CN103884013B - Manifold type environment-friendly type fluidized-bed combustion boiler combustion method and device - Google Patents

Manifold type environment-friendly type fluidized-bed combustion boiler combustion method and device Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103884013B
CN103884013B CN201410114454.1A CN201410114454A CN103884013B CN 103884013 B CN103884013 B CN 103884013B CN 201410114454 A CN201410114454 A CN 201410114454A CN 103884013 B CN103884013 B CN 103884013B
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combustion
primary
combustion chamber
chamber
stage firing
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CN201410114454.1A
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CN103884013A (en
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刘行磊
龚留升
郑兴胜
郭强
周棋
聂立
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东方电气集团东方锅炉股份有限公司
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of manifold type environment-friendly type fluidized-bed combustion boiler combustion method and device, one-level air compartment is located at the bottom of first-stage firing chamber, and the bottom of secondary combustion chamber is located in light breeze room;Described first-stage firing chamber is provided with fuel inlet, and first-stage firing chamber lower end is provided with the primary unburnt fuel runner pipe connected with secondary combustion chamber lower end, and first-stage firing chamber is provided with the primary high-temperature flue gas runner pipe connected with secondary combustion chamber;Secondary combustion chamber is provided with upper strata secondary wind entrance, lower floor's secondary wind entrance and desulfurizing agent entrance;The upper end of described secondary combustion chamber connects with cyclone separator, and the top of cyclone separator is provided with high-temperature flue gas outlet, bottom is connected by high-temp circulating ash runner pipe with first-stage firing chamber.The present invention utilizes the fluidized-bed combustion boiler of manifold type fractional combustion, it is achieved the burning completely of the solid fuels such as fire coal or biomass, and reaches the effect of high-efficiency desulfurization and NO_x Reduction by Effective.

Description

Manifold type environment-friendly type fluidized-bed combustion boiler combustion method and device

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of manifold type environment-friendly type fluidized-bed combustion boiler combustion method and device, belong to boiler combustion technology neck Territory.

Background technology

Along with country's attention to environmental protection, the standard of the flue gas pollutant discharge of electricity generation boiler is the strictest.For circulation Fluidized-bed combustion boiler, the current structures using fractional combustion reduce NO moreXGeneration, especially for the coal of high-volatile, Lower furnace portion emulsion zone anoxycausis contributes to coke and CO to NOXReduction reaction so that part NOXIt is reduced into as N2。 In terms of denitration angle, reduce primary air ratio and can realize NO to a certain extentXReduce discharging, but by fluidized-bed structure and burner hearth The factor impacts such as emulsion zone combustion share, the change of primary air ratio is greatly restricted.In terms of firing optimization angle, fluid bed pot Stove bedboiler combustion with low oxygen content is to NOXReduce discharging fairly obvious, but, non-for the reaction of fluidized-bed combustion boiler desulfuration in furnace and fuel economy Chang Buli.

At present, the SO that CFBB generates in combustion2And NOXDischarge higher, need to be equipped with external desulfurzation With the national requirements for environmental protection that denitrating system can be only achieved new promulgation.This makes the advantage of CFBB energy-conserving and environment-protective gradually Weaken, seriously govern the development of fluidized-bed combustion boiler combustion technology.

In sum, existing fluidized-bed combustion boiler uses single chamber structure, the combustion system of staged air distribution to reduce NOX Generation, in terms of denitration angle, by reduce primary air ratio strengthen emulsion zone reducing atmosphere realize reduce discharging NOXMesh , but by fluid bed burner hearth structure influence, fully fluidizing for material in ensureing stove, the reduction amplitude of primary air ratio is by serious Restriction;In terms of desulfurization angle, the reaction of fluidized-bed combustion boiler desulfuration in furnace needs to consume oxygen amount, but denitration in the stove reacts oxygen amount ten Divide sensitivity, it is difficult to solve the contradiction of desulfuration in furnace and denitration.

