CN103891659A - Method for breeding Odontobutis obscura through fish-rice symbiosis in pool - Google Patents

Method for breeding Odontobutis obscura through fish-rice symbiosis in pool Download PDF

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CN103891659A
CN103891659A CN201410149704.5A CN201410149704A CN103891659A CN 103891659 A CN103891659 A CN 103891659A CN 201410149704 A CN201410149704 A CN 201410149704A CN 103891659 A CN103891659 A CN 103891659A
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rice
water
fish
pond
breeding
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CN103891659B (en
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唐建东
王武
陈凡
吴殿星
徐育强
陆立刚
张琳丽
唐水良
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Jiashan County Water Purification Fishery Seedling Base (general Partnership)
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Jiashan County Water Purification Fishery Seedling Base (general Partnership)
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention relates to a method for aquaculture, in particular to a method for breeding Odontobutis obscura through fish-rice symbiosis in a pool. According to the method, rice is planted in the pool for Odontobutis obscura aquaculture. The fish-rice symbiosis method is adopted for breeding food organisms in water to provide natural baits for fishes, and the rice is used for providing ingestion, shielding and inhabiting space for the fishes, shrimps, crabs and others; the fishes and the crabs prey on insect pests to control ineffective tillering of the rice; original ecology planting mode that no pesticide is sprayed, no fertilizer is applied, and residual baits and excrement are used as nutrients is adopted, , so that while the problem of nutrient enrichment of aquaculture water is effectively solved, shading and cooling are achieved in summer; heat preservation and temperature constancy are achieved in winter, an inhabiting place is provided for the bred variety, the growth period is prolonged, so that the breeding yield and quality and the specification on the market are improved, and the high yield and efficiency are achieved. According to the method, the production problem that wild and natural prey of the Odontobutis obscura is converted into artificial breeding is solved, the environment of breeding water quality, apparent availability and breeding production benefits are improved, and the method is of great importance in protecting natural resources.

Description

The method of sleeper fish is raised in the symbiosis of pondfish rice
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of aquaculture method.
Background technology
Sleeper fish, formal name used at school rivers and creeks Odontobutis obscura ( odontoburis obscura), be a kind of small-sized carnivorous economic fish, with its without perverse between flesh, without fishlike smell, delicious meat, and welcome by consumers in general, have " Shanghai World Expo the first dish " good reputation famous.Excessively capture due to the pollution of water environment and people's cruel fishing, wild sleeper fish day by day reduces, and the market price constantly pushes away and rises.But sleeper fish belongs to the carnivorous small fishes of bottom, require to live in the water body pure and fresh in water quality, dissolved oxygen is high, it moves about slowly, row ambuscade property feeding method, traditional pond high density pattern of specially supporting obtains high yield and acquires a certain degree of difficulty.
Summary of the invention
In order to solve above-mentioned technical problem, the object of this invention is to provide a kind of pondfish rice symbiosis and raise the method for sleeper fish, the method adopts the pool, sleeper fishpond high yield intensive culture method, " symbiosis of the fish rice " technology of utilization not only purifies water, improve aquatic product quality, production fine quality rice simultaneously, has the triple role of restoration of the ecosystem, food security, grain security.
