CN103868985A  Defect quantified comprehensive safety judgment method for onservice pressure container  Google Patents
Defect quantified comprehensive safety judgment method for onservice pressure container Download PDFInfo
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 CN103868985A CN103868985A CN201410105913.XA CN201410105913A CN103868985A CN 103868985 A CN103868985 A CN 103868985A CN 201410105913 A CN201410105913 A CN 201410105913A CN 103868985 A CN103868985 A CN 103868985A
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Abstract
Description
Technical field
The invention belongs to pressure vessel safety evaluation technology field, relate in particular to a kind of inservice pressure vessel quantifying defects comprehensive safety evaluation method.
Background technology
Pressure vessel is a kind of extraordinary bearing device with explosion danger, have the features such as high temperature, high pressure, inflammable, explosive, complex process, once blast or leak, consequence is extremely heavy, therefore, the safe reliability of pressure vessel is passed judgment on and is just seemed particularly important.Compared with additive method, detect and realize quantifying defects with magnetic memory, the comprehensive safety thus pressure vessel being carried out is again passed judgment on has salient feature: first magnetic memory detects as a kind of emerging nondestructiving detecting means, its detection is comprehensive, careful, the impact of whether not runed, easy and simple to handle, labour intensity is little, the result drawing is accurate, be applicable to Site Detection; Secondly adopt inservice pressure vessel Safety index system that its safety problem is analyzed and passed judgment on, make the location that judge passes judgment on inservice pressure vessel safety comprehensive rise to science judge by experience, be beneficial to the safety of reasonable tolerance or judge inservice pressure vessel, variation tendency that finally can dynamic monitoring inservice pressure vessel disaster, analyze and find the omen that lost efficacy and occur, especially the relevance between various disasters, with and cause secondary disaster.Therefore, the important means of pressure vessel safety reliability evaluation after the comprehensive safety judge based on magnetic memory detection quantifying defects will become with its salient feature, and there is the irreplaceable advantage of other evaluation methods.
In the safety evaluation process of inservice pressure vessel, the factor that affects its security performance is manysided, some factor can realize quantification, and some factor can only qualitative analysis, between each factor, have again correlativity, and the principal element that affects inservice pressure vessel safety is defect, its testing process is very complicated, quantized result is not accurate again, and these situations bring very large difficulty and feel uncertain to its manrate.The current inservice pressure vessel manrate modes that adopt single angle evaluation, draw from theoretical side the conclusion that inservice pressure vessel whether can trouble free service, and can not synthesise various factor solve its safe coefficient problem more.Make a concrete analysis of as follows: the detection of defect, quantize inaccurate; The mode that adopts the evaluation of single angle, too relies on expertise or field data, can not consider all principal elements that affect inservice pressure vessel security, and the connecting each other of clearly each influence factor, is not inconsistent with actual conditions; Whether the result of evaluation just draws conclusion that can trouble free service theoretically, can not solve safe coefficient problem, and variation tendency that more can not dynamic monitoring disaster, to find in time disaster better, more accurately, accomplishes to prevent in advance.Above problem all can make safety assessment result undesirable, its result often: the notional result of assessment is also in security clearance, and in fact pressure vessel lost efficacy, can not use.
Summary of the invention
The object of the embodiment of the present invention is to provide a kind of inservice pressure vessel quantifying defects comprehensive safety evaluation method, be intended to solve inservice pressure vessel defects detection difficulty that existing evaluation method exists, testing result out of true, can not dynamic monitoring disaster the problem that do not conform to reality of variation tendency, Appraisal process complexity and assessment result.
The embodiment of the present invention is achieved in that a kind of inservice pressure vessel quantifying defects comprehensive safety evaluation method, and this inservice pressure vessel quantifying defects comprehensive safety evaluation method comprises:
Adopt magnetic memory detecting method, detect inservice pressure vessel planar disfigurement, realize the quantification of defect by computing formula;
Adopt the testing result of magnetic memory to carry out the fracture assessment of planar disfigurement, the fatigue assessment of planar disfigurement to inservice pressure vessel, and calculate the damage that inservice pressure vessel is caused; Draw the technical indicators such as the maximum pressure that inservice pressure vessel can bear, final crack length, final crack depth, the surplus pressure that can bear, remanent fatigue life and corresponding safe score value;
Adopt Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation System, quantification combines with qualitative analysis, collection is passed judgment in the actual foundation of incorporation engineering, set up the comprehensive judgment matrix of passing judgment on, damage ratio according to each Failure Factors on pressure vessel and the total damage ratio of weight calculation on pressure vessel safety impact thereof, abandon the mode that adopts single angle evaluation, too relies on expertise or field data, consider all principal elements that affect inservice pressure vessel security, and the connecting each other of clearly each influence factor, make comprehensive safety evaluation.