Summary of the invention

It is an object of the invention to: provide a kind of manifold type environment-friendly type fluidized-bed combustion boiler combustion method and device, by fuel In the first-stage firing chamber of reducing atmosphere, carry out primary combustion, and realize the NO_x Reduction by Effective of first-stage firing chamber;Again primary is fired Burn in the secondary combustion chamber of product feeding oxidizing atmosphere and burn completely;Real by adding desulfurizing agent in secondary combustion chamber The high-efficiency desulfurization of existing secondary combustion chamber, effectively solves the contradiction of fluidized-bed combustion boiler denitration and desulfurization, it is achieved fluidized-bed combustion boiler is energy-conservation, The purpose of environmental protection, thus can effectively solve the problem that above-mentioned problems of the prior art.

The object of the invention is realized by following technical proposals: a kind of manifold type environment-friendly type fluidized bed boiler burning device, Including first-stage firing chamber, secondary combustion chamber, cyclone separator, one-level air compartment and light breeze room, one-level air compartment is located at single-stage combustion The bottom of room, the bottom of secondary combustion chamber is located in light breeze room;Described first-stage firing chamber is provided with fuel inlet, under first-stage firing chamber End is provided with the primary unburnt fuel runner pipe connected with secondary combustion chamber lower end, and first-stage firing chamber top is provided with and secondary firing The primary high-temperature flue gas runner pipe of room connection;Secondary combustion chamber is provided with upper strata secondary wind entrance, lower floor's secondary wind entrance and desulfurization Agent entrance;The upper end of described secondary combustion chamber connects with cyclone separator, the top of cyclone separator be provided with high-temperature flue gas outlet, Cyclone separator bottom is connected by high-temp circulating ash runner pipe with first-stage firing chamber.

As a kind of optimal way, the bottom of one-level air compartment is provided with the heat primary air with external air preheater and is connected and communicates One-level fluidized wind entrance.

As further preferably, the bottom of light breeze room is provided with to be connected with external heat primary air or recirculation heat smoke and communicates Secondary streams wind-transformation entrance.

As a kind of optimal way, fuel carries out primary combustion reaction in the reducing atmosphere of first-stage firing chamber, promotes Coke and CO are by NOXReduction becomes stability N2, it is achieved the denitration that single-stage combustion is indoor;Primary in primary combustion product Unburnt fuel enters secondary combustion chamber, the primary high temperature cigarette in primary combustion product from primary unburnt fuel runner pipe Gas enters secondary combustion chamber from primary high-temperature flue gas runner pipe, by desulfurizing agent entrance to secondary firing indoor interpolation desulfurizing agent, It is passed through hot secondary wind to secondary firing indoor, at the beginning of secondary firing is indoor by upper strata secondary wind entrance and lower floor's secondary wind entrance Level unburnt fuel and primary high-temperature flue gas burn under the effect of secondary streams wind-transformation, hot secondary wind and desulfurizing agent completely, And realize the desulfurization that secondary firing is indoor;Secondary firing Indoor Combustion product carries out gas solid separation by cyclone separator, separates High-temperature flue gas in product enters boiler tail vertical shaft by high-temperature flue gas outlet, separates the high-temp circulating ash in product by height Temperature circulating ash runner pipe enters first-stage firing chamber, it is achieved the outer circulation of high-temp circulating ash.

As a kind of optimal way, the excess air coefficient of first-stage firing chamber is 0.6-0.9.First-stage firing chamber is carried out The primary combustion reaction of fuel, the gas NO to having generated in combustion process such as coke in its combustion product and COXHave and urge Changing reduction, therefore, single-stage combustion indoor reducing atmosphere is realize denitration basic;For ensureing fuel in first-stage firing chamber The stability of primary combustion reaction, should be passed through a certain amount of air capacity, ensure that fuel is at primary combustion to single-stage combustion indoor Reaction discharges the heat being able to maintain that single-stage combustion Indoor Combustion is reacted.Consider based on above-mentioned both sides, one-level is fired The excess air coefficient burning room is set as 0.6-0.9 scope.

As a kind of optimal way, the excess air coefficient of secondary combustion chamber is 1.05-1.35.De-in secondary firing indoor During sulfur, need to consume a certain amount of oxygen amount during reactive desulfurizing agent, meanwhile, for realizing the complete of secondary combustion chamber's fuel Full burning, should ensure that the air capacity being passed through abundance to secondary firing indoor;In order to effectively reduce fan energy consumption, wind should be reduced as far as possible Machine is exerted oneself.Consider based on above-mentioned both sides, the excess air coefficient of secondary combustion chamber is set as 1.05-1.35 scope.