In order to realize above-mentioned object, the present invention has adopted following technical scheme:
The method of sleeper fish is raised in the symbiosis of pondfish rice, and the method comprises the following steps:
1.1 ponds are selected and transformation
Select plant and culturing pool by nuisanceless aquatic products home environment standard-required, traffic convenience, pollution-free, illumination, to have abundant water resources, water quality is good; Pond rectangle, East and West direction, 3 mu~10 mu of areas, the dark 1.2m~1.8m in pond, slope is than for 1:2.5, smooth water-tight at the bottom of pond; Best with clay loam at the bottom of pond, sandy soil takes second place, and silt depth 10cm~20cm; Pond surrounding is dug one of circular groove in 3mChu Xiang pond, the ridge, pond, lower bottom width 70cm, upper bottom width 120cm, ditch depth 0.5m~0.8m; Drainage mouth is set up at the two ends in pond separately, and water inlet is installed double-deck 80 order~100 order polyethylene screen clothes; Be equipped with power and be oxygen increasing equipment at the bottom of the microporous pipe of 0.25kw/ mu~0.3kw/ mu;
1.2 put front preparation in a suitable place to breed
1.2.1 clean up the pond, apply fertilizer
Carry out pond Gan Tang February~March, tan by the sun and finishing, retrofit work; At the beginning of 3 months, sterilize, leave nothing usable to the invading enemy etc. with full pond after the ㎏/mu quicklime water of 150 ㎏/mu~200; Clean up the pond and within latter 7 days~10 days, start water inlet, to pool face depth of water 10cm, discharge the mu through fermentation fertilizer 200kg/ mu~250kg/;
1.2.2 food organisms are cultivated
Apply fertilizer latter 10 days~15 days, the water peanut at Yu Gouchu water surface planting through sterilization, is fixed into band shape by polyethylene rope with little bamboo bar; Throw in natural healthy rice shrimp 3kg/ mu, pseudorasbora parva Huo Bitterling Welfare fish 5kg/ mu of fishing for; A small amount of mash feed of throwing something and feeding every other day, late March rises, and checks that pseudorasbora parva Huo Bitterling Welfare fish lays eggs, hatches and rice shrimp oogenesis, hatching situation every day, imposes a small amount of compound organic fertilizer depending on water quality situation again, carries out the cultivation of fish, shrimp seedling; Using fry, Magna zoea larva, shrimp seedling, rice shrimp as Odontobutis obscura food organisms;
1.2.3 seedling, transplanting
Select " shrimp crab is rich " No. 1 fishing rice, mid-April, adopt seedling-cultivation plate seedling, May early and middle ten days, in the time of rice shoot 3 leaf~4 leaf age, manually be transplanted to smooth place at the bottom of pond, seeding row spacing is 0.5m × 0.5m~0.6m × 0.6m, day font or matrix pattern plantation, every clump 2~3, plantation area is 50%~60% of the pond water surface, keeps water level 5cm~10cm;
1.3 seeds are put in a suitable place to breed
1.3.1 sleeper fish fingerling stocking
Rice seedlings are turned green, after tiller, by the end of May~early June puts in a suitable place to breed anosis without wound, physique stalwartness, neat specification, energetic sleeper fish summer flower fingerling, breeding density is 3600 tails/mu~4000 tail/mus;
1.3.2 the fingerling stocking of arranging in pairs or groups
Collocation is put in a suitable place to breed in ecological and feeding habits with sleeper fish without the breed variety that conflicts; After rice seedlings are turned green, stocking size is 50g/ tail~100g/ tail Plagiognathops microlepis fingerling 100 Wei ∕ mus; Put Young grass carp fingerling 20 tail/mus, silver carp summer flower fingerling 100 tail/mus, variegated carp summer flower fingerling 40 tail/mus in a suitable place to breed; After rice seedlings tiller, 80/mu of the crab kinds of 40 of stocking sizes/kg~60/kg; Put oogenesis freshwater shrimp 5kg/ mu mid-June in a suitable place to breed, continue the water quality of fostering and apply fertilizer, part shrimp seedling is as the natural bait of sleeper fish;
1.4 field management and feeding and management
1.4.1 field management
" shrimp crab is rich " No. 1 fishing rice manages according to the mode of ecosystem plantation in the sleeper fish culture pool; Growing period, growing period, not dry field, without the not spraying pesticide of dedicated fertilizer, the time of infertility that applies paddy rice; Be mainly water level management and and insect pest control; Transplant in latter 5 days, pond keeps 10cm water layer, to fully tillering; Thereafter, according to the plant height of breeding production needs and paddy rice, progressively flood, water level does not flood lobus cardiacus and is as the criterion;
1.4.2 feeding and management
