100 ﹪, mixed; During mixture, control packing 30 ﹪; The physical characteristics of the made transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 of the present embodiment is: density 1.82g/ ㎝ 3, severe 18kN/m 3, packing 30 ﹪; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 30 °, elastic modulus 10MPa, Poisson ratio 0.35.
Remaining with embodiment 1.
Embodiment 3:
A kind of frozen soil side slope model production method, it comprises the following steps:
(1) get the raw materials ready: the mould first making simulating nature side slope model according to testing requirements, then calculate the consumption determining fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid according to test condition and die size size; Described fluoropolymer is the particle of particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜, and cleaning impurity is also dried, and its particle is irregularly shaped, is the TeflonAF1600 that du pont company produces, refractive index 1.31, density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.3g/ ㎝ 3; Described granular ice is smashed to pieces by the monoblock ice freezed, its particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜; Described colourless pore liquid is water;
For not affecting refractive index, water of the present invention is pure water.
The present embodiment test condition is identical with embodiment 1 with computing method with specimen size size in mould.
The consumption of the present embodiment determination fluoropolymer particles, granular ice and pure water is respectively 206.0g, 175.1g and 30.9g.
The present embodiment selects density 2.3g/ ㎝ 3, particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜ fluoropolymer particles.
(2) mixture :-6.0 DEG C ~-8.0 DEG C low temperature test indoor, first by fluoropolymer particles and granular ice uniform stirring, sample processed in point 2 ~ 3 loading moulds, and reality is hit in layering; Again water is added in mould, the space between filling fluoropolymer particles and granular ice;
The present embodiment-6.0 DEG C of low temperature test indoor, first by step (1) in the fluoropolymer particles determined and granular ice uniform stirring, point load samples processed in moulds 3 times, and reality is hit in layering, is depressed into and designs packing 70 ﹪; Again pure water is added in mould, the space between filling fluoropolymer particles and granular ice;
(3) vacuumize: the bubble utilizing vacuum extractor to extract to remain in sample inside, makes sample reach abundant state of saturation;
(4) consolidation: sample is placed in consolidometer and carries out consolidation, degree of consolidation OCR value 0.8 ~ 3;
The present embodiment degree of consolidation OCR value 1.5;
(5) freeze: loaded by mould after-20 DEG C of cryogenic boxes freeze 48 hours and remove mould, the saturated transparent frozen soil side slope model freezing clay natural slope of obtained simulation, its physical characteristics is: density 1.63g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.1g/ ㎝ 3, severe 16kN/m 3~ 21kN/m 3, degree of consolidation OCR value 0.8 ~ 3; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 19 ° ~ 22 °, cohesiveness is 1kPa ~ 3kPa, elastic modulus 5MPa ~ 9MPa, Poisson ratio 0.2 ~ 0.3.
The physical characteristics of the made transparent frozen soil side slope model of the present embodiment is: density 1.93g/ ㎝ 3, severe 19.1kN/m 3; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 20 °, and cohesiveness is 3kPa, elastic modulus 9MPa, Poisson ratio 0.3.
As shown in Figure 1, a kind of frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test device, it comprises transparent model groove 1, is provided with the transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 of simulating nature side slope 4 in transparent model groove 1, transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 is provided with blast hole 3 according to design, in blast hole 3, is furnished with explosive and detonator; Face of facing outside transparent model groove 1, side-looking face and face of overlooking are provided with the digital camera 6 in observable whole transparent model groove 1 space, and digital camera 6 is connected with treating apparatus 7 by data line; During directional blasting, formed the process of Artificial Side-slope 5 at different natural slope 4 height, different blast hole diameter and directional blasting in the degree of depth, different explosive consumption situation by digital camera 6 observational record transparent frozen soil side slope model 2, and data will be recorded by data line feeding treating apparatus 7, complete the directional blasting test of frozen soil side slope model.
Transparent model groove 1 of the present invention adopts transparent toughened glass to make.
Transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 of the present invention adopts transparent frozen soil material to make, when need obtain simulation saturated freeze the transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 of clay natural slope time, described transparent frozen soil it by fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid through getting the raw materials ready, mixture, vacuumize, consolidation, freezing step be formulated, described fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid consumption are calculated by test condition and model size; Described colourless pore liquid is water, and described fluoropolymer is the particle of particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜, and its particle is irregularly shaped, is the TeflonAF1600 that du pont company produces, refractive index 1.31, density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.3g/ ㎝ 3; Particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜ of described granular ice; The physical characteristics of described transparent frozen soil is: density 1.63g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.1g/ ㎝ 3, severe 16kN/m 3~ 21kN/m 3, degree of consolidation OCR value 0.8 ~ 3; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 19 ° ~ 22 °, cohesiveness is 1kPa ~ 3kPa, elastic modulus 5MPa ~ 9MPa, Poisson ratio 0.2 ~ 0.3.
For not affecting refractive index, water of the present invention is pure water.
The present embodiment test condition is identical with embodiment 1 with computing method with specimen size size in mould.
The consumption of the present embodiment determination fluoropolymer particles, granular ice and pure water is respectively 206.0g, 175.1g and 30.9g.
The present embodiment selects density 2.3g/ ㎝ 3, particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜ fluoropolymer particles.
Described mixture is-6.0 DEG C ~-8.0 DEG C low temperature test indoor, first by fluoropolymer particles and granular ice uniform stirring, and sample processed in point 2 ~ 3 loading moulds, and reality is hit in layering; Again water is added in mould, the space between filling fluoropolymer particles and granular ice;
The present embodiment ,-6.0 DEG C of low temperature test indoor, first by the fluoropolymer particles determined and granular ice uniform stirring, point load samples processed in moulds 3 times, and reality is hit in layering, is depressed into and designs packing 70 ﹪; Again pure water is added in mould, the space between filling fluoropolymer particles and granular ice;
Describedly vacuumizing the bubble remaining in sample inside for utilizing vacuum extractor to extract, making sample reach abundant state of saturation;
Described consolidation carries out consolidation, degree of consolidation OCR value 0.8 ~ 3 for being placed in consolidometer by sample;
The present embodiment degree of consolidation OCR value 1.5;
Described freezing removes mould for being loaded by mould after-20 DEG C of cryogenic boxes freeze 48 hours, and the saturated transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 freezing clay natural slope of obtained simulation, its physical characteristics is: density 1.63g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.1g/ ㎝ 3, severe 16kN/m 3~ 21kN/m 3, degree of consolidation OCR value 0.8 ~ 3; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 19 ° ~ 22 °, cohesiveness is 1kPa ~ 3kPa, elastic modulus 5MPa ~ 9MPa, Poisson ratio 0.2 ~ 0.3.
The physical characteristics of the made transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 of the present embodiment is: density 1.93g/ ㎝ 3, severe 19.1kN/m 3; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 20 °, and cohesiveness is 3kPa, elastic modulus 9MPa, Poisson ratio 0.3.
A kind of frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test method, it comprises following process:
(1) modeling: the transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 making transparent model groove 1 and simulating nature frozen soil side slope model according to testing requirements and natural frozen soil side slope moulded dimension respectively, described transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 adopts transparent frozen soil material to make, and reserved blast hole 3; Described transparent model groove 1 adopts transparent toughened glass to make;
When need obtain simulation saturated freeze the transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 of clay natural slope time, the present invention process (1) in, the transparent frozen soil side slope model of described making comprise get the raw materials ready, mixture, vacuumize, consolidation, freezing step:
Described mould of getting the raw materials ready as first making simulating nature side slope model according to testing requirements, then the consumption determining fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid is calculated according to test condition and die size size; Described fluoropolymer is the particle of particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜, and cleaning impurity is also dried, and its particle is irregularly shaped, is the TeflonAF1600 that du pont company produces, refractive index 1.31, density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.3g/ ㎝ 3; Described granular ice is smashed to pieces by the monoblock ice freezed, its particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜; Described colourless pore liquid is water;
For not affecting refractive index, water of the present invention is pure water.
The present embodiment test condition is identical with embodiment 1 with computing method with specimen size size in mould.
The consumption of the present embodiment determination fluoropolymer particles, granular ice and pure water is respectively 206.0g, 175.1g and 30.9g.
The present embodiment selects density 2.3g/ ㎝ 3, particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜ fluoropolymer particles.