Further, adopt magnetic memory detecting method to realize the quantification of planar disfigurement, concrete grammar is as follows:
The detection of defect: use TSC2M8 type metal magnetic memory testing instrument to carry out comprehensive detection to inservice pressure vessel, adopt the channel compensation background magnetic field method of inhibitioning, the 13 sensor of parallel arrangement for detection of, No. 4 sensors are used for compensate for background magnetic field;
The quantification of planar disfigurement: the length of detection data substitution invention formula being carried out to Calculation Plane defect:
l _{max}＝max[x _{2}x _{1},x _{4}x _{3},x _{6}x _{5}]
l _{min}＝min[x _{2}x _{1},x _{4}x _{3},x _{6}x _{5}]
In formula: x _{1}first passage normal component crest location;
X _{2}first passage normal component wave trough position;
X _{3}second channel normal component crest location;
X _{4}second channel normal component wave trough position;
X _{5}third channel normal component crest location;
X _{6}third channel normal component wave trough position;
L _{max}the maximal value of distance betweenfirst, second and third passage normal component crest and trough;
L _{min}the minimum value of distance betweenfirst, second and third passage normal component crest and trough;
The length of lplanar disfigurement;
Detection data substitution invention formula is carried out to the degree of depth of Calculation Plane defect:
h＝0.048Hp _{ymax}0.9955k0.1343
In formula: Hp _{ymax}the maximal value of magnetic field normal component in first, second and third passage ofmagnetic memory detector;
The maximal value of magnetic field gradient in first, second and third passage of kmagnetic memory detector;
The degree of depth of hplanar disfigurement.
Further, in fuzzy synthesis safety evaluation process, first use metal magnetic memory testing instrument to carry out comprehensive detection to inservice pressure vessel, detecting data substitution formula, make quantifying defects, then the evaluation of carrying out inservice pressure vessel planar disfigurement Failure Factors according to the quantized result of defect is: the fracture assessment of planar disfigurement, the fatigue assessment of planar disfigurement, then set up fuzzy comprehensive evoluation system according to each Failure Factors, inservice pressure vessel is carried out to comprehensive safety judge.
Further, inservice pressure vessel Failure Factors evaluation:
The fracture assessment of planar disfigurement, assessment method is to adopt the method for Failure Assessment Diagrams to carry out, Failure Assessment Curves equation is:
The equation of perpendicular line is:
value depend on properties of materials:
To austenitic stainless steel,
To the mild carbon steel without yield point elongation and austenitic stainless steel weld joint,
To the low alloy steel without yield point elongation and weld seam thereof,
For the material with long yield point elongation, when material temperature is not during higher than 200 DEG C, can be according to K _{r}value and material yield intensity rank;
For not determining by steel classification material, can be calculated as follows value:
Further, the Assessment Method for Fatigue of planar disfigurement:
Flat first according to fatigue crack growth rate da/dN and crack tip stress intensity factor amplitude of variation Δ K relational expression determine propagation and the final size of fatigue crack in the cycle period of regulation; Then according to given criterion and method, judge whether this planar disfigurement can occur to leak and fatigue break.
Further, Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation System comprises:
Set up set of factors:
Affect the main Failure Factors compositing factor set of inservice pressure vessel security, get the second level factor U={u _{1}, u _{2}, u _{3}, u _{4}}={ defect, vitals, material, internal environment }, u _{1}={ u _{11}, u _{12}}={ planar disfigurement fracture failure, the fatigue failure of planar disfigurement }, u _{2}={ u _{21}, u _{22}, u _{23}, u _{24}}={ glue core, piston, Oring seal, hydraulic control oil circuit }, u _{3}={ u _{31}, u _{32}, u _{33}}={ materials processing quality, the mechanical property of materials, design rationality }, u _{4}={ u _{41}, u _{42}, u _{43}}={ pressure, temperature, corrosivity };
Set up and pass judgment on collection:
For each judging quota is carried out to quantitative test, need to determine the judge collection of each index, adopt 5 grades of centesimal system to pass judgment on and divide 5 evaluation ranks, i.e. V={v passing judgment on collection V _{1}, v _{2}, v _{3}, v _{4}, v _{5}}={ is minimum, very little, little, larger, large }, wherein v _{1}minimum for inservice pressure vessel multifactor failure danger, scoring interval is 90～100, and intermediate value is 95; v _{2}for danger is very little, scoring interval is 80～89, and intermediate value is 84.5; The rest may be inferred; Select the intermediate value in each interval as the parameter of grade, 5 corresponding parameters of grade are that { 95,84.5,74.5,64.5,49.5}, Argument List vector is ν={ 95,84.5,74.5,64.5,49.5} ^{t};
Set up weight sets:
(1) set up Recurison order hierarchy structure:
Be judgment index system according to the inservice pressure vessel evaluation factor collection of setting up, each factor that problem is comprised is divided into four levels: ground floor is the general objective layer G passing judgment on, i.e. inservice pressure vessel comprehensive safety degree; The second layer is rule layer C, i.e. defect, vitals, material and internal environment; Finally using each specific targets as the 3rd layer, i.e. indicator layer P;
(2) structure compares judgment matrix between two:
Successively each key element is carried out to importance degree assignment between any two according to 1～9 scaling law, Judgement Matricies U=(u _{ij}) _{n × n}, wherein u _{ij}expression factor u _{i}and u _{j}with respect to the importance value of rule layer, matrix U has character: u _{ii}=1, u _{ij}=1/u _{ji}, i, j=1,2 ..., n, draws judgment matrix: by matrix X ^{1}～X ^{5}press row normalization, that is:
Calculating matrix Y is:
(3) calculating of element relative weighting under single criterion:
Y matrix is added by row, by formula draw:
W ^{1}＝(2.652?0.686?0.253?0.409) ^{T}
W ^{2}＝(1?1) ^{T}
W ^{3}＝(1.273?0.371?0.221?2.135) ^{T}
W ^{4}＝(1.9?0.319?0.781) ^{T}
W ^{5}＝(2.121?0.604?0.275) ^{T}
By being normalized with vector of obtaining, by formula can obtain weight vector:
(4) consistency check of judgment matrix:
Calculate the maximum characteristic root λ of judgment matrix _{max}, by formula calculate:
According to formula
CI ^{1}＝0.019
CI ^{2}＝0
CI ^{3}＝0.031
CI ^{4}＝0.020
CI ^{5}＝0.048
By formula
CR ^{1}＝0.022
CR ^{2}＝0
CR ^{3}＝0.035
CR ^{4}＝0.038
CR ^{5}＝0.092
CR < 0.1, all meets coherence request, therefore the relative weighting of each factor
Degree of membership is calculated:
Use Frequency statistics method, the indices of being passed judgment on graded by the hazard level of passing judgment on set pair inservice pressure vessel indices, obtain the degree of membership of set of factors:
Definite judge is subordinate to matrix:
Relative degree of membership matrix by obtaining k set of factors:
Wherein:
In formula: R _{k}the relative degree of membership matrix of thethe k set of factors;
R _{kij}i factor of thethe k set of factors belongs to the degree of membership of passing judgment on concentrated j;
P _{kij}expert group is rated the frequency of j to i factor index of k set of factors;
Structure fuzzy evaluation matrix:
By the weight vector of each index can construct fuzzy evaluation matrix B with matrix R.
