CN103875575B - Breeding method for South American white shrimps in freshwater lake - Google Patents

Breeding method for South American white shrimps in freshwater lake Download PDF

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CN103875575B
CN103875575B CN201410157171.5A CN201410157171A CN103875575B CN 103875575 B CN103875575 B CN 103875575B CN 201410157171 A CN201410157171 A CN 201410157171A CN 103875575 B CN103875575 B CN 103875575B
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water
pond
shrimp
prawn
storage pond
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CN201410157171.5A
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CN103875575A (en
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张建昌
齐绍武
柏连阳
张义
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常德家华水产科技有限公司
湖南农业大学
湖南省农业科学院
湖南水梦生物科技有限公司
刘臻
唐建洲
向建国
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention discloses a breeding method for South American white shrimps in a freshwater lake. The breeding method includes the steps of preparing work before larval shrimps are bred, selective purchasing, breeding, freshening and biological prevention and control of the larval shrimps, feeding and managing of the larval shrimps in a freshening stage and managing and harvesting in a grown stage. The breeding method has the advantages that first-level and second-level freshening is gradually performed, so that the larval shrimps are gradually adaptive to a water body with a large water surface, and the survival rate of the larval shrimps is improved by 30% compared with a method of simply adopting first-level freshening; a shrimp pond with an annular trench is excavated, and therefore the survival rate of white shrimps reaches 98%; a South American white shrimp breeding industry is adoptive to other natural water areas excepting standard artificial ponds, the technical problems of popularizing and breeding the South American whit shrimps in the lake, a large pond and a reservoir are solved, the blank of breeding the South American whit shrimps in the domestic freshwater lake is filled, and it is avoided that because the breeding industry of South American white shrimps, rice fields and other lands are damaged; input cost per unit of breeding area is reduced.

Description

A kind of cultural method of Penaeus Vannmei freshwater lake
Technical field
The present invention relates to the cultural method of a kind of Penaeus Vannmei under large water surface lake environment in culture fishery, belong to shrimps aquatic biological cultural technique field in aquaculture.
Background technology
Penaeus Vannmei, China translated name is referred to as Litoenaeus vannamei, and commodity are called base and enclose shrimp, and Penaeus Vannmei belongs to eurysalinity, tropical shrimp species, have that shell thin body is fertile, Fresh & Tender in Texture, dressing percentage high (65%), resistance against diseases by force, fast growth, the advantage such as nutritious.Originating in waters, pacific rim, America, is one of the highest three large shrimp species of shrimps in culture output that the world today generally acknowledges.China introduced in 1988, mainly in the cultivation of coastal eurysalinity waters.Current on Penaeus Vannmei freshwater aquaculture industry, generally all need to carry out the special culturing pool of hand excavation, and the construction specification of culturing pool there are certain requirements, sometimes the standing state in the high-quality soils such as rice field will even be destroyed, although final economic benefit obtains certain lifting, but this practice has certain destruction to natural environment, too increase aquaculture cost, promote to get up also to have certain limitation, therefore the cultural method improving Penaeus Vannmei is further badly in need of, popularization cultivation can be carried out in natural water area to reach, promote the object of culture of Penaeus vannamei industry development.Hunan, lake, province's Dongting Lake region, Hubei two spread all over the place, and benign climate, yet there are no large water surface aquaculture and successfully report.And remove the provincial standard of saliferous rate >=0.5 ‰ that maritime provinces is formulated, the country also not having formulation saliferous rate≤0.5 ‰ adaptation Penaeus Vannmei Healthy Aquaculture of Fresh Water to cultivate in inland and provincial standard.
Summary of the invention
The invention solves the technical barrier cultivating Penaeus Vannmei in lake, reservoir, establish a kind of method at natural freshwater lake cultivation Penaeus Vannmei.