In whole breeding process, feeding and management is take sleeper fish as main, regularly carries out sleeper fish and ingests that situation, body are long, body weight inspection, and food organisms situation of change, to keep natural bait plentifully as main; The cultivation middle and later periods, note observing the small fish alive of suitably throwing something and feeding if desired;
Periodic monitoring water quality index, and carry out relative recording; Keep pH value 7.5~8.6 in water, more than dissolved oxygen 4mg/L, cultivation later stage transparency requires 40cm~50cm; Breeding process, substantially without changing water, along with fish body increases, is progressively flooded, and final water level remains on 1.0m~1.2m;
Sooner or later respectively patrol the pool 1 time every day, observes the ingesting of fish body in pond, growing state and active situation, observes the situation of change of water quality and food organisms, and open end oxygenation according to weather and dissolved oxygen in water situation in good time;
1.5 results, listings in good time in time
1.5.1 paddy rice harvesting
In October, when the above flavescence of spike of rice grain grain husk shell 95%, seed hardening, adopts the mode of harvesting " shrimp crab is rich " No. 1 spike of rice to gather in the crops when rice leaf turns to be yellow gradually;
1.5.2 aquatic products are fished for
Mid or late September, before runing away, river crab fishes for river crab list marketing with cage river crab;
Sleeper fish was gathered in the crops to March in January in next year; When results, can take cage to catch to stay greatly little, gather in the crops freshwater shrimp simultaneously.
The present invention, owing to having adopted above-mentioned technical scheme, adopts the novel fish pond kind rice pattern of " breeding combination, the symbiosis of fish rice ", is the new method that realizes the high yield intensive culture of the pool, sleeper fishpond.I.e. rice cultivation in sleeper fish culture pond, adopts " symbiosis of fish rice " method, cultivates food organisms and provide natural bait for fish in water; Utilize paddy rice ingest for fish, shrimp, crab etc. provide, hidden, perch space; Fish, crab predation insect, control rice ineffective tillering; Paddy rice is not sprayed medicine, does not apply fertilizer, and utilizes residual bait, the ight soil original ecology cultivating pattern as nutrition, in effectively solving breeding water body nutrition accumulation problem, and Shading in Summer, cooling; Winter protection constant temperature, for breed variety provides habitat, extends vegetative period, thereby improves cultured output, quality and listing specification, realizes highly efficient and productive.This method changes from wild naturally fishing for the production problem of propagating artificially for solving sleeper fish, improve cultivate water environment, improve apparent availability and breeding production benefit, and protection natural resources is significant.
Embodiment
materials and methods
1.1 ponds are selected and transformation
Select plant and culturing pool by nuisanceless aquatic products home environment standard-required, traffic convenience, pollution-free, illumination, to have abundant water resources, water quality is good.Pond rectangle, East and West direction, 3 mu~10 mu of areas, the dark 1.2m~1.8m in pond, slope is than for 1:2.5, smooth water-tight at the bottom of pond.Best with clay loam at the bottom of pond, sandy soil takes second place, and silt depth 10cm~20cm.Pond surrounding is dug one of circular groove in 3mChu Xiang pond, the ridge, pond, lower bottom width 70cm left and right, upper bottom width 120cm left and right, ditch depth 0.5m~0.8m.Drainage mouth is set up at the two ends in pond separately, and water inlet is installed double-deck 80 order~100 order polyethylene screen clothes.Be equipped with power and be oxygen increasing equipment at the bottom of the microporous pipe of 0.25kw/ mu~0.3kw/ mu.
The selected pond of the present invention is positioned at 2 mouthfuls of ponds of water purification fishing base, Jiashan County, 18.2 mu of areas, 15 mu of the waters surface, clay loam at the bottom of pond, the dark 1.6m in pond.Other condition, pond transformation, the outfit of end oxygenation facility etc. are the same.
put front preparation in a suitable place to breed
1.2.1 clean up the pond, apply fertilizer
Carry out pond Gan Tang February~March, tan by the sun and the work such as finishing, transformation.At the beginning of 3 months, sterilize, leave nothing usable to the invading enemy etc. with full pond after the ㎏/mu quicklime water of 150 ㎏/mu~200.Clean up the pond and within latter 7 days~10 days, start water inlet, to pool face depth of water 10cm left and right, discharge the mu through fermentation fertilizer 200kg/ mu~250kg/.