Calculate comprehensive evaluation result:
By the Argument List vector of fuzzy evaluation matrix B and judge collection.Can try to achieve comprehensive evaluation result Z.
Z＝B·V
Arrive can be obtained fom the above equation the result of fuzzy comprehensive evoluation, then according to evaluation rank regulation, can evaluate the dangerous size of inservice pressure vessel multifactor failure.
Inservice pressure vessel quantifying defects comprehensive safety evaluation method provided by the invention, adopt magnetic memory detecting method, detect inservice pressure vessel planar disfigurement, realize the quantification of defect by the computing formula with degree of precision, thus make the result that detects more accurately, true, reliable; Adopt the testing result of magnetic memory to carry out the fracture assessment of planar disfigurement, the fatigue assessment of planar disfigurement to inservice pressure vessel, and calculate the damage that inservice pressure vessel is caused; Draw the technical indicators such as the maximum pressure that inservice pressure vessel can bear, final crack length, final crack depth, the surplus pressure that can bear, remanent fatigue life and corresponding safe score value, overcome can not detection of dynamic disaster trend difficulty, can find in time disaster better, more accurately, accomplish to prevent in advance; Adopt Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation System, quantification combines with qualitative analysis, collection is passed judgment in the actual foundation of incorporation engineering, set up the comprehensive judgment matrix of passing judgment on, damage ratio according to each Failure Factors on pressure vessel and the total damage ratio of weight calculation on pressure vessel safety impact thereof, abandon the mode that adopts single angle evaluation, too relies on expert or field data, consider all principal elements that affect inservice pressure vessel security, and the connecting each other of clearly each influence factor, make on this basis comprehensive safety evaluation; Whether can not only correctly draw can trouble free service conclusion, can also solve the problem of safe coefficient; Simplify Appraisal process, eliminate the subjectivity randomness of passing judgment on, be convenient to common engineering technical personnel and be applied to engineering reality.Reliability of the present invention is high, operability good, makes assessment result reflect engineering reality more objective reality.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1 is the process flow diagram of the inservice pressure vessel quantifying defects comprehensive safety evaluation method that provides of the embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the planar disfigurement Failure Assessment schematic diagram that the embodiment of the present invention provides;
Fig. 3 is that the embodiment of the present invention provides value legend schematic diagram;
Fig. 4 is the stress range distribution straight line schematic diagram that the embodiment of the present invention provides.
Embodiment
In order to make object of the present invention, technical scheme and advantage clearer, below in conjunction with embodiment, the present invention is further elaborated.Should be appreciated that specific embodiment described herein, only in order to explain the present invention, is not intended to limit the present invention.
Below in conjunction with drawings and the specific embodiments, application principle of the present invention is further described.
As shown in Figure 1, the inservice pressure vessel quantifying defects comprehensive safety evaluation method of the embodiment of the present invention comprises the following steps:
S101: adopt magnetic memory detecting method, detect inservice pressure vessel planar disfigurement, realize the quantification of defect by computing formula;
S102: adopt the testing result of magnetic memory to carry out the fracture assessment of planar disfigurement, the fatigue assessment of planar disfigurement to inservice pressure vessel, and calculate the damage that inservice pressure vessel is caused; Draw the technical indicators such as the maximum pressure that inservice pressure vessel can bear, final crack length, final crack depth, the surplus pressure that can bear, remanent fatigue life and corresponding safe score value;
S103: adopt Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation System, quantification combines with qualitative analysis, collection is passed judgment in the actual foundation of incorporation engineering, set up the comprehensive judgment matrix of passing judgment on, damage ratio according to each Failure Factors on pressure vessel and the total damage ratio of weight calculation on pressure vessel safety impact thereof, abandon the mode that adopts single angle evaluation, too relies on expertise or field data, consider all principal elements that affect inservice pressure vessel security, and the connecting each other of clearly each influence factor, make on this basis comprehensive safety evaluation.