Technical solution of the present invention is as following steps:
(1) shrimp seedling put in a suitable place to breed before preparation: the whole pool, shine the pool, sterilization of cleaning up the pond, water inlet, the building of storage pond, holding pond, train water, the preparation of storage pond, holding pond artificial seawater, the preparation of equipment and debugging;
1. the whole pool: when cultivating dry season autumn and winter of the previous year, lake or reservoir are drained water, construct by the gradient of 1:2.5 ~ 3 with the earth dyke bank protection of land and water digging machine by lake or reservoir, annular irrigation canals and ditches are excavated again in the place of 0.5m bottom bank protection, width is 3 ~ 4m, the degree of depth is 0.8 ~ 1m, and the earthwork of digging out adds to be protected on bank protection;
2. shine the pool: present polygon at the bottom of the pool, color is white;
3. to clean up the pond sterilization: annular irrigation canals and ditches water inlet 20-30cm, with sterilization of evenly splashing after quicklime 2250kg/h ㎡ization water, 10 days afterwards use niclosamidum 15kg/ h ㎡ sterilize on the full pool;
4. intake: clean up the pond sterilization after 15 days, intake to 80cm, double-deck intake gate is established in water inlet, ground floor 60 order water inlet net filtrations, the second layer 80 order water inlet net filtrations;
5. the building of storage pond, holding pond: build the little storage pond, holding pond of rectangle of 5 mu and the large storage pond, holding pond of rectangle of 20 mu at shrimp pool area without shade colour bar cloth after sterilization, little storage pond, holding pond, in large storage pond, holding pond, requires that little storage pond, holding pond is waterproof; Little storage pond, holding pond places aerator bottom a 5kw, and large storage pond, holding pond places 6 1.5kw waterwheel aerators;
6. water is trained: execute fermentation muck 2000kg/ h ㎡, composite fertilizer 40 kg/ h ㎡, for cultivating basic biological feed;
7. the preparation of storage pond, holding pond artificial seawater: little storage pond, holding pond artificial seawater compound method, water depth is 1m, and area 1 mu, adds NaCl:66.6-333.5kg, H 3pO 4: 2-2.67kg, Al 2cl 6: 15-17.5kg, Na 2siO 3: 30-32.5kg, MgSO 4: 66.6-333.5kg, NaBr:6.66-66.6kg, H 3bO 3: 133.4-333.5kg, CaCl 2: 666-3330kg, KCl:666-3330kg, throw in the micro-333.5-666kg of calcic, magnesium, zinc, iron simultaneously, start aerator and stir evenly; Large storage pond, holding pond artificial seawater compound method: throw in sea crystal 150kg for every mu;
8. the preparation of equipment and debugging: according to every 3 mu of waters surface, the standard of installing a waterwheel aerator is clockwise equipped with; Colour bar bamboo bar is plugged at the surrounding of the water surface and middle part, with the predation preventing prawn from suffering birds, drives birds away, reduces the loss;
(2) the choosing of shrimp seedling, put in a suitable place to breed, desalinate, biological prevention and control;
1. the choosing of shrimp seedling: the long 0.4-0.8cm of selective body, Individual Size is even, energetic, disease-free, without disability, be subject to stimulation by running water and have the generation seedling pushing up water phenomenon;
2. the putting in a suitable place to breed of shrimp seedling: the injected volume of the large water surface cultured prawn of pure fresh water is 40,000 tails/mu, little storage pond, holding pond every mu throws in shrimp 6,000,000 tail; Shrimp seedling puts into the previous day of little storage pond, holding pond, is prepared by artificial seawater, starts bottom aerator and fully stirs evenly; Selection weather is fine, the weather of water temperature 22 ° of more than C, throws in shrimp seedling; When shrimp seedling is grown up to 2cm, remove little storage pond, holding pond colour bar cloth, shrimp seedling is put into large storage pond, holding pond, when shrimp seedling is grown up to 3cm, remove large storage pond, holding pond colour bar cloth, allow shrimp seedling enter in large water surface water body and raise;
3. the desalination of shrimp seedling: Desalination is divided into one-level to desalinate and secondary desalination, needs omnidistance unlatching aerator during desalination; During one-level desalination, shrimp seedling is put into little storage pond, holding pond, and first day does not desalinate pool inner water body salinity, reduces the stress reaction of shrimp seedling; Second day starts, reduces by 0.1% salinity every day, within 5-6 days, reduced to by the water salinity of little storage pond, holding pond consistent with large storage pond, holding pond water salinity; Then removed by little storage pond, holding pond colour bar cloth, shrimp seedling enters large storage pond, holding pond, carries out secondary desalination; After shrimp seedling enters large storage pond, holding pond, first day does not desalinate pool inner water body salinity, and second day starts, and decline every day 0.2% salinity, the water salinity of large storage pond, holding pond reduced to 0 degree in 5-6 days, finally shrimp seedling put into large water surface water body;