Acting as of parts thereof in fluidized bed boiler burning device of the present invention:

First-stage firing chamber: the primary combustion for fuel reacts the necessary place of offer and condition, and realizes fuel in primary NO_x Reduction by Effective during combustion reaction.

Secondary combustion chamber: burning completely and desulphurization reaction for fuel provide necessary place and condition, and realize desulfurization The high-efficiency desulfurization of agent.

One-level air compartment: ensure the abundant fluidisation of material in first-stage firing chamber, and be the primary combustion of fuel in first-stage firing chamber Burn the Fluidization wind rate that reaction provides quantitative.

Light breeze room: ensure the abundant fluidisation of material in secondary combustion chamber, and be the combustion completely of fuel in secondary combustion chamber Burn the Fluidization wind rate that the desulphurization reaction offer of reaction and desulfurizing agent is quantitative.

Upper strata light breeze, lower floor's light breeze: in secondary combustion chamber, be passed through the combustion air of abundance, it is ensured that secondary combustion chamber Inside have enough oxygen amount, and realize the staged air distribution in secondary combustion chamber, further up to reducing discharging NOXPurpose.

Cyclone separating chamber: a large amount of high-temp solid materials in secondary combustion chamber are separated from high-temperature flue gas, and send Enter first-stage firing chamber, it is achieved recycle stock and desulfurizing agent repeatedly circulate in single-stage combustion indoor and secondary firing indoor, repeatedly fire Burn and reaction, it is achieved the manifold type environment-friendly type fluidized bed plant efficient burning of the present invention and high-efficiency desulfurization.

The work process of the present invention is:

Fuel carries out primary combustion reaction in first-stage firing chamber, generates primary unburnt fuel and primary high-temperature flue gas; Fuel carries out primary combustion reaction in reducing atmosphere, utilizes the coke in primary combustion product and CO by NOXReduction becomes Stability N2, it is achieved the NO_x Reduction by Effective that single-stage combustion is indoor;

Primary unburnt fuel is sent into secondary firing indoor, rely on from air preheater heat primary air or from Through the recirculation heat smoke of tail vertical well rear portion cleaner unit, primary unburnt fuel is made fully to fluidize and burn;Primary is high Temperature flue gas sends into secondary combustion chamber, relies on the lower floor's secondary wind and upper strata secondary wind and secondary streams wind-transformation sent in stove, it is achieved Primary unburnt fuel and primary high-temperature flue gas are in the burning completely of oxidizing atmosphere;Add desulfurizing agent (such as limestone) to two In level combustor, it is achieved the high-efficiency desulfurization under secondary combustion chamber's internal oxidition atmosphere;

High-temperature material in secondary combustion chamber is separated from high-temperature flue gas by cyclone separator, separates the height in product Temperature flue gas is admitted to boiler tail vertical shaft region, and the high-temp circulating ash separated in product is admitted to first-stage firing chamber, it is achieved high temperature The outer circulation of circulating ash.

Compared with prior art, beneficial effects of the present invention is as follows: the present invention utilizes the fluid bed of manifold type fractional combustion Boiler, it is achieved the burning completely of the solid fuels such as fire coal or biomass, and reach the effect of high-efficiency desulfurization and NO_x Reduction by Effective, solve Contradiction between CFBB denitration and desulfurization, it is achieved fluidized-bed combustion boiler is efficient, the purpose of energy-saving and environmental protection.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is the structural representation of fluidized bed boiler burning device embodiment 1 of the present invention.

Fig. 2 is the structural representation of fluidized bed boiler burning device embodiment 2 of the present invention.

Wherein: 11-first-stage firing chamber;12-secondary combustion chamber;13-cyclone separator;14-one-level air compartment;15-light breeze Room;16-tail vertical well 1-fuel inlet;2-primary unburnt fuel runner pipe;3-primary high-temperature flue gas runner pipe;4-one-level Fluidized wind entrance;5-secondary streams wind-transformation entrance;6-lower floor secondary wind entrance;7-upper strata secondary wind entrance;8-high-temperature flue gas exports; 9-high-temp circulating ash runner pipe;10-desulfurizing agent entrance.