food organisms are cultivated
Apply fertilizer latter 10 days~15 days, the water peanut at Yu Gouchu water surface planting through sterilization, is fixed into band shape by polyethylene rope with little bamboo bar; Throw in natural healthy rice shrimp 3kg/ mu, pseudorasbora parva Huo Bitterling Welfare fish 5kg/ mu of fishing for.Throw something and feed a small amount of mash feed every other day as rice bran, wheat bran etc., and late March rises, and checks that pseudorasbora parva Huo Bitterling Welfare fish lays eggs, hatches and rice shrimp oogenesis, hatching situation every day, imposes a small amount of compound organic fertilizer depending on water quality situation again, carries out the cultivation of fish, shrimp seedling.Using fry, Magna zoea larva, shrimp seedling, rice shrimp as Odontobutis obscura food organisms.
seedling, transplanting
Selecting " shrimp crab is rich " No. 1 fishing rice, is biology and the breeding ecological requirement for shrimp, crab, fish on bottom layer such as Zhejiang University, the efficient and environment-friendly type paddy rice breeding that adopts modern biotechnology to cultivate.This plant type of rice is tall and big, and plant height can reach 1.7m~1.9m, and blade is grown greatly, cane is sturdy, can grow and form flourishing water root palpus, the nitrogen phosphorus fertilizer in efficient absorption bed mud and water body on each rice joint, omnidistance can growing in the aquaculture water of 1.0m~1.2m, without roasting field.
Mid-April, adopt seedling-cultivation plate seedling, May early and middle ten days, in the time of rice shoot 3 leaf~4 leaf age, be manually transplanted to smooth place at the bottom of pond, seeding row spacing is 0.5m × 0.5m~0.6m × 0.6m, day font or matrix pattern plantation, every clump 2~3, plantation area is 50%~60% of the pond water surface, keeps water level 5cm~10cm.
seed is put in a suitable place to breed
1.3.1 sleeper fish fingerling stocking
Rice seedlings are turned green, after tiller, by the end of May~early June puts in a suitable place to breed anosis without wound, physique stalwartness, neat specification, energetic sleeper fish summer flower fingerling, breeding density is 3600 tails/mu~4000 tail/mus.
collocation fingerling stocking
For making full use of pond waters space, control in water duckweed etc., increase cultured output and benefit simultaneously, can arrange in pairs or groups and put in a suitable place to breed in ecological and feeding habits with sleeper fish without the breed variety that conflicts.After rice seedlings are turned green, stocking size is 50g/ tail~100g/ tail Plagiognathops microlepis fingerling 100 Wei ∕ mus; Put Young grass carp fingerling 20 tail/mus, silver carp summer flower fingerling 100 tail/mus, variegated carp summer flower fingerling 40 tail/mus in a suitable place to breed; After rice seedlings tiller, 80/mu of the crab kinds of 40 of stocking sizes/kg~60/kg; Put oogenesis freshwater shrimp 5kg/ mu mid-June in a suitable place to breed, continue the water quality of fostering and apply fertilizer, part shrimp seedling is as the natural bait of sleeper fish.
field management and feeding and management
1.4.1 field management
" shrimp crab is rich " No. 1 fishing rice manages according to the mode of ecosystem plantation in the sleeper fish culture pool.Growing period, growing period, not dry field, without the not spraying pesticide of dedicated fertilizer, the time of infertility that applies paddy rice.Mainly water level management and and insect pest control.Transplant in latter 5 days, pond keeps 10cm left and right water layer, to fully tillering.Thereafter, according to the plant height of breeding production needs and paddy rice, progressively flood, water level does not flood lobus cardiacus and is as the criterion.
feeding and management
In whole breeding process, feeding and management is take sleeper fish as main, regularly carries out sleeper fish and ingests that situation, body are long, body weight inspection, and food organisms situation of change, to keep natural bait plentifully as main.The cultivation middle and later periods, particularly 7,8,9 three months, note observing the small fish alive etc. of suitably throwing something and feeding if desired.