4. biological prevention and control: after shrimp seedling enters the large water surface water body of pure fresh water, put into silver carp and each 50 tails of grass carp of specification 0.5 jin/tail according to every mu, in order to eat up die of illness weak shrimp and balance algae picture, prevent transmission;
(3) Desalination phase feeding and management: during the desalination of shrimp seedling one-level, nursery special compound feed prawn slice of throwing something and feeding, throw something and feed 3 every day, on average throw something and feed once in every 8 hours, the every ten thousand tail 10g of day feeding volume; Feeding time is 7:00,18:00,24:00, and evening, feeding volume accounted for 60% of day bait throwing in total amount; Throw something and feed after must washing by rubbing with the hands with 350 object bolting silks when throwing something and feeding with prawn slice, feeding method is evenly splash in full pond; During secondary desalination, by prawn No. 0 PP Pipe Compound, throw something and feed every day 4 times, Feeding time 7:00,12:00,19:00,24:00, the every ten thousand tail 90g of day feeding volume; Also in storage pond, holding pond, 0.5g Vb, 0.1g Vc, 0.1g Ve tri-kinds of vitamins need be thrown in, in case stress reaction by every cube of water body every three days;
(4) mature stage management is divided into: regulating and controlling water quality, mature stage feeding and management, daily inspection, detection, the use of aerator, Epidemic disease prevention;
1. regulating and controlling water quality: select fair weather to change water, changed water once every 10-15 days, each quantity of exchanged water, at 10-15cm, changes water at every turn and all will sterilize, to reaching following water quality index: transparency 30-40cm, ph value 7.8-9.0, ammonia nitrogen is at below 0.1mg/L, and nitrite is at below 0.03mg/L, and hydrogen sulphide is at below 0.1mg/L, and bottom dissolved oxygen is at more than 3mg/L, and upper strata dissolved oxygen is at more than 5mg/L; When water quality index changes, then regulate with corresponding substrate clarificant;
2. mature stage feeding and management: suitably shrimp seedling body length is at more than 3cm, after namely secondary has been desalinated, adopt prawn No. 1 PP Pipe Compound, daily ration of feeding accounts for 10% of shrimp body weight; Shrimp-roe body length is at more than 5cm, and adopt prawn No. 1 half PP Pipe Compound, daily ration of feeding accounts for 8% of shrimp body weight; Shrimp-roe body length is when more than 6cm, and adopt prawn No. 2 PP Pipe Compound, daily ration of feeding accounts for 6% of shrimp body weight; Shrimp-roe body length is at more than 8cm, and adopt prawn No. 2 half PP Pipe Compound, daily ration of feeding accounts for 5% of shrimp body weight; Shrimp-roe body length is at more than 10cm, and adopt prawn No. 3 PP Pipe Compound, daily ration of feeding accounts for 2% of shrimp body weight; Set up in large water surface surrounding and multiplely look into material platform, within 1.5 hours, eat up material for standard with shrimp-roe; According to weather condition or epidemic disease situation, feed intake less or do not feed intake; Long-term rainy or cloudy, daily ration, feeding quantity reduces by half; Epidemic disease occur time, daily ration, feeding quantity be reduced to 1/3rd or stop material;
3. daily inspection, detection: every morning, evening, midnight patrol the pool, observe change of water quality, with apparatus measures dissolved oxygen amount, ph value, ammonia nitrogen, nitrite, hydrogen sulphide and transparency six indexs, and make a record, in case infect water body further to expand shrimp-roe lethality, cause immeasurable loss;
4. the use of aerator: in 50 days early stages of prawn culturing, rain, the cloudy day need open aerator for a long time, conventional weather every day only at 3:00 AM to 7 unlatching aerators in morning; Prawn culturing stage is determined as reference according to dissolved oxygen amount, and start aerator every day and be no less than 15 hours, aerator is placed according to clockwise direction, every 15 days during cultivation, by the rotation of aerator placing direction, fully stir water body, harmful substance can natural degradation by stirring;
5. Epidemic disease prevention: adhere to putting prevention first, support anti-be combined into auxiliary; Within every 7 days, be a course for the treatment of, each course for the treatment of, use the beneficial bacterium of photosynthetic bacteria, bacillus, injected volume was every cube of water body 1g according to the data measured; When prawn grows to 6-8cm, be the peak period of morbidity, threw something and fed once every 15 days with organic iodine spice;
(5) gather in the crops: water surface for aquaculture is comparatively large, and increased risk, must adopt wheel to catch, reduce density, adopt and to draw in the net or lobster basket is fished for, catch and stay greatly little, go on the market in batches; When prawn grows to 60-70 head/jin, fish for 1/3rd; When prawn grows to 40-50 head/jin, fish for 1/3rd; When prawn grows to 20-30 head/jin, remaining prawn is caught; When fishing for, can not intake, stop material two days; The shelling phase prawn is avoided when fishing for.
