A kind of three-dimensional printer printing flowing material
The invention belongs to and the present invention relates to fusion sediment type three-dimensional printing technology, especially relate to a kind of three-dimensional printer printing flowing material.
Along with development and the social progress of science and technology, the requirement of consumer to food is also more and more higher: not only require tasty, also more and more focuses on the appearance and modeling of food.But traditional food processing technology is limited to the shape of mould, the skill level of workman, cannot produce complex-shaped moulding.
3 D-printing is in recent years in the emerging technology that manufacture field develops rapidly, different from the removal materials processing of traditional manufacture, and the manufacture of 3 D-printing increases material.Its main technique successively prints.System automatically by three-dimensional modeling with certain thickness layering.Printhead successively prints according to the data of every one deck, finally becomes a 3D solid with regard to stacking.Manufacture means relative to tradition, 3 D-printing can manufacture the comparatively complicated part of profile.In food-processing industry, the moulding utilizing 3 D-printing can produce traditional food manufacturing process cannot to process.
Chinese patent ZL200720020715.9 discloses a kind of cake printer, adopts edible inks directly to print picture and text at cake.It by printing equipment, three-dimensional fix slide rail, the stepper motor be connected with three-dimensional fix slide rail, can 360 degree of material tables rotated and the rotation step drive mechanism that is connected with material table form, printing equipment is arranged in three-dimensional fix slide rail.Chinese patent ZL201320022312.3 discloses a kind of multifunctional food printer.The compressed air adopting air compressor to produce extrudes the material in printing head, can realize 2D or 3D and draw.But the injection adopting compressed-air actuated method to be difficult to avoid air pressure fluctuation to bring is uneven, extrude power inadequate, the phenomenon of even shower nozzle blocking.And above-mentioned two parts of patents all do not have thermoregulating system.
Produce appetizing chocolate and need complicated tempering process.Chocolate main component cocoa butter is polymorphic product, and the fat in cocoa butter can exist with 6 kinds of multi-form crystal, and in the chocolate that taste is good, major part is all stable β V crystal.Just need to chocolate temperature adjustment to form a large amount of β V crystal.After the chocolate of good temperature adjustment process solidifies, easily do not produce " bloom " phenomenon, not only taste bad, and the outward appearance of frosting is also difficult to make popular acceptance.Chocolate, cream printing also needs specific temperature, otherwise easily in nozzle, the blocking of pipeline place.
Also openly in the market and in document be applicable to the chocolate report waiting the device of special material printing, cause three-dimensional printer to be greatly restricted in the application in these fields.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of three-dimensional printer printing flowing material, can steady extruding, segmentation is incubated, and shower nozzle when avoiding material spray blocks, and simultaneously to material temperature adjustment process, when printing for food, can form the printed product of good taste; Simultaneously can automatic charging, the troublesome operation such as reinforced or replace tubes after avoiding emptied of material.
Print a three-dimensional printer for flowing material, comprise chassis frame, be arranged on the three-dimensional adjusting mechanism on chassis frame and under three-dimensional adjusting mechanism regulates, carry out the printing head of 3 D-printing, described printing head comprises:
Shower nozzle drive motors;
One end and described shower nozzle drive motors relatively-stationary material pipe overcoat;
Be set in the material pipe in material pipe overcoat, shower nozzle leading screw one end of the piston in this material pipe and described shower nozzle drive motors interfixes; Side, described material pipe bottom is provided with charge door;
Be fixed on the shower nozzle of the material pipe overcoat other end, this shower nozzle is provided with nozzle; Described shower nozzle side is provided with the charging hole mutually aligned with described charge door;
Be set in the material pipe heating jacket of material pipe outer casing outer wall for heating material pipe overcoat and material pipe;
For the nozzle heating jacket heated nozzle;
For holding the hopper of printed material, this hopper is interconnected with the pipeline of inlet control valve and described charging hole by one.
Described three-dimensional adjusting mechanism generally comprises X-axis governor motion, Y-axis governor motion, Z axis governor motion.The present invention adopts and carries out Three dimensions control by X-axis governor motion, Y-axis governor motion, Z axis governor motion to printing head, realizes the three-dimensional motion of shower nozzle.The setting of hopper and inlet control valve, realizes the automatic charge to material pipe.Binder pipe heating jacket and nozzle heating jacket ensure that material prints at a proper temperature simultaneously, ensure print quality.For ensureing that shower nozzle leading screw strictly carries out axial operation, screw mandrel is avoided to rotate, generally can arrange simultaneously and circumferential spacing position-limit mechanism is carried out to shower nozzle leading screw, as preferably, described shower nozzle drive motors is linear stepping motor, and described shower nozzle drive motors is fixed with shower nozzle guide rail optical axis back to one end of shower nozzle; Described shower nozzle leading screw is fixed with shower nozzle guide rail slide block, and this shower nozzle guide rail slide block is provided with the pilot hole passed for shower nozzle guide rail optical axis.Shower nozzle guide rail optical axis generally be arranged two in parallel.In addition, printing head is driven the leading screw moving linearly be engaged with by a linear stepping motor, and the material in material pipe, with piston motion in material pipe, is extruded, be ensure that stability and the uniformity of printing by leading screw.