Periodic monitoring water quality index, and carry out relative recording.Keep pH value 7.5~8.6 in water, more than dissolved oxygen 4mg/L, cultivation later stage transparency requires 40cm~50cm.Breeding process, substantially without changing water, along with fish body increases, is progressively flooded, and final water level remains on 1.0m~1.2m.
Sooner or later respectively patrol the pool 1 time every day, observes the ingesting of fish body in pond, growing state and active situation, observes the situation of change of water quality and food organisms, and open end oxygenation according to weather and dissolved oxygen in water situation in good time.
results, listing in good time in time
1.5.1 paddy rice harvesting
In October, when the above flavescence of spike of rice grain grain husk shell 95%, seed hardening, adopts the mode of harvesting " shrimp crab is rich " No. 1 spike of rice to gather in the crops when rice leaf turns to be yellow gradually.
aquatic products are fished for
Mid or late September, before runing away, river crab fishes for river crab list marketing with cage river crab.
Sleeper fish is also different in Various Seasonal price, and the market price in January in next year to March is higher conventionally.When results, can take cage to catch to stay greatly little, gather in the crops freshwater shrimp simultaneously, sell, to obtain best economic benefit in good time.
result
2.1 major product
" symbiosis of fish rice " pond, results sleeper fish crop is 166kg/ mu, maximum specification 164g/ tail, minimum gauge 25g/ tail, average specification 61.73g/ tail, survival rate 75%; River crab 10.5 kg/ mus, average specification 181g/ is only; Freshwater shrimp 15kg/ mu, average 201/kg; The fish totally 40 kg/ mus such as silver carp, flathead, silver xenocypris; Paddy 286 kg/ mus, i.e. rice 194.5 kg/ mus, milled rice rate is 68%.
economic Benefit Accounting
12408 yuan of " symbiosis of fish rice " every mu, pond input costs, 30504 yuan of outputs, 18096 yuan of mu profits.
Mu benefit=per mu yield 12408 yuan=18096 yuan of 30504 yuan of-mu of costs of value (referring to table 1).
table 1 " symbiosis of fish rice " pond unit are (mu) drops into, output list
3. analyze and discuss
3.1 No. 1, " shrimp crab is rich " seed rice, is particularly suitable for cultivating in pond
From paddy growth angle, southern area development rice field breeding technology is more much more difficult than northern area.Because north paddy rice needn't be baked field, and northern damage by disease and insect is few, and particularly some animal migration insect pests such as rice fulgorid are few.The traditional Rice Cropping technological requirement shallow water in southern area is diligent fills with, roasting field and applying pesticides repeatedly, to kill animal migration insect pest.Shallow water is diligent fills with, roasting field and reserve-water-raise-fish this contradiction is caused paddy fields in south china to breed fish to implement all the time area little, promotion rate is slow.And " shrimp crab is rich " No. 1 this new rice variety, its cane is sturdy, and thick 1~3 times than common rice stem, bar skin wall thickness and hard, non-lodging; Blade is grown greatly, and biological yield is large, and well developed root system, particularly every joint form flourishing water root, and energy efficient absorption N/P fertilizer, therefore there is the title of " reed rice ".
" shrimp crab is rich " No. 1 paddy rice requires deep water plantation, and its rice straw can be with the increasing and stretch of the pond depth of water, and is genuine " water rise rice high ", the highest 2m that exceedes.Its plant (0.6m) space is large, and ventilation and penetrating light is good, and paddy bacterial disease is difficult for occurring; And the insect of hazard rice (striped rice borer, paddy stem borer, rice fulgorid etc.) is generally invaded from paddy rice base portion, to suck the juice of rice straw, after deep water plantation, can control insect pest and occur.Therefore, " shrimp crab is rich " has that resistant to lodging, disease-resistant, pest-resistant, resistance to fertility is strong for No. 1, tillering ability strong (individual plant can tiller 28~45 strains), do not need roasting field, the fast feature of growing, its desired nutrition, than high 2~3 times of left and right of common rice, can not grown the paddy rice of so large plant type in common rice field.And crawl is just meeting this paddy growth requirement: have fertile soil property, be adapted at planting in the cultivating pool of 1.0m~1.5m.