Outstanding feature of the present invention and beneficial effect are: 1, adopt colour bar cloth to build size two storage pond, holding ponds, large cover is little, the seawater of different proportion is manually prepared at storage pond, holding pond, progressively desalinated by one, two two-stages, make shrimp seedling progressively adapt to large water surface water body, compare the simple shrimp shoot survival percent of one-level desalination method that adopts and improve 30%.Appropriate preparation food organisms, caught by wheel, catch and stay greatly little, by batch to fish for, reduce the risk of large water surface aquaculture, the method is easy, processing ease, is easy to promote.2, the Late Cambrian of the present invention difference of Penaeus Vannmei freshwater aquiculture and the mariculture shrimp pool: needed for mariculture Penaeus Vannmei be flat shape at the bottom of the pool, the shrimp pool, the shrimp pool needed for freshwater aquiculture Penaeus Vannmei then needs to excavate endless track, i.e. annular irrigation canals and ditches.According to 2011 to 2013, region, Lixian County, Hunan cultivation Penaeus Vannmei raiser more than 200 reaction, the shrimp pool of excavation endless track, survival rate was 98%, and do not excavate the shrimp pool smooth at the bottom of annular irrigation canals and ditches, the pool, lethality is about 50%.3, make other natural water areas that culture of Penaeus vannamei industry has adapted to beyond labor standard pond, solve in lake, the technical barrier that cultivation Penaeus Vannmei promoted by large-scale pond, reservoir, filled up the blank of domestic freshwater lake cultivation Penaeus Vannmei.4, avoid the phenomenon destroying the soils such as rice field because of South Botanical Development penaeus vannamei aquaculture, make the many water field of big area in inland under the prerequisite of appropriate reconstruction, culture of Penaeus vannamei industry can be engaged in, substantially increase the fishery economic benefit of these large waters surface.5, the Penaeus Vannmei of changing in the present situation of labor standard pond culture, can only expand the promoted extension of culture of Penaeus vannamei industry, can promote the development of local economy, accelerates the people and gets rich.6, the input cost of unit cultured area is reduced.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the floor map on the shrimp pool of the present invention
Fig. 2 is the generalized section on the shrimp pool of the present invention
In figure: 1, at the bottom of the pool, 2, annular irrigation canals and ditches, 3, earth dyke.
embodiment:
Below in conjunction with attached Fig. 1 and 2, the present invention was set forth further at Gou Weihu village of Guan Yuan township, Lixian County, changde, hunan province city Gou Weihu fishing ground one place area about 340 mu, the cultivation example be similar in rectangular natural lake with 2012 ~ 2013.
(1) shrimp seedling put in a suitable place to breed before preparation: the whole pool, shine the pool, sterilization of cleaning up the pond, water inlet, the building of storage pond, holding pond, train water, the preparation of storage pond, holding pond artificial seawater, the preparation of equipment and debugging.
1. the whole pool: dry season autumn and winter of 2011, will enclose fishing ground, lake and drain water, be constructed by earth dyke 3 bank protection with land and water digging machine by the gradient of 1:3, annular irrigation canals and ditches 2 are excavated again in the place of 0.5m bottom bank protection, width is 3m, and the degree of depth is 1m, and the earthwork of digging out adds to be protected on bank protection.
2. shine the pool: at the bottom of the pool, 1 presents polygon, color is white.
3. to clean up the pond sterilization: annular irrigation canals and ditches water inlet 30cm, with sterilization of evenly splashing after quicklime 51000kgization water, 10 days afterwards the full pool of use niclosamidum 340kg sterilize.
4. intake: clean up the pond sterilization after 15 days, intake to 80cm, double-deck intake gate is established in water inlet, ground floor 60 order water inlet net filtrations, the second layer 80 order water inlet net filtrations.
5. the building of storage pond, holding pond: build the little storage pond, holding pond of rectangle of 5 mu and the large storage pond, holding pond of rectangle of 20 mu at shrimp pool area without shade colour bar cloth after sterilization, little storage pond, holding pond, in large storage pond, holding pond, requires that little storage pond, holding pond is waterproof; Little storage pond, holding pond places aerator bottom a 5kw, and large storage pond, holding pond places 6 1.5kw waterwheel aerators.
6. water is trained: execute fermentation muck 45300kg, composite fertilizer 900kg, for cultivating basic biological feed.
7. the preparation of storage pond, holding pond artificial seawater: little storage pond, holding pond artificial seawater compound method, water depth is 1m, and area 1 mu, adds NaCl:333.5kg, H 3pO 4: 2.3kg, Al l2cl 6: 16kg, Na 2siO 3: 31kg, MgSO 4: 333.5kg, NaBr:66.6kg, H 3bO 3: 333.5kg, CaCl 2: 3330kg, KCl:3330kg, throw in the micro-666kg of calcic, magnesium, zinc, iron simultaneously, start aerator and stir evenly; Large storage pond, holding pond artificial seawater compound method: throw in sea crystal 150kg for every mu.
8. the preparation of equipment and debugging: according to every 3 mu of waters surface, the standard of installing a waterwheel aerator is clockwise equipped with; Colour bar bamboo bar is plugged at water surface surrounding and middle part, prevents prawn from suffering the predation of birds, drives birds away, reduce the loss.
