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CN103871387B - Sampling an image based on the light modulation liquid crystal panel - Google Patents

Sampling an image based on the light modulation liquid crystal panel Download PDF

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CN103871387B
CN103871387B CN 201410131479 CN201410131479A CN103871387B CN 103871387 B CN103871387 B CN 103871387B CN 201410131479 CN201410131479 CN 201410131479 CN 201410131479 A CN201410131479 A CN 201410131479A CN 103871387 B CN103871387 B CN 103871387B
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CN 201410131479
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CN103871387A (en )
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曹章
徐立军
周家怡
魏天啸
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北京航空航天大学
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Abstract

本发明提供一种用液晶屏进行光调制的压缩采样方法,所用元件包括:液晶屏、液晶屏驱动控制电路、傅里叶透镜、光电二极管。 The present invention provides a method of compressing sampling light modulation liquid crystal panel, used element comprising: a liquid crystal panel, the liquid crystal panel drive control circuit, a Fourier lens, a photodiode. 该方法包括以下步骤:所测物体发出的光经光学成像部件成像在液晶屏上。 The method comprises the steps of: measuring the light emitted by the object imaged by the optical imaging means on the screen. 液晶屏的每个像素相当于一个光开关,液晶屏驱动电路控制液晶的扭转,以改变其透光率,使光线有选择地透过液晶屏。 Each LCD pixel corresponds to a light switch, a control circuit driving the liquid crystal panel of the liquid crystal twist to change light transmittance, so that the light is selectively transmitted through the liquid crystal panel. 通过液晶屏的透光率变化,物理上实现一个可编程的观测矩阵。 By variation of the light transmittance of the liquid crystal panel, to implement a programmable physical observation matrix. 透过液晶屏的光线射入傅里叶透镜。 A Fourier lens incident light through the liquid crystal panel. 光电二极管在透镜焦点处接受光强,并对光强进行积分,得到的结果相当于压缩传感理论中的观测值。 A photodiode receiving the light intensity at the focal point of the lens, light intensity and integrating the resulting values ​​corresponding to the observed compression sensing theory. 本发明结构简单、成本较低,在光学成像及图像采集领域有较好的使用价值和广阔的应用前景。 The present invention is of simple structure, low cost, better value and broad application prospects in the field of optical imaging and image acquisition.

Description

一种基于液晶屏光调制的图像采样方法(一) An image sampling light modulation liquid crystal panel based on (a)

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及将压缩传感理论应用于图像采集的技术领域,特别涉及一种将液晶屏作为观测矩阵的物理实现方式的新型压缩采样方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to compressed sensing Field theory to image acquisition, and particularly relates to a liquid crystal panel as a physical observation matrix a novel way to achieve compression sampling methods. (二) (two)

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 传统的信号采集以奈奎斯特采样定理为基础,在获取信号时,采样频率必须大于信号中最高频率的两倍,才能精确重构信号。 [0002] The conventional signal acquisition Nyquist sampling theorem, based upon the signal acquisition, the sampling frequency must be greater than twice the highest frequency signals in order to accurately reconstruct the signal. 但是随着科技的迅速发展,高分辨率的数码设备采样产生了庞大的数据,如何更高效地处理这些数据并最大限度地节省存储和传输成本是一大难题,给信号处理能力提出了更高要求,也给相应的硬件设备带来了极大挑战。 But with the rapid development of science and technology, high-resolution digital sampling device generates a huge data, how to process the data more efficiently and maximize the save storage and transport costs are a major problem, to a higher signal processing capabilities requirements, but also brought great challenges to the appropriate hardware. 实际上,传统采样得到的大部分数据是不重要的,在信号或图像的处理过程中,只保留某些重要的数据,舍弃大量的冗余数据,重构后的信号或图像并不会引起视觉上的差异。 In fact, most of the data obtained by the traditional sampling is unimportant, in the signal processing or image, leaving only some important data, give up a lot of redundant data, signal or image reconstructed and will not cause visual difference. 由于采集到的数据大部分都是不重要的,可以被丢弃,那么可以直接采集那部分重要的、最后没有被丢弃的数据,并且能够精确地重构原始信号或图像,这便是压缩传感理论的思想。 Since most of the data collected is not important, it can be discarded, it can be collected directly important that part of the last data is not discarded, and is able to accurately reconstruct the original signal or image, which is compressed sensing thought and theory.

