CN103858630A - Construction method for sustainable ecological landscape water body - Google Patents

Construction method for sustainable ecological landscape water body Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103858630A
CN103858630A CN201410054548.4A CN201410054548A CN103858630A CN 103858630 A CN103858630 A CN 103858630A CN 201410054548 A CN201410054548 A CN 201410054548A CN 103858630 A CN103858630 A CN 103858630A
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water
fish
mainly
plant
construction
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CN201410054548.4A
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张华俊
肖平
胡韧
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SHENZHEN ECO-WATER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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SHENZHEN ECO-WATER SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201410054548.4A priority Critical patent/CN103858630A/en
Publication of CN103858630A publication Critical patent/CN103858630A/en
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention relates to a construction method for a sustainable ecological landscape water body. The construction method is characterized in that a complete water body ecological system is constructed by taking ecological ideas as guidance and combining the landscape design aesthetics. The construction method mainly comprises the following steps of (1) digging the water body and performing anti-seepage treatment; (2) constructing emergent, floating leaf and submerged plant communities; (3) constructing a benthonic animal community; (4) constructing a zooplankter animal community; (5) constructing a fish community; (6) constructing microbial community; (7) maintaining the system. According to the construction method disclosed by the invention, a complete aquatic ecosystem is constructed by applying the ecological ideas, so that various communities in the system are self adjusted and mutually utilized, an ordered balance sustainable development state is achieved, the interference resistance is improved while the attractiveness is realized, the self healthy operation can be realized and the expenses of operation and maintenance are reduced.