Detailed description of the invention

In order to make the purpose of the present invention, technical scheme and advantage clearer, below in conjunction with embodiment, to the present invention It is further elaborated.Should be appreciated that specific embodiment described herein, only in order to explain the present invention, is not used to limit Determine the present invention.

All features disclosed in this specification, or disclosed all methods or during step, except mutually exclusive Speciality and/or step beyond, all can combine by any way, unless specifically stated otherwise, all can by other equivalence or there is class Replaced like the alternative features of purpose, i.e. unless specifically stated otherwise, in a series of equivalences of each feature or similar characteristics Individual embodiment.

Embodiment 1

As it is shown in figure 1, use a kind of manifold type environment-friendly type fluidized bed boiler burning device, it is achieved fire coal or biomass etc. are solid The burning completely of fluid fuel, and reach the purpose of high-efficiency desulfurization and NO_x Reduction by Effective.This manifold type environment-friendly type fluidized-bed combustion boiler burns Device includes that first-stage firing chamber 11, secondary combustion chamber 12, cyclone separator 13, one-level air compartment 14, light breeze room 15 and afterbody are perpendicular Well 16, one-level air compartment 14 is located at the bottom of first-stage firing chamber 11, and the bottom of one-level air compartment 14 is provided with and external air preheater Heat primary air connects the one-level fluidized wind entrance 4 communicated.The bottom of secondary combustion chamber 12, light breeze room 15 are located in light breeze room 15 Bottom be provided with the heat primary air with external air preheater and be connected the secondary streams wind-transformation entrance 5 communicated.Described first-stage firing chamber The upper end of 11 is provided with fuel inlet 1, and lower end is provided with the primary unburnt fuel runner pipe 2 connected with secondary combustion chamber 12 lower end, Top is provided with and the primary high-temperature flue gas runner pipe 3 connected in the middle part of secondary combustion chamber 12;The middle and upper part of secondary combustion chamber 12 is provided with Upper strata secondary wind entrance 7, bottom are provided with lower floor's secondary wind entrance 6, are provided with desulfurizing agent entrance in the lower end of lower floor's secondary wind entrance 6 10;The upper end of described secondary combustion chamber 12 connects with cyclone separator 13, and the top of cyclone separator 13 is provided with high-temperature flue gas and goes out Mouth 8, bottom are connected by high-temp circulating ash runner pipe 9 with first-stage firing chamber 11.

Manifold type environment-friendly type fluidized-bed combustion boiler combustion method of the present invention is as follows:

First, fuel carries out primary combustion reaction in the reducing atmosphere of first-stage firing chamber 11, promotes coke and CO to incite somebody to action NOXReduction becomes stability N2, it is achieved the NO_x Reduction by Effective in first-stage firing chamber 11;Wherein: the excess air system of first-stage firing chamber 11 Number is 0.6-0.9.

Then, the primary unburnt fuel produced in primary combustion course of reaction, enters from primary unburnt fuel runner pipe 2 Entering the bottom of secondary combustion chamber 12, the primary high-temperature flue gas produced in primary combustion course of reaction is from primary high-temperature flue gas runner pipe 3 middle parts entering secondary combustion chamber 12, add limestone by desulfurizing agent entrance 10, by upper strata two in secondary combustion chamber 12 Secondary wind entrance 7 and lower floor's secondary wind entrance 6 are passed through secondary wind, primary unburnt fuel and primary high temperature in secondary combustion chamber 12 Flue gas burns under the effect of secondary streams wind-transformation, secondary wind and desulfurizing agent completely, and realizes the height in secondary combustion chamber 12 Effect desulfurization;The excess air coefficient of secondary combustion chamber 12 is 1.05-1.35.

Finally, a large amount of high-temperature materials that secondary firing indoor high-temperature flue gas carries, carry out gas-solid by cyclone separator 13 Separating, the high-temperature flue gas separated in product enters boiler tail vertical shaft 16 by high-temperature flue gas outlet 8, separates the high temperature in product Circulating ash enters first-stage firing chamber 11 by high-temp circulating ash runner pipe 9, it is achieved the outer circulation of high-temp circulating ash.