[0003] 压缩传感理论是由Cand6s和Donoho在相关研究的基础上于2006年正式提出的。 [0003] compressive sensing theory is Cand6s and Donoho on the basis of relevant studies in 2006 formally proposed. 其核心思想是将压缩与采样合并进行。 The core idea is to merge with the sampling compression. 首先采集信号的非自适应线性投影(测量值),然后根据相应重构算法由测量值重构原始信号。 Non-adaptive linear projection (measured value), then the algorithm to reconstruct the original signal is reconstructed from the measured values ​​according to the corresponding First signal acquisition 压缩传感的优点在于信号的投影测量数据量远远小于传统采样方法所获的数据量,并且能够抑制随机噪声。 Advantage is to measure the amount of compressed sensing the projection data signals is much smaller than the amount of data obtained in conventional sampling methods, and the random noise can be suppressed. 该原理先压缩采样,将被测信号由高维向低维映射并对其进行采样,选取合适的稀疏表示基W,使得原始信号〖经W变换所得向量X是稀疏的。 The first compressed sampling principle, the measured signal is sampled by a high-dimensional to low-dimensional mapping and its select suitable sparse representation of group W, W so that the original signal transformed by the vector obtained 〖X is sparse. 然后根据观测数据y、观测矩阵®和稀疏表示基W,选取特定算法求解y=®Wx,最后由f=Wx反演出原始信号f。 The observations and data y, and the observation matrix sparse representation ® group W, select a specific algorithm y = ®Wx, and finally by f = Wx inverse the original signal f.

[0004] 自压缩传感提出以来,学者们在光学成像领域对其开展了广泛的应用研究。 [0004] Since the proposed compressed sensing, scholars in the field of optical imaging applications it has carried out extensive research. 如颗粒粒度测量、单像素相机、超薄成像系统、多路技术智能成像、多光谱成像、CMOS低数据率成像、核磁共振成像、天文观测等。 The particle size measurement, single-pixel camera, thin imaging systems, multiplexing intelligent imaging, multispectral imaging, the CMOS low data rate imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, astronomical observation and the like. 例如,专利(编号:201210058483. 1)"光子计数压缩采样相控阵激光三维成像方法"用液晶光学相控阵调制照明激光,按照压缩采样所用的测量矩阵照射目标,由盖革模式雪崩光电二极管(APD)接收目标回波信号和时间相关单光子计数器随时间变换返回的光子数,最后通过压缩采样恢复算法重构三维图像。 For example, patent (number: 2012100584831) "photon counting compressed sampling phased array laser three-dimensional imaging method," a liquid crystal optical phased array modulating the illumination laser, the measurement matrix irradiation target sample used in accordance with the compression, a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (APD) receiving target echo signals and time-correlated single photon counting over time the number of photons converted returned, three-dimensional image reconstruction algorithm by compressing the sample was finally restored. 上述专利中涉及测量矩阵仅实现对发射端的信号的调制,并未考虑接收端信号的压缩传感实现方式。 The above patent relates only to achieve modulation of the measurement matrix of the signal transmitting end, the receiving end does not consider the compression sensing signal implementation.

[0005] 液晶屏以液晶材料为基本组件,在两块平行玻璃板之间填充液晶材料,通过电压来改变液晶材料内部分子的排列状况,以达到遮光和透光的目的,来显示深浅不一,错落有致的图像。 [0005] In the liquid crystal panel assembly of the liquid crystal material is substantially filled with liquid crystal material between two parallel glass plates, to change the arrangement of molecules within the liquid crystal material condition by the voltage to achieve the purpose of shielding and light transmitting, displaying shades patchwork of images. 而且只要在两块平板间再加上三元色的滤光层,就可实现显示彩色图像。 And as long as two plates coupled between the filter layer three primary colors, a color image display can be realized. 液晶屏功耗很低,因此倍受工程师青睐,适用于使用电池的电子设备。 LCD power consumption is very low, so much favored by engineers for electronic devices use batteries.