The spike of rice (average out to 26cm) that No. 1, " shrimp crab is rich " is longer more than 60% than common spike of rice (average 16cm), and therefore, this paddy rice is the kind of high yield.Its rice has the long particle shape of long-grained nonglutinous rice, the delicious mouthfeel of polished rice, attempts through constituent parts, and this rice is cooked into after meal, in the standard that all reaches high quality white rice aspect outward appearance and mouthfeel.This test is planted area and is accounted for 50% of pond water area, and the output of paddy just reaches 286kg/ mu (because there is a large amount of sparrow grazing eclipse paddy on the later stage test pool, its actual production is taller), and as converted with common rice cultivated area, per mu yield reaches 572kg.As for paddy rice in pond rationally plant area, need further experimental study from now on.
2 ponds substitute pasture and water with paddy rice, implement " symbiosis of fish rice ", for good condition has been created in the fishery of development water purification
From aqiuculrue angle, for preventing Water Eutrophication after bait throwing in, water body needs the plant of denitrogenation, dephosphorization.From the nineties in last century, scientific and technical personnel promote take pond cultivation pasture and water and support crab technology as the ecology of core, form " water-bed forest ", implement " symbiosis of crab grass ", have obtained positive effect, apply in the whole nation.But the pasture and water mankind can not directly eat, its biomass is more much lower than paddy rice, and the ability that pasture and water purify water is low more than paddy rice.Therefore, substitute pasture and water with paddy rice, change " crab (fish, shrimp) rice symbiosis " into " the careless symbiosis of crab (fish, shrimp) ", not only produced essential grain mankind's every day, and effectively improve and purified pond water quality; Paddy rice has not only added the biomass in pond, and for sleeper fish and food organisms thereof---small fish shrimp provides habitat and metastable ecotope, has improved survival rate, growth rate, the yield and quality of sleeper fish culture.Local midsummer in 2013 temperature up to 40 ℃, the highest water temperature reaches 35 ℃, and shade because pond side waterborne has a large amount of paddy rice in " symbiosis of fish rice " pond, thus pond water temperature than " symbiosis of crab grass " low 3 ℃ of left and right, pond, this is just conducive to the growth of fish, shrimp, crab.According to statistics, the pond of " symbiosis of fish rice ", high density is put into fry then in a suitable place to breed, and the sleeper fish of the overwhelming majority all reaches commercial specification, accomplishes to grow seedlings then, goes on the market then; And river crab in pond, it goes out the pond that pond specification is obviously greater than " symbiosis of crab grass ", and maximum river crab reaches 290g.As can be seen here, this paddy rice and fish, shell-fish form the same ecosystem, are conducive to cultivate object growth, still name as " shrimp crab is rich " No. 1 fishing rice.
From pond water environmental, traditional aquaculture, after a large amount of bait throwing in, only have the energy of 10% left and right to be utilized, and 90% material (a large amount of residual baits, excreta, organic matter and corpse thereof) exits pond material recycle, at the bottom of being deposited on pond, become pond sludge, this is the basic reason that causes body eutrophication.Too much mud easily causes water hypoxia, water quality deterioration summer, also can produce a large amount of organic acids, hydrogen sulphide, ammonia etc., and particularly harmful germ, parasite etc., has a strong impact on Fish Survival.Therefore, traditional aquaculture cannot be raised the special aquatic products such as sleeper fish that water quality requirement is limpid, river crab, freshwater shrimp.Not only resistance to fertility is strong for " shrimp crab is rich " No. 1 fishing rice, and flourishing root system and powerful tillering ability, effectively reduce nitrogen and phosphorus content in water and pond sludge, improve substrate and water quality, not only for fish, river crab, the foster kind of freshwater shrimp cover provide and perch, sheltered situation, also can be it fresh good to eat vegetable feed is provided, promote its Fast Growth.Conversely, fish, shrimp, crab ingest insect pest in rice field, remove the weeds in rice field, loose paddy soil, its ight soil and residual bait are again the organic manure of paddy rice the best, and in rice field equably, incessantly fertilising, be conducive to paddy growth, and produce without chemical fertilizer, without the ecosystem rice of agricultural chemicals.By breeding combination, they interdepend, promote mutually, condition each other, and form the same ecosystem---the ecosystem of " symbiosis of fish rice ".Pond is after breeding, and the nitrogen in its water body and phosphorus are lower than nitrogen and the phosphorus of source water, and the breeding mode of this agricultural, belongs to " zero pollution, negative emission " type, can become the typical module of development water purification fishery.