For ensureing smooth charging, as preferably, described inlet control valve is ball valve, and described charging hole is screwed hole, and this screwed hole is threaded with described inlet control valve, and the inlet control valve other end is connected with described hopper by conveying flexible pipe.The printed materials such as food materials are input to material pipe from hopper by conveying flexible pipe and the charging aperture being opened in printing head lower end.Adopt hose construction, hopper can be selected to be arranged on different positions, improve the adjustability of printer, avoid circuit and parts to interfere.
For ease of the melting state of material in real-time monitored material pipe, as preferably, described material pipe outer casing outer wall is provided with observation window.Observation window is generally strip structure, axial arranged along material pipe, is convenient to realize the observation to material pipe entirety.
For meeting the needs of some special material, ensure that the printed material in hopper maintains suitable temperature, as preferably, described hopper or pipeline there is heater, such as can heating jacket etc. be set, the quantity arranged can be determined according to actual needs, such as, can arrange one on hopper, pipeline be arranged one or more.Also can select at inlet control valve place to arrange heater etc.
Described material pipe heating jacket is set in the outer height adjustable put of material pipe, is provided with the fixture both interfixed between the two.According to the difference printing material difference or this body structure of device, the height by adjustment material pipe heating jacket ensures that printing material carries out 3 D-printing in optimum temperature, avoids expecting that pipe heating jacket and device miscellaneous part produce simultaneously and interferes.Fixture can select bolt etc.
For realizing automated job, as preferably, described three-dimensional adjusting mechanism and shower nozzle drive motors are all controlled by same controller.For convenience of the installation of shower nozzle guide rail optical axis, as preferred further, described shower nozzle guide rail optical axis is fixed on one end of described shower nozzle drive motors respectively by guide rail bottom plate and guide rail upper head plate.For ease of the control to shower nozzle screw travel, as further preferably, described guide rail bottom plate and guide rail upper head plate are respectively equipped with the travel switch that controls shower nozzle leading screw operational limit.
In order to make the liquid printed materials such as food materials shaping rapidly and accurately, transparent outer cover is provided with outside described three-dimensional printer, be provided with the workbench for supporting 3D solid in described chassis frame, this workbench is provided with the semiconductor cool-air machine cooled 3D solid.To maintain interior environment temperature, solidify in time to make the material of ejection.
To print chocolate, in order to obtain β V crystal stable in a large number in chocolate process of setting, to ensure chocolate flavouring, patent of the present invention is according to chocolate processing technology, many places attemperator is provided with in the different phase of chocolate pipeline, to form certain thermograde, promote the formation of stable crystal.According to carrying out certain temperature adjustment process to chocolate before attemperator can also print again, can prevent the chocolate printed from preservation process, producing " bloom " phenomenon.
Patent of the present invention can complete the motion such as straight line, circular arc, three-dimensional space curve on three dimensions, can realize two dimension or 3 D-printing.Printable material comprises the liquid food materials such as chocolate, cream, jam.
The useful effect that the present invention has is:
Innovation of the present invention is to adopt the mode of continuous feeding to extrude food materials, and can carry out temperature adjustment process to food materials in the process preserving, carry and print food materials
Drive leading screw extruded material owing to have employed linear stepping motor, guide screw movement is at the uniform velocity steady, and thrust is large, and vapour-pressure type can be avoided to extrude instability because air pressure fluctuation produces or the phenomenon causing shower nozzle to block because pressure is little.
Owing to adopting automatic charging device, automatically can add after emptied of material in cavity, not only can save the trouble of artificial adding material, it also avoid because manually bring bubble into when adding material, cause the phenomenon of print procedure interrupt flow.