By following embodiment, result of use of the present invention is described further:
1, adopt magnetic memory detecting method to realize the quantification of defect, concrete grammar is as follows:
The detection of 1.1 defects:
Use the TSC2M8 type metal magnetic memory testing instrument of being produced by Russia to carry out comprehensive detection to inservice pressure vessel, detecting step strictly carries out according to TSC2M8 operational manual, " magnetic memorysystem " software is installed on computers, testing result is imported to this software, adopt channel compensation background magnetic field inhibition method, the 13 sensor of parallel arrangement for detection of, No. 4 sensors are for compensate for background magnetic field.Technical device performance parameter is in Table 11, and in process of the test, parameter remains unchanged.
Table 11TSC2M8 type metal magnetic memory testing instrument technical feature parameter
The quantification of 1.2 planar disfigurements:
(1) will detect data substitutions invention formula and come the length of Calculation Plane defect:
l _{max}＝max[x _{2}x _{1},x _{4}x _{3},x _{6}x _{5}]
l _{min}＝min[x _{2}x _{1},x _{4}x _{3},x _{6}x _{5}]
In formula: x _{1}first passage normal component crest location;
X _{2}first passage normal component wave trough position;
X _{3}second channel normal component crest location;
X _{4}second channel normal component wave trough position;
X _{5}third channel normal component crest location;
X _{6}third channel normal component wave trough position;
L _{max}the maximal value of distance betweenfirst, second and third passage normal component crest and trough;
L _{min}the minimum value of distance betweenfirst, second and third passage normal component crest and trough;
The length of lplanar disfigurement.
(2) will detect data substitutions invention formula and come the degree of depth of Calculation Plane defect:
h＝0.048Hp _{ymax}0.9955k0.1343???（12）
In formula: Hp _{ymax}the maximal value of magnetic field normal component in first, second and third passage ofmagnetic memory detector;
The maximal value of magnetic field gradient in first, second and third passage of kmagnetic memory detector;
The degree of depth of hplanar disfigurement.
2, comprehensive safety is passed judgment on the basic ideas of new method:
The principal element that affects inservice pressure vessel security performance relates to the synthtic price index of quantification and qualitative analysis.Therefore it is rational, using fuzzy comprehensive evoluation system to carry out comprehensive safety judge to inservice pressure vessel.
In fuzzy synthesis safety evaluation process, the factor that affects inservice pressure vessel security performance is manysided, and the weight of each influence factor is also different.Therefore, in the time carrying out fuzzy synthesis safety evaluation, can follow such principle: the expert who invites pressure vessel safety judge aspect, through discussion, determine as the case may be judging quota collection and each judging quota Evaluation criterion collection, then use analytical hierarchy process to determine the weight of each judging quota, set up judgment matrix, level singlerow, calculates maximum characteristic root λ _{max}, carry out consistency check, to every judging quota marking, finally calculate judging quota.
So, first use metal magnetic memory testing instrument to carry out comprehensive detection to inservice pressure vessel, detecting data substitution invention formula, make quantifying defects, then the evaluation of carrying out inservice pressure vessel planar disfigurement Failure Factors according to the quantized result of defect is: the fracture assessment of planar disfigurement, the fatigue assessment of planar disfigurement, set up fuzzy comprehensive evoluation system according to each Failure Factors again, inservice pressure vessel is carried out to comprehensive safety evaluation.
3, inservice pressure vessel Failure Factors evaluation:
The fracture assessment of 3.1 planar disfigurements:
(1) assessment method:
The routine evaluation of planar disfigurement adopts the method for general Failure Assessment Diagrams to carry out, and this Failure Assessment Diagrams as shown in Figure 2.
Failure Assessment Curves in Fig. 2 (FAC) equation is:
The equation of perpendicular line is:
value depend on properties of materials:
To austenitic stainless steel,
To the mild carbon steel without yield point elongation and austenitic stainless steel weld joint,
To the low alloy steel without yield point elongation and weld seam thereof,
For the material with long yield point elongation, generally, when material temperature is not during higher than 200 DEG C, can be according to K _{r}value and material yield intensity rank, determine by showing 12 in GB/T196242004;
For not determining by steel classification material, can be calculated as follows value:
In Fig. 2, by FAC curve, within the region that straight line and two rectangular axes surround, being place of safety, is nonsecurity district outside this region;
In the time of the calculating of evaluation point, relevant input parameter should be got corresponding partial safety factor according to the regulation of showing 13 in GB/T196242004.
(2) sign of defect:
To the defect of finding out through inspection, carry out the regularization of defect according to physical location shape and size by the regulation of the sign of planar disfigurement, and characterized accordingly crack size a, c.
While carrying out manrate, by following provisions, the planar disfigurement of actual measurement is carried out to regularization characterization process, defect is characterized by crack surfaces defect, the embed crack of regularization and penetrates defect.Crackle after sign be shaped as ellipse, circle or rectangle.Characterizing crack size should be determined by the height of defect boundary rectangle and length according to concrete defect situation.To penetrated crack, long is 2a; Effects on surface crackle, height is a, the long 2c of being; To embed crack, height is 2a, the long 2c of being; To hole Corner Cracks, height is a, the long c of being.The length limit of defect boundary rectangle should be parallel with contiguous surface of shell.This sign crack size is multiplied by shows sign crackle partial safety factor that 131 specifies as sign crack size a, the c value of calculating use in GB/T196242004.