(2) the choosing of shrimp seedling, put in a suitable place to breed, desalinate, biological prevention and control.
1. the choosing of shrimp seedling: the long 0.5cm of selective body, Individual Size is even, energetic, disease-free, without disability, be subject to the generation seedling that stimulation by running water has top water phenomenon.
2. the putting in a suitable place to breed of shrimp seedling: the injected volume of the large water surface cultured prawn of pure fresh water is 40,000 tails/mu, little storage pond, holding pond every mu throws in shrimp 6,000,000 tail; Shrimp seedling puts into the previous day of little storage pond, holding pond, is prepared by artificial seawater, starts bottom aerator and fully stirs evenly; Selection weather is fine, the weather of water temperature 22 ° of more than C, throws in shrimp seedling; When shrimp seedling is grown up to 2cm, remove little storage pond, holding pond colour bar cloth, shrimp seedling is put into large storage pond, holding pond, when shrimp seedling is grown up to 3cm, remove large storage pond, holding pond colour bar cloth, allow shrimp seedling enter in large water surface water body and raise.
3. the desalination of shrimp seedling: Desalination is divided into one-level to desalinate and secondary desalination, needs omnidistance unlatching aerator during desalination; During one-level desalination, shrimp seedling is put into little storage pond, holding pond, and first day does not desalinate pool inner water body salinity, reduces the stress reaction of shrimp seedling; Second day starts, reduces by 0.1% salinity every day, within 5-6 days, reduced to by the water salinity of little storage pond, holding pond consistent with large storage pond, holding pond water salinity; Then removed by little storage pond, holding pond colour bar cloth, shrimp seedling enters large storage pond, holding pond, carries out secondary desalination; After shrimp seedling enters large storage pond, holding pond, first day does not desalinate pool inner water body salinity, and second day starts, and decline every day 0.2% salinity, the water salinity of large storage pond, holding pond reduced to 0 degree in 5-6 days, finally shrimp seedling put into large water surface water body; The key that the large water surface supports shrimp is that the temporary of shrimp seedling supports technology, needs the moment to pay close attention to shrimp seedling density, ammonia nitrogen and nitrite; Density is excessive, is suitably expanded by storage pond, holding pond; Ammonia nitrogen and nitrite too high, then need to use substrate clarificant, reduce the content of water body ammonia nitrogen and nitrite, guarantee the desalination environment of shrimp seedling.
4. biological prevention and control: after shrimp seedling enters the large water surface water body of pure fresh water, put into according to every mu the silver carp and each 50 tails of grass carp that specification is 0.5 jin/tail, in order to eat up die of illness weak shrimp and balance algae picture, prevent transmission.
(3) Desalination phase feeding and management: during the desalination of shrimp seedling one-level, nursery special compound feed prawn slice of throwing something and feeding, throw something and feed 3 every day, on average throw something and feed once in every 8 hours, the every ten thousand tail 10g of day feeding volume; Feeding time is 7:00,18:00,24:00, and evening, feeding volume accounted for 60% of day bait throwing in total amount; Throw something and feed after must washing by rubbing with the hands with 350 object bolting silks when throwing something and feeding with prawn slice, feeding method is evenly splash in full pond; During secondary desalination, prawn No. 0 PP Pipe Compound of producing with Zhejiang Ming Hui feed corporation,Ltd, throws something and feeds 4 every day, Feeding time 7:00,12:00,19:00,24:00, the every ten thousand tail 90g of day feeding volume; Also in storage pond, holding pond, 0.5g Vb, 0.1g Vc, 0.1g Ve tri-kinds of vitamins need be thrown in, in case stress reaction by every cube of water body every three days.
(4) mature stage management is divided into: regulating and controlling water quality, mature stage feeding and management, daily inspection, detection, the use of aerator, Epidemic disease prevention;
1. regulating and controlling water quality: select fair weather to change water, changed water once every 10 days, each quantity of exchanged water 10cm, change water at every turn and all will sterilize, to reaching following water quality index: transparency 30cm, ph value 7.8, ammonia nitrogen is at below 0.1mg/L, and nitrite is at below 0.03mg/L, and hydrogen sulphide is at below 0.1mg/L, and bottom dissolved oxygen is at more than 3mg/L, and upper strata dissolved oxygen is at more than 5mg/L; Water quality index changes, then regulate with corresponding substrate clarificant.