" symbiosis of fish rice " pattern, comprehensive benefit highlights
Rice cultivation in the pond of raising sleeper fish, utilizes its rich water and fertile pond sludge, without chemical fertilizer and agricultural chemicals, not only produce " the ecological rice in fishpond ", and purified water quality, and improving fish crop, its economic benefit is far away higher than the cultivation of light water product kind and Rice Cropping.Reach increasing fish, steady grain, the object of increasing both production and income, significant to guaranteeing grain security strategy.The more important thing is enforcement " breeding combination ", " paddy rice+aquatic products ", pond changes by the single ecosystem complex ecosystem that rice, fish, crab combine into, " water is dual-purpose, a ground receive " more, not only improve the availability of soil and water resource, and by breeding combination, save rice and do labour's the productive expenditure, reduce the use of chemical fertilizer, agricultural chemicals; Not only reduce widespread pollution from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides in rural area, improve agroecological environment, and improved the quality of river crab and paddy rice.Not only social benefit, economic benefit obviously improve, and ecological benefits are remarkable.In sum, the comprehensive benefit of this technology can be used following equation expression:
" synergy of aquatic products+paddy rice=grain security+food security+ecological safety+increasing peasant income+enterprise ", 1+1=5.

Claims (1)

1. the method for sleeper fish is raised in the symbiosis of pondfish rice, it is characterized in that the method comprises the following steps:
1.1 ponds are selected and transformation
Select plant and culturing pool by nuisanceless aquatic products home environment standard-required, traffic convenience, pollution-free, illumination, to have abundant water resources, water quality is good; Pond rectangle, East and West direction, 3 mu~10 mu of areas, the dark 1.2m~1.8m in pond, slope is than for 1:2.5, smooth water-tight at the bottom of pond; Best with clay loam at the bottom of pond, sandy soil takes second place, and silt depth 10cm~20cm; Pond surrounding is dug one of circular groove in 3mChu Xiang pond, the ridge, pond, lower bottom width 70cm, upper bottom width 120cm, ditch depth 0.5m~0.8m; Drainage mouth is set up at the two ends in pond separately, and water inlet is installed double-deck 80 order~100 order polyethylene screen clothes; Be equipped with power and be oxygen increasing equipment at the bottom of the microporous pipe of 0.25kw/ mu~0.3kw/ mu;
1.2 put front preparation in a suitable place to breed
1.2.1 clean up the pond, apply fertilizer
Carry out pond Gan Tang February~March, tan by the sun and finishing, retrofit work; At the beginning of 3 months, sterilize, leave nothing usable to the invading enemy etc. with full pond after the ㎏/mu quicklime water of 150 ㎏/mu~200; Clean up the pond and within latter 7 days~10 days, start water inlet, to pool face depth of water 10cm, discharge the mu through fermentation fertilizer 200kg/ mu~250kg/;
1.2.2 food organisms are cultivated
Apply fertilizer latter 10 days~15 days, the water peanut at Yu Gouchu water surface planting through sterilization, is fixed into band shape by polyethylene rope with little bamboo bar; Throw in natural healthy rice shrimp 3kg/ mu, pseudorasbora parva Huo Bitterling Welfare fish 5kg/ mu of fishing for; A small amount of mash feed of throwing something and feeding every other day, late March rises, and checks that pseudorasbora parva Huo Bitterling Welfare fish lays eggs, hatches and rice shrimp oogenesis, hatching situation every day, imposes a small amount of compound organic fertilizer depending on water quality situation again, carries out the cultivation of fish, shrimp seedling; Using fry, Magna zoea larva, shrimp seedling, rice shrimp as Odontobutis obscura food organisms;
1.2.3 seedling, transplanting