1) regularization of surface imperfection and sign crack size
If defect is l along the actual measurement maximum length of surface of shell direction, be h along the actual measurement depth capacity of thickness of slab direction:
In the time of h > 0.7B, rule turns to the penetrated crack of long 2a=l+2h;
In the time of h≤0.7B:
(a), when h < l/2, rule turns to the semiellipse surface crack of c=l/2, a=h;
(b), when h >=l/2, for fracture assessment, rule turns to the semicircular surface crack of c=a=h; To fatigue assessment, rule turns to the semiellipse surface crack of c=l/2, a=h;
2) sign of shear crack
In the time of crack planes direction and principal direction of stress out of plumb, crackle can be projected in the plane vertical with principal direction of stress, in this plane, press projection size and determine sign crack size.
3) crackle group's processing
When two crackles or multiple cracks are when adjacent, should consider influencing each other between crackle.Can first determine the distance s between crackle and merge critical gap s _{0}; In the merging rule of the coplanar cracks providing, crack spacing s and merging distance s _{0}definite principle and typical case.
(a)s＝s _{2}、s _{0}＝2c _{2}；
(b) if s=s _{1}, s _{0}=2a _{2}; Otherwise s=s _{2}, s _{0}=2c _{2};
(c)s＝s _{2}、s _{0}＝2a _{2}。
4) the compound and processing that influences each other of coplanar cracks
(a) if s≤s _{0}, with this two crackle of envelope (or more than two s≤s _{0}crackle) circumscribed rectangle it is compound, rule turns to a crackle.Crackle after compound no longer characterizes, also no longer compound with other crackles or composite mode crack.Influencing each other between the crackle after compound and other crackles or composite mode crack determined by regulation b) or c).
(b) if s _{0}< s < 5s _{0}, two crackles needn't merge, and press respectively single crack evaluation, but will consider the impact that it is mutual.Simplify evaluation in, calculating value will be multiplied by 1.2 coefficient; In conventional evaluation, at calculating K _{r}time stress intensity factor to be multiplied by elastoplasticity interference effect coefficient G; In fatigue assessment, in the time calculating Δ K, to be multiplied by linear elasticity interference effect coefficient M.The regulation that the computing method of abovementioned G value and M value are shown in GB/T196242004 appendix A.
(c) if s>=5s _{0}, can ignore it and influence each other, evaluate as single crack respectively.
5) processing of noncoplanar cracks
(a) two partly through cracks are adjacent and not coplanar.Minor increment s between two crack surfaces _{3}be less than less sign crack size a _{2}2 times time, i.e. s _{3}< 2a _{2}, this two Crack can be considered coplanar.
(b) two penetrated cracks are adjacent and not coplanar.Minor increment s between two crack surfaces _{3}be less than less sign crack size a _{2}2 times time, i.e. s _{3}< 2a _{2}, this two Crack can be considered coplanar.
(c) penetrated crack is adjacent and not coplanar with a partly through crack.Minor increment s between crack surface _{3}while being less than less sign crack length, i.e. s _{3}< 2c _{2}(s _{3}< 2a _{2}), this two Crack can be considered coplanar.
(d) noncoplanar cracks rule turns to after coplanar cracks, also should consider influencing each other between crackle.
(e) all noncoplanar cracks that can not be considered as coplanar cracks processing, all should evaluate one by one separately.
(3) determining of stress
Required primary stress and the components of stress p of secondary stress in conventional evaluation _{m}, p _{b}, Q _{m}, Q _{b}determine by following provisions:
the pressure of medium and the stress of generation thereof;
the stress of additional mechanical load and generation thereof;
1) stress of taking in evaluation is rejected region principle stress.While calculating this principle stress, adopt linear elasticity computing method, and suppose not exist in structure defect.
Thick cyclinder is subject to interior pressure to make used time stress analysis solution:
(a) the stress solution on xsect:
Have classical Lame solution according to elastic plane strain problems (when thick cyclinder is subject to interior pressure), its stress state can be expressed as:
Illustrate: for different pressure vessels, internaland external diameter is got respectively the internaland external diameter of the weak location of housing.
(b) axial stress solution:
Can obtain according to symmetry:
Superposition principle superimposed stress state:
(c) near I type crackle or semiellipse crackle " working as terrestrial stress ": or σ _{x}.
2) the Stress Linearization rule of defect area:
For the stress along thickness nonlinear Distribution, according to ensureing that within the scope of whole defect long (or dark) degree the principle that linearization stress value everywhere is all not less than actual stress value determines the linear distribution stress along rejected region cross section.
3) answer resolution of force and p _{m}, p _{b}, Q _{m}, Q _{b}determine:
For along thickness lineal layout or through linearization stress after treatment, be decomposed into membrane stress component σ by following formula _{m}with bending stress component σ _{b}:
σ _{m}＝(σ _{1}+σ _{2})/2
σ _{B}＝(σ _{1}σ _{2})/2
By primary stress decompose and σ _{m}, σ _{b}, be respectively Q _{m}, Q _{b}.
4) calculate respectively the algebraic sum of all kinds of components of stress, and be multiplied by the stress partial safety factor of showing 13 defined in GB/T196242004, each stress value of obtaining is thus the stress p for evaluating calculating _{m}, p _{b}, Q _{m}, Q _{b}.