2. mature stage feeding and management: suitably shrimp seedling body length is at more than 3cm, after namely secondary has been desalinated, adopt prawn No. 1 PP Pipe Compound that Zhejiang Ming Hui feed corporation,Ltd produces, daily ration of feeding accounts for 10% of shrimp body weight; Shrimp-roe body length is at more than 5cm, and adopt prawn No. 1 half PP Pipe Compound that Zhejiang Ming Hui feed corporation,Ltd produces, daily ration of feeding accounts for 8% of shrimp body weight; Shrimp-roe body length is when more than 6cm, and adopt prawn No. 2 PP Pipe Compound that Zhejiang Ming Hui feed corporation,Ltd produces, daily ration of feeding accounts for 6% of shrimp body weight; Shrimp-roe body length is at more than 8cm, and adopt prawn No. 2 half PP Pipe Compound that Zhejiang Ming Hui feed corporation,Ltd produces, daily ration of feeding accounts for 5% of shrimp body weight; Shrimp-roe body length is at more than 10cm, and adopt prawn No. 3 PP Pipe Compound that Zhejiang Ming Hui feed corporation,Ltd produces, daily ration of feeding accounts for 2% of shrimp body weight; Set up in large water surface surrounding and multiplely look into material platform, within 1.5 hours, eat up material for standard with shrimp-roe, eat up before at this moment, next time throws something and feeds, and adds a bit; Eat up material after at this moment, next time throws something and feeds, material of adding some points less; According to weather condition or epidemic disease situation, feed intake less or do not feed intake; Long-term rainy, cloudy, daily ration, feeding quantity reduces by half; Epidemic disease occur time, daily ration, feeding quantity be reduced to 1/3rd or stop material.
3. daily inspection, detection: every morning, evening, midnight patrol the pool, observe change of water quality, with apparatus measures dissolved oxygen amount, ph value, ammonia nitrogen, nitrite, hydrogen sulphide and transparency six indexs, and make a record; If ph value and transparency height then change water, and quantity of exchanged water is breeding water body 5%, and simultaneously according to depth of water 1m, every mu adds denitrifying bacteria 0.15kg and regulates; pwhen H value is low, every mu adds lime 10kg and regulates, and every mu adds zeolite powder 15kg and stablizes ammonia nitrogen in water body, nitrite, hydrogen sulphide index, in case infect water body further to expand shrimp-roe lethality, causes immeasurable loss.
4. the use of aerator: prawn culturing early stage 50 days, except rainy, cloudy day need start aerator for a long time, every day only starts to morning 7 at 3:00 AM, and large water surface cultured prawn is Ecology environment after all, just can meet the requirement of prawn to oxygen by nature dissolved oxygen.Prawn culturing stage is determined as reference according to dissolved oxygen amount, starts aerator every day and is no less than 15 hours; Putting of aerator is placed according to clockwise direction, and every 15 days during cultivation, by the rotation of aerator placing direction, fully stir water body, allowing harmful substance pass through stirring can natural degradation.
5. Epidemic disease prevention: adhere to putting prevention first, support anti-be combined into auxiliary; Within every 7 days, be a course for the treatment of, each course for the treatment of, use the beneficial bacterium of photosynthetic bacteria, bacillus, injected volume was every cube of water body 1g according to the data measured.Prawn is the peak period of morbidity when growing to 6-8cm, throws something and feeds once with organic iodine spice every 15 days.
(5) gather in the crops: water surface for aquaculture is comparatively large, and increased risk, must adopt wheel to catch, reduce density, adopt and to draw in the net or lobster basket is fished for, catch and stay greatly little, go on the market in batches; When prawn grows to 60-70 head/jin, fish for 1/3rd; When prawn grows to 40-50 head/jin, fish for 1/3rd; When prawn grows to 20-30 head/jin, remaining prawn is caught; When fishing for, can not intake, stop material two days; The shelling phase prawn is avoided when fishing for.
According to cultivating example calculation above, cost per mu about 0.5 ten thousand yuan, totally 170 ten thousand yuan.Form into shrimp to fish in three batches, first 6.5 ten thousand jin, specification is 60/jin, and price is 18 yuan/jin; Second batch 70,000 jin, specification is 40 ~ 50/jin, and price is 22 ~ 25 yuan/jin; 3rd batch 6.5 ten thousand jin, specification is 22 ~ 38/jin, and price is 30 yuan/jin; Three batches catch prawns 200,000 jin altogether, and take in 4,800,000 yuan, gross profit reaches 3,100,000 yuan, and on average every mu of net profit reaches more than 0.9 ten thousand yuan, successfully achieve lake (the large water surface) aquaculture model.