Description

A kind of construction method of sustainability ecoscape water body
Technical field
The present invention relates to ecoscape water body constructing technology, the structure that is specially adapted to large-scale residential quarter or park Study of Platycladus orientalis-Robinia pseudoacacia water body instructs.
Background technology
Present stage people regard an organic whole as compared with major general's landscape water body, view gimmick and visual effect are generally only considered in master-plan, only from angle aesthstic and engineering, some are seemed to fine, the actual thing that there is no a too many association is fought recklessly and is gathered together, built a temporary transient beautiful scenery, it does not often obtain good effect.Landscape water body moved after a period of time, system crash, and algal bloom in water, water colour is yellowish green, and animals and plants death causes water quality deterioration to foul, and badly influences the function of viewing and admiring of landscape water body.Then people adopt the method for a large amount of physics and chemistries to go to deal with problems again, black smelly bed mud is scooped away, again changes plant beautiful in clean water, kind etc., and after a period of time, but water body dying, thus and thus move in circles, expend a large amount of manpower and financial resources.
The ecological science as correlation and the mechanism of action thereof between a research biology and environment, we can being related to four levels understanding and using ecological law from population, group, the ecosystem and human and environment.Ecology is regarded landscape water body as an organic whole, is an intact ecocystem, and it comprises abiotic part, the producer, consumer, analyst, indispensable.Ecology think a healthy ecosystem it be stable and continuable, not only can maintain its institutional framework and autonomy, also can maintain the restoring force to coercing, the complexity that can maintain it can meet human wants simultaneously.Continuing of the ecosystem is exactly to keep constantly circular regeneration of the required material of life, the energy drives that sunlight provides material and is ceaselessly circulated in the ecosystem, both comprise the mass exchange between the material recycle in environment, interbiotic nutrition transmission and biology and environment, also comprised the conversion of the material forms such as the composition and decomposition of living matter.The normal operation of material recycle, requires certain ecosystem structure.Therefore, the core guiding theory that we build using ecological theory as landscape water body, in conjunction with aesthetics and engineering science, builds and has complete ecosystem structure and have again a landscape water body of aesthetic values, makes landscape water body sustainable development.
Summary of the invention
The object of this invention is to provide a kind of method that builds sustainability ecoscape water body, by the structure of water ecosystem, form stable aquatic ecosystem, allow system self-control and development, each its duty to the greatest extent of each several part, automatically maintain the operation of landscape water body, improve the ability of anti-outside contamination, and contain the degradating trend of landscape water body, when beautification of landscape, only need suitably to safeguard, save a large amount of manpowers and financial resources.
Above-mentioned purpose of the present invention is by following process implementation: the core of this process is to remove to build a complete aquatic ecosystem according to ecological theory, and an intact ecocystem comprises inorganic environment, the producer, consumer and analyst.Its key step is: the (1) structure of water body agent structure; (2) the structure of Aquatic Higher Plants group; (3) the structure of benthic fauna; (4) the structure of Zooplankton Community; (5) the structure of Fish Communities; (6) the structure of microbiologic population.We are applied to " uplink and downlink effect " theory classical in freshwater ecology in practice simultaneously, and " upper row effects ", by the improvement to bed mud, controls the release of substrate sludge nutritive salt, reduces water nutrition salt content, thereby reach the object of controlling amount of algae." lower row effects ", by the change of food chain, increases the quantity of algophagous zooplankton or filter-feeding fish, reaches the object of controlling algae.
Wherein, selecting Aquatic Higher Plants is the role who serves as the producer because of them, when absorbing nutritive salt, forms competitive relation, and suppress the growth of algae by allelopathy at the aspect such as nutritive salt and illumination and algae in process of growth, makes water body so clear that you can see the bottom.Selecting predacious fish and filter-feeding fish is all in order to increase the predator pressure to algae, predacious fish can reduce the quantity of hatching and trash fish in water body, this class fish is mainly taking zooplankton as food, and zooplankton is food mainly with algae, like this by the optimization of food chain, the zooplankton quantity of eating algae is increased, thereby reduce algae density.The structure of Aquatic Higher Plants is also hidden prey for zooplankton provides hiding-place, indirect protection the quantity of zooplankton.Filter-feeding fish itself mainly taking plankton as food, consume algae in a large number.Selecting the Magna genus of zooplankton cladocera is because this genus is the strongest kind of filter-feeding in zooplankton, and individuality is larger, can reduce better the quantity of algae.In addition also have different tail wheel worm and the Brachionus of rotifers, they are not only individual large but also be the sociales in eutrophication water, can be directly taking algae as food, thus to a certain degree control the quantity of algae.Selecting zoobenthos is that they can decompose organic matter certain in water body because as analyst, and when purifying water, their activity makes bed mud top layer in the state of oxidation, is conducive to nutritive salt in bed mud and fixes, and reduces and discharges.In addition the zoobenthos having adheres to algae as food taking submerged plant blade, can improve the photosynthetic efficiency of submerged plant, improves water body oxygen content and improves water body environment.Select microorganism to be because make them serve as analyst's role, in water body, vegeto-animal residual body, organic debris etc., can releasing nutrients salt and affect water quality and water body is attractive in appearance if do not decomposed.