Described mixture is-6.0 DEG C ~-8.0 DEG C low temperature test indoor, first by fluoropolymer particles and granular ice uniform stirring, and sample processed in point 2 ~ 3 loading moulds, and reality is hit in layering; Again water is added in mould, the space between filling fluoropolymer particles and granular ice;
The present embodiment ,-6.0 DEG C of low temperature test indoor, first by the fluoropolymer particles determined and granular ice uniform stirring, point load samples processed in moulds 3 times, and reality is hit in layering, is depressed into and designs packing 70 ﹪; Again pure water is added in mould, the space between filling fluoropolymer particles and granular ice;
Describedly vacuumizing the bubble remaining in sample inside for utilizing vacuum extractor to extract, making sample reach abundant state of saturation;
Described consolidation carries out consolidation, degree of consolidation OCR value 0.8 ~ 3 for being placed in consolidometer by sample;
The present embodiment degree of consolidation OCR value 1.5;
Described freezing removes mould for being loaded by mould after-20 DEG C of cryogenic boxes freeze 48 hours, and the saturated transparent frozen soil side slope model freezing clay natural slope of obtained simulation, its physical characteristics is: density 1.63g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.1g/ ㎝ 3, severe 16kN/m 3~ 21kN/m 3, degree of consolidation OCR value 0.8 ~ 3; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 19 ° ~ 22 °, cohesiveness is 1kPa ~ 3kPa, elastic modulus 5MPa ~ 9MPa, Poisson ratio 0.2 ~ 0.3.
The physical characteristics of the made transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 of the present embodiment is: density 1.93g/ ㎝ 3, severe 19.1kN/m 3; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 20 °, and cohesiveness is 3kPa, elastic modulus 9MPa, Poisson ratio 0.3.
(2) install: transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 is loaded transparent model groove 1, according to test design, in reserved blast hole 3, load detonator and explosive, explosive dose requires to determine according to test design; Face of facing outside transparent model groove 1, side-looking face and face of overlooking arrange the digital camera 6 in observable whole transparent model groove 1 space, and digital camera 6 is connected with treating apparatus 7 by data line;
Digital camera 6 of the present invention is high definition high-speed digital camera, and its resolution is 50w ~ 500w(the present embodiment is 500w), exposed frame, frame number 25, time shutter 10 μ s ~ 10s(the present embodiment is 10 μ s).
(3) test: detonating primer and explosive, observed by digital camera 6 and record the process that transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 directional blasting forms Artificial Side-slope 5, and data will be recorded by data line feeding treating apparatus 7;
In test, PIV technology (ParticleImageVelocimetry particle image velocimetry method) combining image process software PIVview2C is utilized to process the picture information gathered by digital camera 6.
Repetitive process (1) ~ process (3), the directional blasting process of different natural slope 4 height, different blast hole 3 diameter and transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 in the degree of depth, different explosive consumption situation is observed by treating apparatus 7, to analyze frozen soil directional blasting mechanism, complete the directional blasting test of frozen soil side slope model 2.
Remaining with embodiment 1.
Embodiment 4:
In the preparation of frozen soil side slope model 2, select density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3fluoropolymer particles; During consolidation, degree of consolidation OCR value 0.8; The physical characteristics of the made transparent frozen soil side slope model 2 of the present embodiment is: density 1.83g/ ㎝ 3, severe 17.8kN/m 3; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 19 °, and cohesiveness is 1kPa, elastic modulus 5.2MPa, Poisson ratio 0.22.
Remaining with embodiment 3.

Claims (10)

1. a frozen soil side slope model production method, is characterized in that it comprises the following steps:
(1) get the raw materials ready: the mould first making simulating nature side slope model according to testing requirements, then calculate the consumption determining fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid according to test condition and die size size; Described fluoropolymer is the particle of particle diameter 0.25 ㎜ ~ 2.0 ㎜, and cleaning impurity is also dried, and its particle is irregularly shaped, is the TeflonAF1600 that du pont company produces, refractive index 1.31, density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.3g/ ㎝ 3; Described granular ice is smashed to pieces by the monoblock ice freezed, and its particle diameter is 0.1 ㎜ ~ 0.5 ㎜; Described colourless pore liquid is water;
(2) mixture :-6.0 DEG C ~-8.0 DEG C low temperature test indoor, first by fluoropolymer particles and granular ice uniform stirring, sample processed in point 2 ~ 3 loading moulds, and reality is hit in layering; Again water is added in mould, the space between filling fluoropolymer particles and granular ice;
(3) vacuumize: the bubble utilizing vacuum extractor to extract to remain in sample inside, makes sample reach abundant state of saturation;
(4) freeze: loaded by mould after-20 DEG C of cryogenic boxes freeze 48 hours and remove mould, the saturated transparent frozen soil side slope model freezing sand natural slope of obtained simulation, its physical characteristics is: density 1.53g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.0g/ ㎝ 3, severe 15kN/m 3~ 20kN/m 3, packing 20 ﹪ ~ 80 ﹪; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 30 ° ~ 31 °, elastic modulus 8MPa ~ 61MPa, Poisson ratio 0.2 ~ 0.4.