Claims (1)

1. a cultural method for Penaeus Vannmei freshwater lake, is characterized in that, breeding process is following steps:
(1) shrimp seedling put in a suitable place to breed before preparation: the whole pool, shine the pool, sterilization of cleaning up the pond, water inlet, the building of storage pond, holding pond, train water, the preparation of storage pond, holding pond artificial seawater, the preparation of equipment and debugging;
1. the whole pool: when cultivating dry season autumn and winter of the previous year, lake or reservoir are drained water, construct by the gradient of 1:2.5 ~ 3 with the earth dyke bank protection of land and water digging machine by lake or reservoir, annular irrigation canals and ditches are excavated again in the place of 0.5m bottom bank protection, width is 3 ~ 4m, the degree of depth is 0.8 ~ 1m, and the earthwork of digging out adds to be protected on bank protection;
2. shine the pool: present polygon at the bottom of the pool, color is white;
3. to clean up the pond sterilization: annular irrigation canals and ditches water inlet 20-30cm, with sterilization of evenly splashing after quicklime 2250kg/h ㎡ization water, 10 days afterwards use niclosamidum 15kg/ h ㎡ sterilize on the full pool;
4. intake: clean up the pond sterilization after 15 days, intake to 80cm, double-deck intake gate is established in water inlet, ground floor 60 order water inlet net filtrations, the second layer 80 order water inlet net filtrations;
5. the building of storage pond, holding pond: build the little storage pond, holding pond of rectangle of 5 mu and the large storage pond, holding pond of rectangle of 20 mu at shrimp pool area without shade colour bar cloth after sterilization, little storage pond, holding pond, in large storage pond, holding pond, requires that little storage pond, holding pond is waterproof; Little storage pond, holding pond places aerator bottom a 5kw, and large storage pond, holding pond places 6 1.5kw waterwheel aerators;
6. water is trained: execute fermentation muck 2000kg/ h ㎡, composite fertilizer 40 kg/ h ㎡, for cultivating basic biological feed;
7. the preparation of storage pond, holding pond artificial seawater: little storage pond, holding pond artificial seawater compound method, water depth is 1m, and area 1 mu, adds NaCl:66.6-333.5kg, H 3pO 4: 2-2.67kg, Al 2cl 6: 15-17.5kg, Na 2siO 3: 30-32.5kg, MgSO 4: 66.6-333.5kg, NaBr:6.66-66.6kg, H 3bO 3: 133.4-333.5kg, CaCl 2: 666-3330kg, KCl:666-3330kg, throw in the micro-333.5-666kg of calcic, magnesium, zinc, iron simultaneously, start aerator and stir evenly; Large storage pond, holding pond artificial seawater compound method: throw in sea crystal 150kg for every mu;
8. the preparation of equipment and debugging: according to every 3 mu of waters surface, the standard of installing a waterwheel aerator is clockwise equipped with; Colour bar bamboo bar is plugged at the surrounding of the water surface and middle part, with the predation preventing prawn from suffering birds, drives birds away, reduces the loss;
(2) the choosing of shrimp seedling, put in a suitable place to breed, desalinate, biological prevention and control;
1. the choosing of shrimp seedling: the long 0.4-0.8cm of selective body, Individual Size is even, energetic, disease-free, without disability, be subject to stimulation by running water and have the generation seedling pushing up water phenomenon;
2. the putting in a suitable place to breed of shrimp seedling: the injected volume of the large water surface cultured prawn of pure fresh water is 40,000 tails/mu, little storage pond, holding pond every mu throws in shrimp 6,000,000 tail; Shrimp seedling puts into the previous day of little storage pond, holding pond, is prepared by artificial seawater, starts bottom aerator and fully stirs evenly; Selection weather is fine, the weather of water temperature 22 ° of more than C, throws in shrimp seedling; When shrimp seedling is grown up to 2cm, remove little storage pond, holding pond colour bar cloth, shrimp seedling is put into large storage pond, holding pond, when shrimp seedling is grown up to 3cm, remove large storage pond, holding pond colour bar cloth, allow shrimp seedling enter in large water surface water body and raise;
3. the desalination of shrimp seedling: Desalination is divided into one-level to desalinate and secondary desalination, needs omnidistance unlatching aerator during desalination; During one-level desalination, shrimp seedling is put into little storage pond, holding pond, and first day does not desalinate pool inner water body salinity, reduces the stress reaction of shrimp seedling; Second day starts, reduces by 0.1% salinity every day, within 5-6 days, reduced to by the water salinity of little storage pond, holding pond consistent with large storage pond, holding pond water salinity; Then removed by little storage pond, holding pond colour bar cloth, shrimp seedling enters large storage pond, holding pond, carries out secondary desalination; After shrimp seedling enters large storage pond, holding pond, first day does not desalinate pool inner water body salinity, and second day starts, and decline every day 0.2% salinity, the water salinity of large storage pond, holding pond reduced to 0 degree in 5-6 days, finally shrimp seedling put into large water surface water body;