Use said apparatus and combustion method, it is possible to achieve the high-efficiency desulfurization of fluidized-bed combustion boiler and denitration, effectively reduce pot Stove pollutant such as SO2、NOXDischarge, reaches the purpose of fluidized-bed combustion boiler energy-saving and emission-reduction.

Therefore, this device and combustion method can be used in the transformation to existing CFBB, meet China new Stricter environmental protection standard.

Embodiment 2

As in figure 2 it is shown, this manifold type environment-friendly type fluidized bed boiler burning device includes first-stage firing chamber 11, secondary combustion chamber 12, cyclone separator 13, one-level air compartment 14, light breeze room 15, tail vertical well 16, cleaner unit 17 and chimney 18, one-level air compartment 14 Being located at the bottom of first-stage firing chamber 11, the bottom of one-level air compartment 14 is provided with the heat primary air with external air preheater and is connected and communicates One-level fluidized wind entrance 4.The bottom of secondary combustion chamber 12 is located in light breeze room 15, and the bottom of light breeze room 15 is provided with external The recirculation heat smoke of tail vertical well 16 rear portion dust catcher device connects the secondary streams wind-transformation entrance 5 communicated.Described single-stage combustion The upper end of room 11 is provided with fuel inlet 1, and lower end is provided with the primary unburnt fuel runner pipe connected with secondary combustion chamber 12 lower end 2, the primary high-temperature flue gas of first-stage firing chamber 11 is connected with secondary combustion chamber 12 by primary high-temperature flue gas runner pipe 3.Two grades of combustions The middle and upper part burning room 12 is provided with upper strata secondary wind entrance 7, bottom is provided with lower floor's secondary wind entrance 6, at lower floor's secondary wind entrance 6 Lower end is provided with desulfurizing agent entrance 10;The upper end of described secondary combustion chamber 12 connects with cyclone separator 13, cyclone separator 13 Top is provided with high-temperature flue gas outlet 8, bottom is connected by high-temp circulating ash runner pipe 9 with first-stage firing chamber 11.

Manifold type environment-friendly type fluidized-bed combustion boiler combustion method of the present invention is as follows:

First, fuel carries out primary combustion reaction in the reducing atmosphere of first-stage firing chamber 11, promotes coke and CO to incite somebody to action NOXReduction becomes stability N2, it is achieved the NO_x Reduction by Effective in first-stage firing chamber 11;Wherein: the excess air system of first-stage firing chamber 11 Number is 0.6-0.9.

Then, the primary unburnt fuel produced in primary combustion course of reaction, enters from primary unburnt fuel runner pipe 2 Entering the bottom of secondary combustion chamber 12, the primary high-temperature flue gas produced in primary combustion course of reaction is from primary high-temperature flue gas runner pipe 3 middle parts entering secondary combustion chamber 12, add limestone by desulfurizing agent entrance 10, by upper strata two in secondary combustion chamber 12 Secondary wind entrance 7 and lower floor's secondary wind entrance 6 are passed through secondary wind, primary unburnt fuel and primary high temperature in secondary combustion chamber 12 Flue gas burns under the effect of secondary streams wind-transformation, secondary wind and desulfurizing agent completely, and realizes the height in secondary combustion chamber 12 Effect desulfurization;The excess air coefficient of secondary combustion chamber 12 is 1.05-1.35.

Finally, a large amount of high-temperature materials that secondary firing indoor high-temperature flue gas carries, carry out gas-solid by cyclone separator 13 Separating, the high-temperature flue gas separated in product enters boiler tail vertical shaft 16 by high-temperature flue gas outlet 8, separates the high temperature in product Circulating ash enters first-stage firing chamber 11 by high-temp circulating ash runner pipe 9, it is achieved the outer circulation of high-temp circulating ash.

Use said apparatus and combustion method, it is possible to achieve the high-efficiency desulfurization of fluidized-bed combustion boiler and denitration, effectively reduce pot Stove pollutant such as SO2、NOXDischarge, reaches the purpose of fluidized-bed combustion boiler energy-saving and emission-reduction.

Therefore, this device and combustion method can be used in the transformation to existing CFBB, meet China new Stricter environmental protection standard.