In GB/T196242004, show the conventional evaluation of 13 safety coefficient value
(4) determining of material property data:
By in GB/T196242004 5.5 and the regulation of Appendix B, determine the yield point σ of material under evaluation operating mode _{s}and tensile strength sigma _{b}and J integration fracture toughness J _{iC}; J _{iC}value is by the desirable J of actual conditions _{i}value or J _{is}value, also can conservatively get J _{0.05}try to achieve by following formula:
Can not directly obtain J _{iC}when value, can directly measure the Plane Strain Fracture Toughness K of material _{iC}now calculating K _{r}required K _{c}be worth available K _{iC}value replaces; Also can adopt CTOD fracture toughness δ _{c}value, by following formula estimation K _{c}the value of rolling off the production line:
(5) with calculating:
Primary stress P _{m}, P _{b}with secondary stress Q _{m}, Q _{h}stress intensity factor under effect calculate by the regulation of Appendix D in GB/T196242004.
(6) K _{r}calculating:
K is compared in fracture _{r}value is calculated as follows:
In formula: Gelastoplasticity interference effect coefficient between adjacent two crackles, determine by the regulation of appendix A in GB/T196242004;
K _{p}evaluation fracture toughness of materials, the K trying to achieve by 5.7.3.3 in GB/T196242004 _{c}value is divided by the partial safety factor of showing 13 in GB/T196242004 and specifying;
ρthe plastic correcting factor, try to achieve by following formula:
In formula, value can by Fig. 3 according to value check in.L _{r}calculate and try to achieve by the regulation of 5.7.6 in GB/T196242004 and appendix C.
(7) L _{r}calculating
Load ratio L _{r}calculate by appendix C regulation in GB/T196242004.
(8) safety evaluation
By the K by calculating above _{r}value and L _{r}evaluation point (the L that value forms _{r}, K _{r}) be painted in conventional evaluation general failure assessment Fig. 2.If within this evaluation point is positioned at place of safety, think that this defect is safe or acceptable through evaluation; Otherwise, think can not ensure safe or unacceptable.If and evaluation point is positioned at above Failure Assessment Curves, allows and adopt the analyzing evaluation method of annex F in GB/T196242004 again to evaluate.
The fatigue assessment of 3.2 planar disfigurements
(1) assessment method
The fatigue assessment of planar disfigurement, first according to fatigue crack growth rate da/dN and crack tip stress intensity factor amplitude of variation Δ K relational expression determine propagation and the final size of fatigue crack in the cycle period of regulation; Then according to given criterion and method, judge whether this planar disfigurement can occur to leak and fatigue break.
(2) sign of defect
Press mischief rule, determine the size of fatigue assessment initial crack.
(3) determining of stress range and cycle index
According to the variation course of plus load or temperature, determine respectively distribution curve and the cycle index thereof perpendicular to the primary stress of crack planes and the stress range of secondary stress on cross section, defect place.The stress that is parallel to crack planes is not considered.
1), according to stress range linearization rule, calculate respectively the required membrane stress variation range delta σ of evaluation _{m}with bending stress variation range delta σ _{b}.
The linearization rule of stress range: define that one linear, each point range of stress value is all not less than the stress range distribution straight line (Fig. 4) of the stress range value on actual distribution curve in fault location wall thickness range, and determine membrane stress variation range delta σ required in fatigue assessment by this linearizing stress range distribution straight line _{m}and bending stress value range Δ σ _{b};
In formula, Δ σ _{1}with Δ σ _{2}be respectively after linearization the stress range value at inside and outside wall place.
2) the Δ σ being obtained with the stress range distribution curve of primary stress _{m}and Δ σ _{b}for Δ P _{m}and Δ P _{b}, the Δ σ being obtained with the stress range distribution curve of secondary stress _{m}and Δ σ _{b}for Δ Q _{m}and Δ Q _{b}.
3) in load change range computation, should comprise the stress range producing due to the fluctuation of onstream pressure, operating temperature and other external applied loads, and consider their combined effect.Welding residual stress is not considered.
4), when container is subject to biaxial stress fatigue effect, its fatigue assessment is undertaken by uniaxial stress Assessment Method for Fatigue.
(4) determining of material property data
1) the coefficient A in the relational expression of fatigue crack growth rate and Δ K and the value of exponent m:
Sample from military service container as far as possible, test by the regulation of GB63981986.According to experimental data, return and obtain A and m by least square method, but with least square method returns the A value obtaining should be multiplied by one be not less than 4.0 coefficient could be as evaluating the A value that take.
In air ambient for 16MnR steel below 100 DEG C, and Δ K is at 300～1500N/mm ^{3/2}in scope time, also desirable: m=3.35 A=6.44 × 10 ^{14}
To σ _{0.2}the ferritic steel of < 600MPa, in the air ambient that is no more than 100 DEG C, also desirable:
m＝3.0???A＝6.44×10 ^{11}
When thering is the Fatigue Crack Propagation Mechanism of higher spreading rate with cleavage or microporous polymer etc., should get:
m＝3.0???A＝6.44×10 ^{13}
2) the stress intensity factor variation range threshold value Δ K of crack Propagation _{th}value
In the time that probability of survival is 97.5%, the aerial crack Propagation intensity factor of carbon steel and carbon manganese steel variation range threshold value Δ K _{th}can estimate with following methods:
For timber:
For welding joint:
(5) determining of the calculating of stress intensity factor variation range delta K and inservice pressure vessel expection cycle index, remanent fatigue life, plastic limit loads, the highest allowable working pressure, the surplus pressure that can bear
According to the sign crack size a obtaining _{0}and c _{0}with the stress range Δ σ calculating _{m}with Δ σ _{b}, calculate stress intensity factor variation range delta K separately by the regulation of Appendix D .1.4 in GB/T196242004 _{a}with Δ K _{c}.