[0006] 本发明采用去掉背光的单色可调灰度的液晶屏。 [0006] The present invention employs a tunable monochromatic gradation remove backlight LCD screen. 液晶屏的每个像素相当于一个光开关,液晶屏驱动电路控制液晶的扭转,以改变其透光率,使光线有选择地透过液晶屏。 Each LCD pixel corresponds to a light switch, a control circuit driving the liquid crystal panel of the liquid crystal twist to change light transmittance, so that the light is selectively transmitted through the liquid crystal panel. 通过液晶屏的透光率变化,物理上实现一个可编程的观测矩阵。 By variation of the light transmittance of the liquid crystal panel, to implement a programmable physical observation matrix. (三) (three)

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0007] 如何将压缩感知成功运用到光学成像中,关键是如何正确地获取图像的压缩采样。 [0007] The compressed sensing how successfully applied to optical imaging, the key is how to properly get compressed sample images. 从各成像方法上看,除了CMOS成像外,其余都涉及到了编码模式。 Seen from the respective image forming method, in addition to a CMOS imager, the rest are related to the encoding mode. 编码模式大多数都是靠光学系统实现,一旦掩膜制作完成,其编码模式也就固定,无法改变。 Most of coding modes are achieved by an optical system, once the mask is finished, it will fix coding mode can not be changed. 像数字微镜阵列(DigitalMirrorDevice,DMD)这种具有可编程性的编码实现方式,虽然灵活方便,但将其运用到成像系统会增加光路的复杂性,影响系统可靠性。 Such as digital micromirror array (DigitalMirrorDevice, DMD) having this programmability coding implementations, though flexible, but applying it to the imaging system increases the complexity of the optical path, affect system reliability. 而且,DMD只能实现二进制的观测矩阵。 Moreover, DMD can only achieve binary observation matrix.

[0008] 本发明提出一种新的压缩采样方式,采用液晶屏作为观测矩阵®的物理实现方式。 [0008] The present invention proposes a new way of compressed samples, using a liquid crystal panel as an observation matrix implementations physical ®.

[0009] 所用元件包括:液晶屏、液晶屏驱动控制电路、傅里叶透镜、光电二极管。 [0009] As used element comprising: a liquid crystal panel, the liquid crystal panel drive control circuit, a Fourier lens, a photodiode.

[0010] 本发明采用的技术方案是:所测物体发出的光经光学成像部件成像在液晶屏上。 Technical Solution [0010] the present invention is that: the imaging optical components of the imaging light is emitted by the object as measured on the LCD screen. 液晶屏的每个像素相当于一个光开关,液晶屏驱动电路控制液晶的扭转,以改变其透光率, 使光线有选择地透过液晶屏。 Each LCD pixel corresponds to a light switch, a control circuit driving the liquid crystal panel of the liquid crystal twist to change light transmittance, so that the light is selectively transmitted through the liquid crystal panel. 通过液晶屏的透光率变化,物理上实现一个可编程的观测矩阵。 By variation of the light transmittance of the liquid crystal panel, to implement a programmable physical observation matrix. 透过液晶屏的光线射入傅里叶透镜。 A Fourier lens incident light through the liquid crystal panel. 光电二极管在透镜焦点处接收光强,通过对光强积分,得到的结果相当于压缩传感理论中的观测值y。 Photodiode receives light intensity at the focal point of the lens, light intensity by integrating the resulting value y corresponding to the observed compression sensing theory.

[0011] 本发明的优点在于:具有类似DMD元件的可编程性。 [0011] The advantage of the present invention comprising: a programmable DMD similar elements. 而且,由于光线是透过液晶屏而不是经DMD元件反射后进入透镜,故可将系统各元件放置于一条光轴上,即可直接将傅里叶透镜放置于液晶屏背面。 Further, since the light is not transmitted through the LCD element by the reflective DMD into the lens, so that the elements may be placed on an optical axis of the system, Fourier lenses can be placed directly on the back of the liquid crystal panel. 这样透镜焦距的选择便不再受光线反射角度的限制,降低了光路的复杂度。 Such focal length is no longer limited by the choice of the angle of reflection of light, it reduces the complexity of the optical path. 同时,克服了DMD只能实现二进制观测矩阵的缺点。 At the same time, to overcome the shortcomings observed DMD can only achieve binary matrix. 并且液晶屏的价格较为低廉,降低了成像系统的成本。 And the relatively low price of the liquid crystal panel, reduces the cost of the imaging system. (四) (four)

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0012] 下面结合附图和具体实施方式对本发明做进一步说明。 [0012] The present invention will be further described in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and specific embodiments.