4. biological prevention and control: after shrimp seedling enters the large water surface water body of pure fresh water, put into silver carp and each 50 tails of grass carp of specification 0.5 jin/tail according to every mu, in order to eat up die of illness weak shrimp and balance algae picture, prevent transmission;
(3) Desalination phase feeding and management: during the desalination of shrimp seedling one-level, nursery special compound feed prawn slice of throwing something and feeding, throw something and feed 3 every day, on average throw something and feed once in every 8 hours, the every ten thousand tail 10g of day feeding volume; Feeding time is 7:00,18:00,24:00, and evening, feeding volume accounted for 60% of day bait throwing in total amount; Throw something and feed after must washing by rubbing with the hands with 350 object bolting silks when throwing something and feeding with prawn slice, feeding method is evenly splash in full pond; During secondary desalination, by prawn No. 0 PP Pipe Compound, throw something and feed every day 4 times, Feeding time 7:00,12:00,19:00,24:00, the every ten thousand tail 90g of day feeding volume; Also in storage pond, holding pond, 0.5g Vb, 0.1g Vc, 0.1g Ve tri-kinds of vitamins need be thrown in, in case stress reaction by every cube of water body every three days;
(4) mature stage management is divided into: regulating and controlling water quality, mature stage feeding and management, daily inspection, detection, the use of aerator, Epidemic disease prevention;
1. regulating and controlling water quality: select fair weather to change water, changed water once every 10-15 days, each quantity of exchanged water, at 10-15cm, changes water at every turn and all will sterilize, to reaching following water quality index: transparency 30-40cm, ph value 7.8-9.0, ammonia nitrogen is at below 0.1mg/L, and nitrite is at below 0.03mg/L, and hydrogen sulphide is at below 0.1mg/L, and bottom dissolved oxygen is at more than 3mg/L, and upper strata dissolved oxygen is at more than 5mg/L; When water quality index changes, then regulate with corresponding substrate clarificant;
2. mature stage feeding and management: suitably shrimp seedling body length is at more than 3cm, after namely secondary has been desalinated, adopt prawn No. 1 PP Pipe Compound, daily ration of feeding accounts for 10% of shrimp body weight; Shrimp-roe body length is at more than 5cm, and adopt prawn No. 1 half PP Pipe Compound, daily ration of feeding accounts for 8% of shrimp body weight; Shrimp-roe body length is when more than 6cm, and adopt prawn No. 2 PP Pipe Compound, daily ration of feeding accounts for 6% of shrimp body weight; Shrimp-roe body length is at more than 8cm, and adopt prawn No. 2 half PP Pipe Compound, daily ration of feeding accounts for 5% of shrimp body weight; Shrimp-roe body length is at more than 10cm, and adopt prawn No. 3 PP Pipe Compound, daily ration of feeding accounts for 2% of shrimp body weight; Set up in large water surface surrounding and multiplely look into material platform, within 1.5 hours, eat up material for standard with shrimp-roe; According to weather condition or epidemic disease situation, feed intake less or do not feed intake; Long-term rainy or cloudy, daily ration, feeding quantity reduces by half; Epidemic disease occur time, daily ration, feeding quantity be reduced to 1/3rd or stop material;
3. daily inspection, detection: every morning, evening, midnight patrol the pool, observe change of water quality, with apparatus measures dissolved oxygen amount, ph value, ammonia nitrogen, nitrite, hydrogen sulphide and transparency six indexs, and make a record, in case infect water body further to expand shrimp-roe lethality, cause immeasurable loss;
4. the use of aerator: in 50 days early stages of prawn culturing, rain, the cloudy day need open aerator for a long time, conventional weather every day only at 3:00 AM to 7 unlatching aerators in morning; Prawn culturing stage is determined as reference according to dissolved oxygen amount, and start aerator every day and be no less than 15 hours, aerator is placed according to clockwise direction, every 15 days during cultivation, by the rotation of aerator placing direction, fully stir water body, harmful substance can natural degradation by stirring;
5. Epidemic disease prevention: adhere to putting prevention first, support anti-be combined into auxiliary; Within every 7 days, be a course for the treatment of, each course for the treatment of, use the beneficial bacterium of photosynthetic bacteria, bacillus, injected volume was every cube of water body 1g according to the data measured; When prawn grows to 6-8cm, be the peak period of morbidity, threw something and fed once every 15 days with organic iodine spice;
(5) gather in the crops: water surface for aquaculture is comparatively large, and increased risk, must adopt wheel to catch, reduce density, adopt and to draw in the net or lobster basket is fished for, catch and stay greatly little, go on the market in batches; When prawn grows to 60-70 head/jin, fish for 1/3rd; When prawn grows to 40-50 head/jin, fish for 1/3rd; When prawn grows to 20-30 head/jin, remaining prawn is caught; When fishing for, can not intake, stop material two days; The shelling phase prawn is avoided when fishing for.
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