Advantage of the present invention and effect: after the disposable input of the present invention, through suitable adjustment and perfect, landscape water body system is by automatic maintenance operation, and reducing people is operation maintenance and rehabilitation cost.Because this system has certain self-purification capacity, in the time that the pollution being subject to is less than the to lerance threshold of system, system is dissolved pollution and continuous service goes down, and can keep well sight of landscape water body.Aquatic plants growth can absorb the nutritive salt in water body in a large number, and the growth of fish also can be fixed a part of nutritive salt, by the results to both, the nutritive salt of water body is taken out of, can not produce any pollutant, ecological, environmental protective.
Embodiment
1,, according to site contour and landscape design requirement, select suitable landscape water body to build place at physical features flat site, and design water shape, size, the degree of depth and plant, the collocation of structure scape etc.Water body pumping equipment, hydrophily and safety precaution facility design simultaneously, construct.
2, landscape water body main body is excavated, and in mining process, first water body sloping bank is built, and is advisable for gradient 15-25 °.Use timber, ecology bag, stone etc. to carry out consolidation process to sloping bank, herbaceous plant such as sloping bank planting Bermuda grass, the tuber of dwarf lilyturf, Korea lawn grass and vetivers, build environmental sloping bank, refusal sloping bank hardening, and carry out and cut building of dirty structure.Water bottom leveling, and carry out antiseepage processing.The complexity that increases water body habitat structure, can build several places in bottom has the highland of relief.The soil excavating in the time of the 10 cm construction of impervious barrier upper berth one deck afterwards, slightly does on this soil horizon, to repave the thick clay of one deck 15-20 cm after compacting, to make submerged plant growth matrix.After major project completion, soil is carried out to germ with quicklime and disinfect, every 667m 2general with 100-150 jin left and right quicklime.Carry out stage by stage afterwards water filling, for ensureing that submerged plant survives, be advisable with 30-50 cm in advance.
3, water filling, after one week, is carried out transparency to water body and is promoted processing, and the mud of splashing and being mixed into water bottom earth and water, makes algae produce flocculating setting.The structure that carries out higher plant group after water body clarification, mainly comprises emergent aquactic plant, floatingleaved plant, submerged plant.First, at the ready-made submerged plant turf of darker water bottom cover plant, submerged plant planting density coverage rate is greater than 60% water surface area.Turf is mainly made up of in 3:1:1 ratio eel grass, hydrilla verticillata, Haloragidaceae Myriophyllum spicatum, turf length and width specification 40 × 30 cm.Then plant or group planting lotus, cattail, power flower, iris, Scirpus tabernaemontani, calamus etc. are not only attractive in appearance but also tool purifies, the emergent aquactic plant of gram algae effect again at water body bank shallow water area sheet, the control of emergent aquactic plant plantation spacing is 10-20 cm; Finally at the water surface, a little intersperses the floatingleaved plants such as plantation water lily, water chestnut, Wang Lian or field word duckweed, increases the degree of viewing and admiring of landscape water body.After serike survives, slowly increase stage by stage water depth, control the suitable degree of depth of water body at 1-2 m.
4,, after plant community survives, continue to build benthic fauna.Be mainly the input of spiral shell, freshwater mussel and shrimp etc., within the scope of the full water surface, evenly throw in zoobenthos.Spiral shell is mainly ring rib spiral shell; Freshwater mussel is mainly anodon, hydriopsis cumingii, cristaria plicata etc.Wherein the input density of spiral shell is controlled at 10-50/m 2, specification 1 g/; The input density of freshwater mussel is controlled at 0.5/m 2, 1-2 age.Shrimp is mainly Penaeus monodon or rice shrimp, and quantity is suitable etc.
5, build Zooplankton Community, the whole water surface is evenly thrown in wheel animalcule, the cladocera zooplankton taking the endemic species as master that cultivate.Cladocera mainly comprises flea shape Magna, Daphnia magna, carina Magna, wise water Magna, square reticulate pattern Magna, transparent Magna, helmet shape Magna; Wheel animalcule essentialspecies comprises crystal sac wheel animalcule, large-scale different tail and Brachionus.Ensure biomass and the composition of zooplankton, increase the predator pressure to phytoplankton.
6, the structure of Fish Communities, mainly throws in carnivorous and filter-feeding fish and a little ominivore-fish.Wherein predacious fish is mainly mandarin fish, snakehead, perch, yellow cartfish etc., and filter-feeding fish is mainly silver carp, bighead, and ominivore-fish is mainly silver xenocypris fish.All fish specifications are 5-10 cm, to ensure survival rate.Predacious fish is thrown in density 0.01 tail/m 3, filter-feeding fish is thrown in density 0.05 tail/m 3.
7, microbiologic population builds, at the some microbial adhesion nets of water body mid-mounting, or place the adherance such as stone at bank shallow water area, for indigenous microorganism and periphtic algae provide attaching substratum, the profit thereon biological and algal grown of local microenvironment is decomposed organic, absorption nutritive salt and is carried out purifying water body.The upper end of nethike embrane makes it float on the water surface with ball float, and lower end adopts stone dragon to make ecological net film perpendicular in water, and carries out steady job.Biological nethike embrane length and width specification 5-10 m × 1 m, determines number according to actual Living space.
8, system maintenance simply, the disconnected branch of the foreign material in periodic cleaning water body and plant and animal residues, especially submerged plant, prevents and treats its unordered diffusion breeding.Suitably cradle and remove spreading submerged plant kind faster, control its biomass and take away nutritive salt.When the density of zoobenthos and fish and individual when being increased to a certain degree, suitably fish for when aquatic animal nutrition salt fixed efficiency is low winter and shift out ripe individually, then throw in the young of same ratio.Regularly microbial adhesion nethike embrane is taken out and rinsed well, improve adhering to and treatment effeciency of microorganism.