The foregoing is only presently preferred embodiments of the present invention, not in order to limit the present invention, all essences in the present invention Any amendment, equivalent and the improvement etc. made within god and principle, should be included within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. a manifold type environment-friendly type fluidized-bed combustion boiler combustion method, enters based on manifold type environment-friendly type fluidized bed boiler burning device OK, described manifold type environment-friendly type fluidized bed boiler burning device includes: first-stage firing chamber (11), secondary combustion chamber (12), whirlwind Separator (13), one-level air compartment (14) and light breeze room (15), one-level air compartment (14) is located at the bottom of first-stage firing chamber (11), and two Level air compartment (15) is located at the bottom of secondary combustion chamber (12);Described first-stage firing chamber (11) is provided with fuel inlet (1), single-stage combustion Room (11) lower end is provided with the primary unburnt fuel runner pipe (2) connected with secondary combustion chamber (12) lower end, first-stage firing chamber (11) top is provided with the primary high-temperature flue gas runner pipe (3) connected with secondary combustion chamber (12);Secondary combustion chamber (12) is provided with Layer secondary wind entrance (7), lower floor's secondary wind entrance (6) and desulfurizing agent entrance (10);The upper end of described secondary combustion chamber (12) with Cyclone separator (13) connects, and the top of cyclone separator (13) is provided with high-temperature flue gas outlet (8), cyclone separator (13) bottom Being connected by high-temp circulating ash runner pipe (9) with first-stage firing chamber (11), the bottom of described one-level air compartment (14) is provided with external The heat primary air of air preheater connects one-level fluidized wind entrance (4) communicated, the bottom of described light breeze room (15) be provided with External heat primary air or recirculation heat smoke connect secondary streams wind-transformation entrance (5) communicated, it is characterised in that: fuel fires in one-level Burn in the reducing atmosphere of room (11) and carry out primary combustion reaction, promote coke and CO by NOXReduction becomes stability N2, it is achieved Denitration in first-stage firing chamber (11);Primary unburnt fuel in primary combustion product is from primary unburnt fuel circulation Pipe (2) enters secondary combustion chamber (12), and the primary high-temperature flue gas in primary combustion product is from primary high-temperature flue gas runner pipe (3) enter secondary combustion chamber (12), in secondary combustion chamber (12), add desulfurizing agent by desulfurizing agent entrance (10), pass through upper strata Secondary wind entrance (7) and lower floor's secondary wind entrance (6) are passed through hot secondary wind, secondary combustion chamber (12) in secondary combustion chamber (12) Interior primary unburnt fuel and primary high-temperature flue gas are carried out under the effect of secondary streams wind-transformation, hot secondary wind and desulfurizing agent completely Burning, and realize the desulfurization in secondary combustion chamber (12);Secondary combustion chamber (12) interior combustion product passes through cyclone separator (13) Carrying out gas solid separation, the high-temperature flue gas separated in product enters boiler tail vertical shaft by high-temperature flue gas outlet (8), separates product In high-temp circulating ash by high-temp circulating ash runner pipe (9) enter first-stage firing chamber (11), it is achieved the outer of high-temp circulating ash follows Ring.
2. manifold type environment-friendly type fluidized-bed combustion boiler combustion method as claimed in claim 1, it is characterised in that: first-stage firing chamber (11) excess air coefficient is 0.6-0.9.
3. manifold type environment-friendly type fluidized-bed combustion boiler combustion method as claimed in claim 2, it is characterised in that: secondary combustion chamber (12) excess air coefficient is 1.05-1.35.
CN201410114454.1A 2014-03-26 2014-03-26 Manifold type environment-friendly type fluidized-bed combustion boiler combustion method and device CN103884013B (en)

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CN104728834B (en) * 2015-04-09 2017-04-12 张振华 Circulating fluidized bed boiler reducing atmosphere combustion technology
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CN108518672A (en) * 2018-03-30 2018-09-11 清华大学 A kind of low nitrogen burning circulating fluidized bed boiler
CN109869712A (en) * 2019-02-28 2019-06-11 兖矿集团有限公司 A kind of modified coal fires the system and its processing method of desulphurization denitration again
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