Owing to having installed attemperating unit additional, temperature adjustment can be carried out to material in course of conveying, to print the product of best flavor.Temperature control equipment can also reheat shower nozzle and pipeline after stopping prints, and avoids the trouble of frequent clean equipment.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the general assembly part three-dimensional wireframe figure of three-dimensional printer of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the three-dimensional line block diagram of the printing head 1 of three-dimensional printer shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is the profile of printing head 1 the latter half of three-dimensional printer shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 4-Fig. 9 is the printing process flow diagram of three-dimensional printer of the present invention:
Wherein, Fig. 4 is the structural representation of printing head 1 Aligning control;
Fig. 5 be printing head 1 move to required coordinate simultaneously nozzle be in the structural representation on the height of ground floor;
Fig. 6 is the structural representation that material is extruded from nozzle by shower nozzle drive motors drive shower nozzle leading screw and piston;
Fig. 7 is the structural representation during three-dimensional printer of the present invention successively prints;
Fig. 8 is the structural representation that three-dimensional printer of the present invention carries out automatic charge;
Fig. 9 is the structural representation after three-dimensional printer of the present invention completes.
In figure: 1-printing head, 2-Z axial filament thick stick, 3-Z axis rail, 4-X axial filament thick stick, 5-X axis rail, 6-Z shaft step motor, 7-Y shaft step motor, 8-X shaft step motor, 9-Y axial filament thick stick, 10-Y axis rail, 11-hopper, 12-conveying flexible pipe, 13-chassis frame, 14-semiconductor cool-air machine, 15-workbench, 16-shower nozzle upper limit, 17-shower nozzle guide rail optical axis, 18-shower nozzle guide rail slide block, 19-shower nozzle leading screw, 20-shower nozzle lower limit, 21-expects pipe overcoat, 21a-observation window, 22-inlet control valve, 23-charging aperture, 24-nozzle heating jacket, 25-nozzle, 26-shower nozzle, 27-expects pipe heating jacket, 28-showerhead electrode base, 29-shower nozzle drive motors, 30-guide rail bottom plate, 30a-guide rail upper head plate, 31-shower nozzle base plate, 32-expects pipe, 33, 34-heats pore, 35-extruded material, 36-piston, 37-copper nut.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and implementation process, the present invention is further illustrated.
As shown in Figure 1, be fixed with a y-axis stepper motor 7 and Y-axis guide rail 10 in the longitudinal direction of chassis frame 13, it be provided with Y-axis leading screw 9; Y-axis stepper motor 7, Y-axis guide rail 10 and Y-axis leading screw 9 form the Y-axis governor motion of printing head 1; Y-axis leading screw 9 in Y-axis governor motion drives the X-axis guide rail 5 on it to move in the Y direction by screw-threaded engagement.X-axis guide rail 5 is provided with X-axis stepper motor 8 and X-axis leading screw 4; X-axis guide rail 5, X-axis stepper motor 8 and X-axis leading screw 4 form the X-axis governor motion of printing head 1.The Z axis guide rail 3 on it is driven to move in X-direction by X-axis leading screw 4 screw-threaded engagement in X-axis regulating mechanism equally.Z axis guide rail 3 is provided with Z axis stepper motor and Z axis leading screw 2; Z axis guide rail 3, Z axis stepper motor 6 and Z axis leading screw 2 form the Z axis governor motion of printing head 1.In Z axis governor motion, Z axis leading screw 2 also drives the printing on it to meet and discuss by screw-threaded engagement 1 to move in Z-direction.Printing head can make three-dimensional space motion by relative workbench 15 under the drive of X, Y, Z tri-axles thus, also can make two dimensional motion when Z axis is motionless in XY plane.X-axis governor motion, Y-axis governor motion and Z axis governor motion all can adopt existing structure.
Workbench 15 is arranged on bottom chassis frame 13, it is placed with semiconductor cool-air machine 14, can blow out the cold wind of lower than environment temperature 15 DEG C, and the material 35 where necessary for extruding cools, and accelerates its curing molding.Hopper 11 is arranged on chassis frame 13 top, can arrange heater and attemperator as required on hopper 11, can to material melts, insulation.
As shown in Figure 2 and Figure 3, shower nozzle drive motors 29 adopts linear stepping motor, shower nozzle drive motors 29 is arranged between showerhead electrode base 28 and guide rail bottom plate 30, guide rail bottom plate 30 is interfixed with guide rail upper head plate 30a by shower nozzle base plate 31, two shower nozzle guide rail optical axises 17 are fixed with between guide rail bottom plate 30 and guide rail upper head plate 30a, shower nozzle guide rail slide block 18 is arranged on two shower nozzle guide rail optical axises 17, interfix with shower nozzle leading screw 19, shower nozzle guide rail slide block 18 can slide up and down along two shower nozzle guide rail optical axises 17 simultaneously; Wear-resistant sleeve can be set as required between shower nozzle guide rail slide block 18 and two shower nozzle guide rail optical axises 17.Guide rail bottom plate 30 and guide rail upper head plate 30a are respectively equipped with shower nozzle upper limit 16 and shower nozzle lower limit 20, for controlling original position and the final position of the stroke of shower nozzle guide rail slide block 18, shower nozzle upper limit 16 and shower nozzle lower limit 20 can select commercially available travel switch product.