Select " shrimp crab is rich " No. 1 fishing rice, mid-April, adopt seedling-cultivation plate seedling, May early and middle ten days, in the time of rice shoot 3 leaf~4 leaf age, manually be transplanted to smooth place at the bottom of pond, seeding row spacing is 0.5m × 0.5m~0.6m × 0.6m, day font or matrix pattern plantation, every clump 2~3, plantation area is 50%~60% of the pond water surface, keeps water level 5cm~10cm;
1.3 seeds are put in a suitable place to breed
1.3.1 sleeper fish fingerling stocking
Rice seedlings are turned green, after tiller, by the end of May~early June puts in a suitable place to breed anosis without wound, physique stalwartness, neat specification, energetic sleeper fish summer flower fingerling, breeding density is 3600 tails/mu~4000 tail/mus;
1.3.2 the fingerling stocking of arranging in pairs or groups
Collocation is put in a suitable place to breed in ecological and feeding habits with sleeper fish without the breed variety that conflicts; After rice seedlings are turned green, stocking size is 50g/ tail~100g/ tail Plagiognathops microlepis fingerling 100 Wei ∕ mus; Put Young grass carp fingerling 20 tail/mus, silver carp summer flower fingerling 100 tail/mus, variegated carp summer flower fingerling 40 tail/mus in a suitable place to breed; After rice seedlings tiller, 80/mu of the crab kinds of 40 of stocking sizes/kg~60/kg; Put oogenesis freshwater shrimp 5kg/ mu mid-June in a suitable place to breed, continue the water quality of fostering and apply fertilizer, part shrimp seedling is as the natural bait of sleeper fish;
1.4 field management and feeding and management
1.4.1 field management
" shrimp crab is rich " No. 1 fishing rice manages according to the mode of ecosystem plantation in the sleeper fish culture pool; Growing period, growing period, not dry field, without the not spraying pesticide of dedicated fertilizer, the time of infertility that applies paddy rice; Be mainly water level management and and insect pest control; Transplant in latter 5 days, pond keeps 10cm water layer, to fully tillering; Thereafter, according to the plant height of breeding production needs and paddy rice, progressively flood, water level does not flood lobus cardiacus and is as the criterion;
1.4.2 feeding and management
In whole breeding process, feeding and management is take sleeper fish as main, regularly carries out sleeper fish and ingests that situation, body are long, body weight inspection, and food organisms situation of change, to keep natural bait plentifully as main; The cultivation middle and later periods, note observing the small fish alive of suitably throwing something and feeding if desired;
Periodic monitoring water quality index, and carry out relative recording; Keep pH value 7.5~8.6 in water, more than dissolved oxygen 4mg/L, cultivation later stage transparency requires 40cm~50cm; Breeding process, substantially without changing water, along with fish body increases, is progressively flooded, and final water level remains on 1.0m~1.2m;
Sooner or later respectively patrol the pool 1 time every day, observes the ingesting of fish body in pond, growing state and active situation, observes the situation of change of water quality and food organisms, and open end oxygenation according to weather and dissolved oxygen in water situation in good time;
1.5 results, listings in good time in time
1.5.1 paddy rice harvesting
In October, when the above flavescence of spike of rice grain grain husk shell 95%, seed hardening, adopts the mode of harvesting " shrimp crab is rich " No. 1 spike of rice to gather in the crops when rice leaf turns to be yellow gradually;
1.5.2 aquatic products are fished for
Mid or late September, before runing away, river crab fishes for river crab list marketing with cage river crab;
Sleeper fish was gathered in the crops to March in January in next year; When results, can take cage to catch to stay greatly little, gather in the crops freshwater shrimp simultaneously.
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