2. frozen soil side slope model production method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that step (1) in, that described fluoropolymer particles 0.25 ㎜≤particle diameter < 0.5 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 0.5 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.0 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 1.0 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.5 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 1.5 ㎜≤particle diameter≤2.0 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, by weight, adds up to 100 ﹪.
3. a frozen soil side slope model production method, is characterized in that it comprises the following steps:
(1) get the raw materials ready: the mould first making simulating nature side slope model according to testing requirements, then calculate the consumption determining fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid according to test condition and die size size; Described fluoropolymer is the particle of particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜, and cleaning impurity is also dried, and its particle is irregularly shaped, is the TeflonAF1600 that du pont company produces, refractive index 1.31, density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.3g/ ㎝ 3; Described granular ice is smashed to pieces by the monoblock ice freezed, its particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜; Described colourless pore liquid is water;
(2) mixture :-6.0 DEG C ~-8.0 DEG C low temperature test indoor, first by fluoropolymer particles and granular ice uniform stirring, sample processed in point 2 ~ 3 loading moulds, and reality is hit in layering; Again water is added in mould, the space between filling fluoropolymer particles and granular ice;
(3) vacuumize: the bubble utilizing vacuum extractor to extract to remain in sample inside, makes sample reach abundant state of saturation;
(4) consolidation: sample is placed in consolidometer and carries out consolidation, degree of consolidation OCR value 0.8 ~ 3;
(5) freeze: loaded by mould after-20 DEG C of cryogenic boxes freeze 48 hours and remove mould, the saturated transparent frozen soil side slope model freezing clay natural slope of obtained simulation, its physical characteristics is: density 1.63g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.1g/ ㎝ 3, severe 16kN/m 3~ 21kN/m 3, degree of consolidation OCR value 0.8 ~ 3; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 19 ° ~ 22 °, cohesiveness is 1kPa ~ 3kPa, elastic modulus 5MPa ~ 9MPa, Poisson ratio 0.2 ~ 0.3.
4. a frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test device, it is characterized in that it comprises transparent model groove, be provided with the transparent frozen soil side slope model of simulating nature side slope in transparent model groove, transparent frozen soil side slope model be provided with blast hole according to design, in blast hole, be furnished with explosive and detonator; Face of facing outside transparent model groove, side-looking face and face of overlooking are provided with the digital camera of the whole transparent model slot space of observable, and digital camera is connected with treating apparatus by data line; During directional blasting, formed the process of Artificial Side-slope at different natural slope height, different blast hole diameter and directional blasting in the degree of depth, different explosive consumption situation by digital camera observational record transparent frozen soil side slope model, and record data are sent into treating apparatus by data line, complete the directional blasting test of frozen soil side slope model;
Described transparent frozen soil side slope model adopts transparent frozen soil material to make, described transparent frozen soil it by fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid through getting the raw materials ready, mixture, vacuumize, freezing step is formulated, described fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid consumption are calculated by test condition and model size; Described colourless pore liquid is water, and described fluoropolymer is the particle of particle diameter 0.25 ㎜ ~ 2.0 ㎜, and its particle is irregularly shaped, is the TeflonAF1600 that du pont company produces, refractive index 1.31, density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.3g/ ㎝ 3; The particle diameter of described granular ice is 0.1 ㎜ ~ 0.5 ㎜; The physical characteristics of described transparent frozen soil is: density 1.53g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.0g/ ㎝ 3, severe 15kN/m 3~ 20kN/m 3, packing 20 ﹪ ~ 80 ﹪; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 30 ° ~ 31 °, elastic modulus 8MPa ~ 61MPa, Poisson ratio 0.2 ~ 0.4.
5. frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test device according to claim 4, that it is characterized in that described fluoropolymer particles 0.25 ㎜≤particle diameter < 0.5 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 0.5 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.0 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 1.0 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.5 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 1.5 ㎜≤particle diameter≤2.0 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, by weight, 100 ﹪ are added up to.