[0013] 图1是本发明的结构示意图。 [0013] FIG. 1 is a structural diagram of the present invention.

[0014] 图2是本发明实施例的模拟实验结果。 [0014] FIG. 2 is a simulation result of an embodiment of the present invention.

[0015] 附图标示 [0015] BRIEF Flag

[0016] 1、液晶屏2、傅里叶透镜3、光电二极管(五) [0016] 1, the liquid crystal panel 2, a Fourier lens 3, a photodiode (e)

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0017] 在图1中,液晶屏(1)、傅里叶透镜(2)、光电二极管(3)放置于一条光轴上,傅里叶透镜(2)位于液晶屏(1)和光电二极管(3)之间,光电二极管(3)位于傅里叶透镜(2)的焦点处。 [0017] In FIG. 1, a liquid crystal panel (1), a Fourier lens (2), the photodiode (3) is placed on an optical axis of the Fourier lens (2) of the liquid crystal panel (1) and the photodiode (3), the photodiode (3) located in the Fourier lens (2) at the focus.

[0018] 步骤1 :所测物体发出的光经光学成像部件成像在液晶屏上。 [0018] Step 1: The measured light emitted by the object imaged by the optical imaging means on the screen. 此时液晶屏上的像为原始信号Xnxi。 At this time, as the original signal Xnxi on the LCD screen.

[0019] 步骤2 :液晶屏驱动电路控制液晶的扭转,使液晶屏上的像素排列处于伪随机状态i,其中I<i<M,它们的状态构成了观测矩阵®的第i行hj尺寸是N)。 [0019] Step 2: LCD driving circuit controls the liquid crystal twist, the pixel on the LCD screen are arranged in a pseudo-random state i, where I <i <M, their status constitute the i-th row hj size of the observation matrix ® is N). 此时将要透过液晶屏的信号是X在匕下的值。 Value at this time to be a signal transmitted through the liquid crystal panel dagger is X.

[0020] 步骤3 :透过液晶屏的光线射入傅里叶透镜。 [0020] Step 3: Fourier lens incident light through the liquid crystal panel. 光电二极管在透镜焦点处接收光强, 通过对光强积分,得到结果Yi=Iii •XNX1。 Photodiode receives light intensity at the focal point of the lens, light intensity by integrating the results obtained Yi = Iii • XNX1.

[0021] 步骤4 :重复上面的步骤M次,则M次液晶屏像素排列状态构成了观测矩阵®MXN, M次测量结果构成观测数据矩阵Y=®X。 [0021] Step 4: Repeat the above steps M times, M times the LCD pixels arranged in matrix state forms the observation ®MXN, M data measurements will constitute the observation matrix Y = ®X.

[0022] 压缩采样部分的数学模型如下: Mathematical Model of [0022] compressed sampling section:

[0023] -维离散信号X可表示为 [0023] - dimensional discrete signal may be represented as X

Figure CN103871387BD00051

[0025]其中屯=[也:I也2*"I也J,s是加权系数Si=〈X,也;>=也Jx的NX1列矢量。 X和s是信号的等价表示。如果X仅仅是K个基矢量的线性组合(K〈N),则称信号X是K稀疏的。当KGN时,上述公式仅有少数的大系数和大量的小系数,此时信号X成为可压缩的。 [0025] wherein Tun = [also: I also 2 * "I also J, s is a weighting coefficient Si = <X, also;> = NX1 also Jx of column vectors X and s is the equivalent signal means that if X.. merely a linear combination of the K vectors groups (K <N), K is called sparse signal X when KGN, the coefficients of the above equation is only a few large and a large number of smaller coefficients, this time becomes compressible signal X .