1) expection cycle index is permanent width fatigue stress circulation total degree
In formula: Ninservice pressure vessel expection cycle index is permanent width fatigue stress circulation total degree;
A _{0}initial crack depth size;
A _{c}critical crack depth, crack depth at fracture size, 70% of pressure force container wall thickness is 0.7B;
A, mmaterial property parameter.
2) remanent fatigue life
N _{s}＝NN'
In formula: N _{s}inservice pressure vessel cycles left number of times is remanent fatigue life;
N'inservice pressure vessel is cycle index.
3) determining of plastic limit loads
In formula: p _{l0}the plastic limit loads ofinservice pressure vessel;
material flow stress, gets the yield point σ that evaluates material under operating mode _{s}value;
The mean radius of Rinservice pressure vessel;
The calculated thickness of Binservice pressure vessel.
4) the highest allowable working pressure
p _{max}＝p _{L0}
5) surplus pressure that can bear
p'＝p _{max}p"
In formula: the surplus pressure that p'inservice pressure vessel can bear;
P " the pressure thatinservice pressure vessel has born.
(6) avoid the differentiation of fatigue assessment
By the Δ K that calculates different loads circulation _{a}with Δ K _{c}with corresponding expection cycle index, if its result be all less than in table 14 corresponding each row Δ K value corresponding allow bear cycle index, this defect can avoid fatigue assessment, thinks safe or acceptable.
Table 14 avoids fatigue assessment boundary
(7) crack Propagation amount and crackle final size a _{f}and c _{f}calculating; Crack Propagation amount and a are provided _{f}, c _{f}cycle calculations and segmentation simplify calculate method and step.
1) press stress range course computing method and step one by one:
(a) press a _{0}, c _{0}(Δ σ with the 1st circulation _{m}) _{1}, (Δ σ _{b}) _{1}calculate respectively (Δ K _{a}) _{0}(Δ K _{c}) _{c}, and calculate the 1st crack size after circulation.
(b) press a _{1}, c _{1}(Δ σ with the 2nd circulation _{m}) _{2}, (Δ σ _{b}) _{2}calculate respectively (Δ K _{a}) _{1}(Δ K _{c}) _{1}, and calculate the 2nd crack size after circulation:
(c) repeat above step, by the good course of stress range, use formula below successively to calculate the crack size after i STRESS VARIATION circulation of experience:
(d) repeat above step, until last STRESS VARIATION of expection circulates during evaluation, obtain the final size a of Fatigue _{f}and c _{f}.
Method and the step calculated are simplified in segmentation:
If stress range in d, the cycle index of various STRESS VARIATION is respectively n _{i}(i=1,2 ..., d), and various stress range is substantially evenly respectively within the fatigue assessment cycle, can be by the circulation n of each stress range _{i}(i=1,2 ..., d) being divided into after u section, the cycle index of every section is n _{i}/ u.For banner circulation, the cycle index of every section is N/u, generally gets u=5;
From j=1, stop to j=u, application of formula (31) and formula (32) can calculate the approximate average a of this compute segment crack size under various stress range effects partially safely piecemeal _{j}and c _{j}, until calculate the final size a of expansion _{f}and c _{f}.
[(Δ K _{a}) _{i}] _{j1}[(Δ K _{c}) _{i}] _{j1}be respectively crack size a=a _{j1}, c=c _{j1}time i kind (Δ σ _{m}) _{i}(Δ σ _{b}) _{i}under effect in a and c direction crack tip Δ K value.
As being banner circulation, i.e. d=1, in formula (31) and formula (32) be reduced to N, (Δ K _{a}) _{i}be reduced to (Δ K _{a}), (Δ K _{c}) _{i}be reduced to (Δ K _{c}).
Simplification computing method can ignore c Directional Extension time:
(a) ignore the condition of c Directional Extension
If meet formula (33) condition, can ignore c Directional Extension.
ΔK _{c}/ΔK _{a}＜0.5???（33）
(b) a while ignoring c Directional Extension _{f}calculating:
The computing method of joint in employing, but do not calculate all parameters about c direction.
(8) security is passed judgment on:
(a) tired leakage evaluated:
Effects on surface crackle: if a _{f}< 0.7B, can not leak.
To embed crack: and can not leak.
(b) fatigue break evaluation:
By the method for conventional evaluation in fracture and plastic failure evaluation, according to final crack size a _{f}and c _{f}the maximum load stress value bearing with position, defect place ruptures and plastic failure evaluation, if the result of evaluation is safety or acceptable, the inefficacy causing because of fatigue break and plastic failure can not occur.
(c) fatigue safety is passed judgment on:
If fatigue assessment result can meet (a) and condition (b) simultaneously, think that this defect is safe or acceptable; Otherwise, be can not ensure safe or unacceptable.
4, Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation System:
4.1 set up set of factors:
Affect the main Failure Factors compositing factor set of inservice pressure vessel security performance, get the second level factor U={u _{1}, u _{2}, u _{3}, u _{4}}={ defect, vitals, material, internal environment }, u _{1}={ u _{11}, u _{12}}={ planar disfigurement fracture failure, the fatigue failure of planar disfigurement }, u _{2}={ u _{21}, u _{22}, u _{23}, u _{24}}={ glue core, piston, Oring seal, hydraulic control oil circuit }, u _{3}={ u _{31}, u _{32}, u _{33}}={ materials processing quality, the mechanical property of materials, design rationality }, u _{4}={ u _{41}, u _{42}, u _{43}}={ pressure, temperature, corrosivity }.
4.2 set up judge collection
For each judging quota is carried out to quantitative test, need to determine the judge collection of each index, adopt 5 grades of centesimal system to pass judgment on and divide 5 evaluation ranks, i.e. V={v passing judgment on collection V _{1}, v _{2}, v _{3}, v _{4}, v _{5}}={ is minimum, very little, little, larger, large }, wherein v _{1}for inservice pressure vessel multifactor failure danger " minimum ", scoring interval is 90～100, and intermediate value is 95; v _{2}for dangerous " very little ", scoring interval is 80～89, and intermediate value is 84.5; The rest may be inferred.Select the intermediate value in each interval as the parameter of grade, 5 corresponding parameters of grade are that { 95,84.5,74.5,64.5,49.5}, its Argument List vector is ν={ 95,84.5,74.5,64.5,49.5} ^{t}.
4.3 set up weight sets:
(1) set up Recurison order hierarchy structure:
Be judgment index system according to the 4.1 inservice pressure vessel evaluation factor collection of setting up, each factor that problem is comprised is divided into four levels: ground floor is the general objective layer G passing judgment on, i.e. inservice pressure vessel comprehensive safety degree; The second layer is rule layer C, i.e. defect, vitals, material and internal environment; Finally using each specific targets as the 3rd layer, i.e. indicator layer P;
(2) structure compares judgment matrix between two:
Successively each key element is carried out to importance degree assignment between any two, Judgement Matricies U=(u according to " 1～9 scaling law " (as shown in table 15) _{ij}) _{n × n}, wherein u _{ij}expression factor u _{i}and u _{j}with respect to the importance value of rule layer, matrix U has character: u _{ii}=1, u _{ij}=1/u _{ji}, i, j=1,2 ..., n.The judgment matrix obtaining is as shown in table 16～110.
The design of table 15 regularity scale
Table 16u _{1}u _{4}judgment matrix
Table 17u _{11}u _{12}judgment matrix
Table 19u _{31}u _{33}judgment matrix
Table 110u _{41}u _{43}judgment matrix
By table, 16～110 draws judgment matrix:
By matrix X ^{1}～X ^{5}press row normalization, that is:
Calculating matrix Y by formula is above:
(3) calculating of element relative weighting under single criterion:
Y matrix is added by row, by formula draw:
W ^{1}＝(2.652?0.686?0.253?0.409) ^{T}
W ^{2}＝(1?1) ^{T}
W ^{3}＝(1.273?0.371?0.221?2.135) ^{T}
W ^{4}＝(1.9?0.319?0.781) ^{T}
W ^{5}＝(2.121?0.604?0.275) ^{T}
By being normalized with vector of obtaining, by formula can obtain weight vector:
(4) consistency check of judgment matrix:
Calculate the maximum characteristic root λ of judgment matrix _{max}, by formula calculate:
According to formula
CI ^{1}＝0.019
CI ^{2}＝0
CI ^{3}＝0.031
CI ^{4}＝0.020
CI ^{5}＝0.048
By formula (calculating the mean random coincident indicator RI obtaining for 1000 times in Table 111 by 1～15 positive and negative inverse matrix in rank):
CR ^{1}＝0.022
CR ^{2}＝0
CR ^{3}＝0.035
CR ^{4}＝0.038
CR ^{5}＝0.092
CR < 0.1, all meets coherence request.Therefore the relative weighting of each factor
Table 111 mean random coincident indicator RI:
4.4 degrees of membership are calculated:
Use Frequency statistics method, the indices of being passed judgment on is graded by the hazard level of passing judgment on set pair inservice pressure vessel indices, obtain the degree of membership of set of factors.
4.5 determine that judge is subordinate to matrix:
Relative degree of membership matrix by obtaining k set of factors:
Wherein:
In formula: R _{k}the relative degree of membership matrix of thethe k set of factors;
R _{kij}i factor of thethe k set of factors belongs to the degree of membership of passing judgment on concentrated j;
P _{kij}expert group is rated the frequency of j to i factor index of k set of factors.
4.6 structure fuzzy evaluation matrixes:
Weight vector W and matrix R by each index can construct fuzzy evaluation matrix B.
4.7 calculate comprehensive evaluation result:
By the Argument List vector of fuzzy evaluation matrix B and judge collection.Can try to achieve comprehensive evaluation result Z.
Z＝B·V???(42)
The result of fuzzy comprehensive evoluation can be obtained by formula (42), then according to evaluation rank regulation, the dangerous size of inservice pressure vessel multifactor failure can be evaluated.
The foregoing is only preferred embodiment of the present invention, not in order to limit the present invention, all any amendments of doing within the spirit and principles in the present invention, be equal to and replace and improvement etc., within all should being included in protection scope of the present invention.
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