Shower nozzle leading screw 19 meshes together with the copper nut 37 in shower nozzle drive motors 29, and its upper end and shower nozzle guide rail slide block 18 are fixed, and are limited to rotate, can only follow shower nozzle guide rail slide block 18 and slide up and down; Its lower end is provided with piston 36.Showerhead electrode 29 can drive shower nozzle leading screw 19 to drive the piston 36 on it to move back and forth in material pipe 32 thus.Material pipe overcoat 21 upper end is fixed on showerhead electrode base 28, and its inner sleeve has material pipe 32; Material pipe overcoat 21 outer wall is provided with the observation window 21a of bar shaped, for material ruuning situation in real-time monitored material pipe 32; Material pipe 32 side is provided with charge door.Shower nozzle 26 is fixed on material pipe overcoat 21 lower end, and its side has and the screwed hole of expecting that on pipe 32, charge door aligns, and nozzle 25 is equipped with in bottom.Inlet control valve 22 one end and charging aperture 23 are threaded connection, and the other end is fixedly connected with by the screwed hole of screw thread with shower nozzle 26, and charging aperture 23 is connected to bottom hopper 11 by conveying flexible pipe 12, and inlet control valve 22 generally selects ball valve.Thus, namely the material in hopper 11 is filled in material pipe 32 by charging aperture 23.Nozzle heating jacket 24 is fixed on shower nozzle 26, entangles nozzle 25, has heating pore 34 above, can be incubated nozzle 25.Material pipe heating jacket 27 is enclosed within material pipe overcoat 21, can move up and down, and has heating pore 33 above, can heat material pipe 32 diverse location; Avoid material pipe heating jacket 27 to produce with miscellaneous part to interfere, adjustability is strong simultaneously.
Heart-shaped chocolate to print, the course of work of the present invention is as follows:
1) preparatory stage: inlet control valve 22 is closed.Molten chocolate material is loaded hopper, and nozzle heating jacket 24, material pipe heating jacket 27 start heating, temperature required by being preheated in shower nozzle 26 and material pipe 32.Hopper 11, conveying flexible pipe 21 and inlet control valve start heating, by the material preheater in pipeline to temperature required.Semiconductor cool-air machine 14 is opened, and blows a cold wind over facing to nozzle 25, and makes the temperature in cabinet maintain desired level.
2) in computer, one or more three-dimensional modeling is changed into STL form, input three-dimensional printer.Being translated into by CAM software can for the G code of this 3 D-printing machined.Its printing type successively prints.
3) start to print: printing head 1 Aligning control.As shown in Figure 4.
4) printing head 1 moves to required coordinate, and nozzle 25 is on the height of ground floor.As shown in Figure 5.
5) Z axis keeps highly constant, and X, Y-axis move according to program, simultaneously shower nozzle drive motors 29 setting in motion, drives the material in shower nozzle leading screw 19 and the downward pressing material pipe 32 of piston 36, it is extruded from nozzle 25.As shown in Figure 6.
6) extruding or stopping along with material in the motion of printing head 1 in XY plane and material pipe 32, extruded material 35 is deposited on workbench 15 as required, until this one deck prints complete.
7) XY axle moves to the coordinate that the second layer starts, and shower nozzle drive motors 29 stops, and Z axis rises a floor height.Start the printing of new one deck, repeat the 6th) step.As shown in Figure 7.
8) if shower nozzle guide rail slide block 18 triggering spraying heads lower limit 20, then mean that material intraductal material exhausts.Now shower nozzle drive motors 29 suspends, printing head 1 Aligning control, and nozzle 25 pushes down silicagel pad, makes it block.
9) inlet control valve 22 is opened.
10) shower nozzle drive motors 29 drives shower nozzle leading screw 19 and piston 36 back to move, by the material in hopper 11 by conveying flexible pipe 12 and charging aperture 23 suction shower nozzle 26 and material pipe 32.Until shower nozzle guide rail slide block 18 triggering spraying heads upper limit 16.As shown in Figure 8.
11) inlet control valve 22 is closed.
12) printing head 1 returns and suspended position last time, continues to print.
13) treat that all layers all print complete, shower nozzle drive motors 29 stops, XYZ tri-axle Aligning control.As shown in Figure 9.
14) the complete workpiece of printing is taken out.