[0026] 考虑一个线性测量过程,计算M个X(M〈N)与矢量集吆丨二的内积,即:yi = 〈X,(^〉。若测量值yi构成的MXl矢量为y,由被作为向量构成的MXN矩阵为则有 [0026] Consider a linear measurement, calculation of M X (M <N) and the vector set shout Shu inner product of two, that is:. Yi = <X, (^> If the measurement value MXl vector yi configured to y, MXN matrix is ​​used as a vector was constructed there

[0027] j=Ox=O=0s(2) [0027] j = Ox = O = 0s (2)

[0028] 其中© = ® 1Ij是MXN矩阵D矩阵©要满足约束等距特性(restrictedisometry property(RIP)) [0028] wherein © = ® 1Ij MXN matrix is ​​a matrix D © equidistant characteristic to satisfy the constraints (restrictedisometry property (RIP))

[0029] (Ie)IIv| |2^II0v|I(1+e)IIv|I2 (3) [0029] (Ie) IIv | | 2 ^ II0v | I (1 + e) ​​IIv | I2 (3)

[0030] 即矩阵©必须保持特定K稀疏矢量的长度。 [0030] i.e., the length of a particular matrix K © must remain sparse vectors. 由于W是固定的,要使得© = ®W 满足约束等距特性,可以通过设计观测矩阵®解决。 Since W is fixed, to satisfy the constraint that © = ®W equidistant characteristic can be solved by designing the observation matrix ®. Cand6s等人证明了当®是高斯随机矩阵时,矩阵0能以较大概率满足约束等距特性。 Cand6s et al demonstrated when ® is a Gaussian random matrix, the matrix is ​​constrained to isometric 0 features to meet the greater probability. 因此可以通过选择一个大小为MXN的高斯观测矩阵得到。 It can be obtained as a Gaussian MXN by selecting a size of the observation matrix.

[0031] 图2是本发明实施例的模拟实验结果。 [0031] FIG. 2 is a simulation result of an embodiment of the present invention. 图2 (a)是原始图片,大小为100X 100,是灰度图像。 FIG 2 (a) is the original image, the size of 100X 100, is a grayscale image. 这张图片的各个频段的能量都很丰富,适度的混合了细节、平滑区域、阴影和纹理,从而能很好的测试各种图像处理算法,是图像压缩算法研究中最广泛应用的标准测试图。 Each band energy of this picture is very rich, modest mix of details, smooth areas, shadows and textures, which can be a good test various image processing algorithms, is a standard test chart image compression algorithm research is the most widely used . 图2 (a)相当于步骤1中成像于液晶屏上的原始信号X1immxi。 FIG 2 (a) corresponds to the imaging step on the liquid crystal panel 1 of the original signal X1immxi. 观测矩阵〇选取大小为MX 10000的二进制随机矩阵。 Observation matrix size selected random binary square matrix of MX 10000. 这样Y=®X便构成了步骤4中经过M次采样后得到的观测数据矩阵。 Y = ®X Such observations constitute the matrix M in step 4 after the samples obtained. 在本实施例的模拟实验中,选取最小全变分法求解方程Y=®X。 In the simulation of the present embodiment, select the minimum total variation method for solving the equation Y = ®X. 经过该算法求解出的结果X'构成重建图像。 After the results of the algorithm X 'constituting the reconstructed image. 图2 (b)为采样次数M取4000时重建出的图像。 FIG 2 is an image reconstruction when (b) is to take the number of samples M 4000.