6. a frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test device, it is characterized in that it comprises transparent model groove, be provided with the transparent frozen soil side slope model of simulating nature side slope in transparent model groove, transparent frozen soil side slope model be provided with blast hole according to design, in blast hole, be furnished with explosive and detonator; Face of facing outside transparent model groove, side-looking face and face of overlooking are provided with the digital camera of the whole transparent model slot space of observable, and digital camera is connected with treating apparatus by data line; During directional blasting, formed the process of Artificial Side-slope at different natural slope height, different blast hole diameter and directional blasting in the degree of depth, different explosive consumption situation by digital camera observational record transparent frozen soil side slope model, and record data are sent into treating apparatus by data line, complete the directional blasting test of frozen soil side slope model;
Described transparent frozen soil side slope model adopts transparent frozen soil material to make, described transparent frozen soil it by fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid through getting the raw materials ready, mixture, vacuumize, consolidation, freezing step be formulated, described fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid consumption are calculated by test condition and model size; Described colourless pore liquid is water, and described fluoropolymer is the particle of particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜, and its particle is irregularly shaped, is the TeflonAF1600 that du pont company produces, refractive index 1.31, density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.3g/ ㎝ 3; Particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜ of described granular ice; The physical characteristics of described transparent frozen soil is: density 1.63g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.1g/ ㎝ 3, severe 16kN/m 3~ 21kN/m 3, degree of consolidation OCR value 0.8 ~ 3; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 19 ° ~ 22 °, cohesiveness is 1kPa ~ 3kPa, elastic modulus 5MPa ~ 9MPa, Poisson ratio 0.2 ~ 0.3.
7. the frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test device according to claim 4 or 5 or 6, is characterized in that described transparent model groove adopts transparent toughened glass to make.
8. a frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test method, is characterized in that it comprises following process:
(1) modeling: the transparent frozen soil side slope model making transparent model groove and simulating nature frozen soil side slope model according to testing requirements and natural frozen soil side slope moulded dimension respectively, described transparent frozen soil side slope model adopts transparent frozen soil material to make, and reserved blast hole; Described transparent model groove adopts transparent toughened glass to make;
(2) install: transparent frozen soil side slope model is loaded transparent model groove, according to test design, in reserved blast hole, load detonator and explosive; Face of facing outside transparent model groove, side-looking face and face of overlooking arrange the digital camera of the whole transparent model slot space of observable, and digital camera is connected with treating apparatus by data line;
(3) test: detonating primer and explosive, observed by digital camera and record the process that the explosion of transparent frozen soil side slope model orientation forms Artificial Side-slope, and record data are sent into treating apparatus by data line;
Repetitive process (1) ~ process (3), the directional blasting process of different natural slope height, different blast hole diameter and transparent frozen soil side slope model in the degree of depth, different explosive consumption situation is observed by treating apparatus, to analyze frozen soil directional blasting mechanism, complete the directional blasting test of frozen soil side slope model;
Process (1) in, the transparent frozen soil side slope model of described making comprise get the raw materials ready, mixture, vacuumize, freezing step:
Described mould of getting the raw materials ready as first making simulating nature side slope model according to testing requirements, then the consumption determining fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid is calculated according to test condition and die size size; Described fluoropolymer is the particle of particle diameter 0.25 ㎜ ~ 2.0 ㎜, and cleaning impurity is also dried, and its particle is irregularly shaped, is the TeflonAF1600 that du pont company produces, refractive index 1.31, density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.3g/ ㎝ 3; Described granular ice is smashed to pieces by the monoblock ice freezed, and its particle diameter is 0.1 ㎜ ~ 0.5 ㎜; Described colourless pore liquid is water;
Described mixture is-6.0 DEG C ~-8.0 DEG C low temperature test indoor, first by fluoropolymer particles and granular ice uniform stirring, and sample processed in point 2 ~ 3 loading moulds, and reality is hit in layering; Again water is added in mould, the space between filling fluoropolymer particles and granular ice;
Describedly vacuumizing the bubble remaining in sample inside for utilizing vacuum extractor to extract, making sample reach abundant state of saturation;
Described freezing removes mould for being loaded by mould after-20 DEG C of cryogenic boxes freeze 48 hours, and obtain and be modeled as the saturated transparent frozen soil side slope model freezing sand natural slope, its physical characteristics is: density 1.53g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.0g/ ㎝ 3, severe 15kN/m 3~ 20kN/m 3, packing 20 ﹪ ~ 80 ﹪; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 30 ° ~ 31 °, elastic modulus 8MPa ~ 61MPa, Poisson ratio 0.2 ~ 0.4.
9. frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test method according to claim 8, that it is characterized in that described fluoropolymer particles 0.25 ㎜≤particle diameter < 0.5 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 0.5 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.0 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 1.0 ㎜≤particle diameter < 1.5 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, that 1.5 ㎜≤particle diameter≤2.0 ㎜ is 10 ﹪ ~ 50 ﹪, by weight, 100 ﹪ are added up to.
10. a frozen soil side slope model orientation explosion bulge test method, is characterized in that it comprises following process:
(1) modeling: the transparent frozen soil side slope model making transparent model groove and simulating nature frozen soil side slope model according to testing requirements and natural frozen soil side slope moulded dimension respectively, described transparent frozen soil side slope model adopts transparent frozen soil material to make, and reserved blast hole; Described transparent model groove adopts transparent toughened glass to make;
(2) install: transparent frozen soil side slope model is loaded transparent model groove, according to test design, in reserved blast hole, load detonator and explosive; Face of facing outside transparent model groove, side-looking face and face of overlooking arrange the digital camera of the whole transparent model slot space of observable, and digital camera is connected with treating apparatus by data line;
(3) test: detonating primer and explosive, observed by digital camera and record the process that the explosion of transparent frozen soil side slope model orientation forms Artificial Side-slope, and record data are sent into treating apparatus by data line;
Repetitive process (1) ~ process (3), the directional blasting process of different natural slope height, different blast hole diameter and transparent frozen soil side slope model in the degree of depth, different explosive consumption situation is observed by treating apparatus, to analyze frozen soil directional blasting mechanism, complete the directional blasting test of frozen soil side slope model;
Process (1) in, the transparent frozen soil side slope model of described making comprise get the raw materials ready, mixture, vacuumize, consolidation, freezing step:
Described mould of getting the raw materials ready as first making simulating nature side slope model according to testing requirements, then the consumption determining fluoropolymer, granular ice and colourless pore liquid is calculated according to test condition and die size size; Described fluoropolymer is the particle of particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜, and cleaning impurity is also dried, and its particle is irregularly shaped, is the TeflonAF1600 that du pont company produces, refractive index 1.31, density 2.1g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.3g/ ㎝ 3; Described granular ice is smashed to pieces by the monoblock ice freezed, its particle diameter≤0.074 ㎜; Described colourless pore liquid is water;
Described mixture is-6.0 DEG C ~-8.0 DEG C low temperature test indoor, first by fluoropolymer particles and granular ice uniform stirring, and sample processed in point 2 ~ 3 loading moulds, and reality is hit in layering; Again water is added in mould, the space between filling fluoropolymer particles and granular ice;
Describedly vacuumizing the bubble remaining in sample inside for utilizing vacuum extractor to extract, making sample reach abundant state of saturation;
Described consolidation carries out consolidation, degree of consolidation OCR value 0.8 ~ 3 for being placed in consolidometer by sample;
Described freezing removes mould for being loaded by mould after-20 DEG C of cryogenic boxes freeze 48 hours, and obtain and be modeled as the saturated transparent frozen soil side slope model freezing clay natural slope, its physical characteristics is: density 1.63g/ ㎝ 3~ 2.1g/ ㎝ 3, severe 16kN/m 3~ 21kN/m 3, degree of consolidation OCR value 0.8 ~ 3; Mechanical characteristic is: angle of internal friction 19 ° ~ 22 °, cohesiveness is 1kPa ~ 3kPa, elastic modulus 5MPa ~ 9MPa, Poisson ratio 0.2 ~ 0.3.
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RU2015144373A RU2620055C1 (en) 2014-04-30 2014-05-27 Application method of fluorine-containing polymer during production of transparent frozen soil
RU2015144375A RU2625230C2 (en) 2014-04-30 2014-05-27 Transparent frozen soil, method of its production and application
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US14/763,536 US9810608B2 (en) 2014-04-30 2014-05-27 Transparent frozen soil and preparation method and application thereof
PCT/CN2014/078525 WO2015165139A1 (en) 2014-04-30 2014-05-27 Transparent frozen soil and fabrication method and use therefor
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