[0032] 最小全变分法是Cand6s等从大量自然图像的离散梯度都是稀疏的角度出发,提出来的更适合二维图像重构的图像重建算法。 [0032] The minimum total variation method is Cand6s and other natural gradient from a large number of discrete images are sparse point of view, put forward by the two-dimensional image reconstruction algorithm is more suitable for image reconstruction. 图像压缩的全变分模型如下 Image compression model as Total Variation

[0033] minTV(f)sty= (4) [0033] minTV (f) sty = (4)

[0034] 目标函数TV(f)为图像离散梯度之和,即 [0034] The objective function TV (f) and discrete image gradients, i.e.,

Figure CN103871387BD00052

Claims (3)

  1. 1. 一种用液晶屏进行光调制的压缩采样方法,其特征在于:所测物体发出的光经光学成像部件成像在液晶屏上,液晶屏的每个像素相当于一个光开关,液晶屏驱动电路控制液晶的扭转,以改变其透光率,使光线有选择地透过液晶屏,通过液晶屏的透光率变化,物理上实现一个可编程的观测矩阵,透过液晶屏的光线射入傅里叶透镜,光电二极管在透镜焦点处接收光强,通过对光强积分,得到的结果相当于压缩传感理论中的观测值,该方法包括下列步骤: 步骤1:所测物体发出的光经光学成像部件成像在液晶屏上,此时液晶屏上的像为原始f目号XNxi; 步骤2 :液晶屏驱动电路控制液晶的扭转,使液晶屏上的像素排列处于伪随机状态i, 其中I<i<M,伪随机状态i构成了观测矩阵®的第i行Ill,此时将要透过液晶屏的信号是X在11;下的值; 步骤3 :透过液晶屏的光线射 A compression sampling light modulation liquid crystal panel, wherein: the imaging optical components of the imaging light is emitted by the object as measured on the LCD screen, each pixel of the liquid crystal panel corresponds to a light switch, a liquid crystal panel driving a control circuit of the liquid crystal is twisted to change light transmittance, so that the light is selectively transmitted through the liquid crystal panel, the light transmittance through the liquid crystal panel changes, to achieve a programmable physical observation matrix, incident light through the liquid crystal panel a Fourier lens, the photodiode receives the light intensity at the focal point of the lens, light intensity by integrating the resulting values ​​corresponding to the observed compression sensing theory, the method comprising the following steps: step 1: the measured light emitted by the object optically imaging the imaging member on the LCD screen, this time to the original image f XNxi mesh number on the liquid crystal panel; step 2: LCD driving circuit controls the liquid crystal twist, the pixel arrangement on the LCD screen in a pseudo-random state i, wherein I <i <M, constitute a pseudo-random state i i-th row observation matrix ® Ill, in which case the signal to be transmitted through the liquid crystal panel 11 is X; the value; step 3: emitting light through the liquid crystal panel 傅里叶透镜,光电二极管在透镜焦点处接收光强,通过对光强积分,得到结果y;=h; •Xnxi; 步骤4 :重复上面的步骤M次,则M次液晶屏像素排列状态构成了观测矩阵®MXN,M次测量结果构成观测数据矩阵Y= ®X。 A Fourier lens, the photodiode receives the light intensity at the focal point of the lens, light intensity by integrating the results obtained y; = h; • Xnxi; Step 4: Repeat the above steps M times, the M-th state constituting the liquid crystal panel pixel arrangement the observation matrix ®MXN, M data measurements will constitute the observation matrix Y = ®X.
  2. 2. 如权利要求书1所述的用液晶屏进行光调制的压缩采样方法,其特征在于:采用无背光单色可调灰度的液晶屏对原始图像信号进行光调制,即将液晶屏作为观测矩阵的物理实现方式。 2. Sampling claims compression method according to the light modulation liquid crystal panel 1, characterized in that: no adjustable backlit monochrome grayscale original image signal on the liquid crystal panel for modulating light, i.e. the liquid crystal panel as an observation the physical implementation of the matrix.
  3. 3. 如权利要求书1所述的用液晶屏进行光调制的压缩采样方法,其特征在于:光电二极管在傅里叶透镜焦点处接收光强,并对经过液晶屏调制后的光信号进行积分。 3. Sampling claims compression method according to the light modulation liquid crystal panel 1, characterized in that: a photodiode receiving the light intensity at the Fourier lens focal point, and the light passing through the liquid crystal panel modulating signal integrating .
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US4481510A (en) * 1980-12-23 1984-11-06 Thomson-Csf Electrooptical switching device
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CN102608619A (en) * 2012-03-07 2012-07-25 北京航空航天大学 Three-dimensional laser imaging method based on photon counting compressive sampling phased array
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