Claims (7)

1. a construction method for sustainability ecoscape water body, is characterized in that building comparatively complete water ecosystem, makes the aquatic ecosystem can self-operation and regulation, and it is as follows that it builds main points:
the structure of water body agent structure;
the structure of higher aquatic plants group;
the structure of benthic fauna;
the structure of Zooplankton Community;
the structure of Fish Communities;
the structure of microbiologic population.
2. method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that described water body agent structure builds, comprise the setting (being advisable for 15-25 °) of water body dip of shore horizon, leveling and antiseepage processing, the laying of argillic horizon and the construction of sterilization, water-bed complicated habitat, ecological revetment and section dirty canal of bottom soil.
3. method according to claim 1, is characterized in that described Aquatic Higher Plants group is emergent aquactic plant, floatingleaved plant and submerged plant; Emergent aquactic plant is mainly: cattail, calamus, the several plant such as power flower, iris, Scirpus tabernaemontani, mullet grass, reed, parasol grass is appropriately combined again; Floatingleaved plant is one or more the combination of water lily, Wang Lian, Gorgon fruit, Tian Ziping, water chestnut etc.; Submerged plant is the several combinations by a certain percentage such as eel grass, hydrilla verticillata, Haloragidaceae Myriophyllum spicatum, hornwort, water caltrop, waterweed.
4. method according to claim 1, is characterized in that described zoobenthos is mainly freshwater mussel, spiral shell and shrimp; Freshwater mussel is one or more combinations of hydriopsis cumingii, anodon or cristaria plicata; Spiral shell is ring rib spiral shell, and shrimp is Penaeus monodon, meter shrimp etc.
5. method according to claim 1, is characterized in that described Zooplankton Community is large-scale cladocera, copepoda and the wheel animalcule taking phytoplankton as food.
6. method according to claim 1, is characterized in that described Fish Communities is predacious fish, filter-feeding fish and a little ominivore-fish; Filter-feeding fish is mainly silver carp, bighead; Predacious fish is mainly: mandarin fish, snakehead, perch, yellow cartfish etc. one or more, ominivore-fish is mainly silver xenocypris fish.
7. method according to claim 1, is characterized in that described microbiologic population is mainly the combination of photosynthetic bacteria, nitrifier, ammonifiers, bacillus etc., is advisable with local bacterial classification, under felicity condition, can add artificial culture bacterial classification.
CN201410054548.4A 2014-02-18 2014-02-18 Construction method for sustainable ecological landscape water body Pending CN103858630A (en)

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Cited By (12)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105123574A (en) * 2015-07-28 2015-12-09 中国科学院水生生物研究所 Substrate ecological crucian pond culturing method
CN105523637A (en) * 2015-12-29 2016-04-27 张豫 A benthonic animal-algae-aquatic plant-fish based river water ecological environment self-remediation method
CN105621619A (en) * 2016-02-04 2016-06-01 济宁市任城区路口渔业专业合作社 Lakeside wetland aquatics, fishes and benthos water purification system and purification method thereof
CN107347417A (en) * 2017-08-17 2017-11-17 舒城县万佛湖渔业总公司 A kind of cultural method of aquatic Gorgon fruit and fish spatial mixing
CN107896957A (en) * 2017-10-16 2018-04-13 浙江诚邦园林股份有限公司 A kind of construction method of sustainability ecoscape water body
CN108163981A (en) * 2017-12-29 2018-06-15 广州普邦园林股份有限公司 A kind of method for repairing polluted lake landscape water body
CN108658237A (en) * 2018-05-22 2018-10-16 上海海洋大学 The biological purification system of alkalinity artificial lake's water quality with high salt
CN109626766A (en) * 2018-07-25 2019-04-16 长沙理工大学 A kind of ecology of urban river is regulated and stored the construction method in lake
CN109879447A (en) * 2019-03-23 2019-06-14 广东华碧环保股份有限公司 The construction method of the Water in landscape lake ecosystem
CN110980955A (en) * 2019-12-05 2020-04-10 中建三局绿色产业投资有限公司 Treatment method of water ecosystem aiming at eutrophic water body
CN113170708A (en) * 2021-04-25 2021-07-27 北京市水科学技术研究院 Method for constructing underwater ecosystem of river and lake supplemented with reclaimed water
CN113292165A (en) * 2021-04-30 2021-08-24 珠海华发城市研究院有限公司 Benefit type ecological chain water quality purification method

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Cited By (14)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105123574B (en) * 2015-07-28 2019-03-19 中国科学院水生生物研究所 The crucian pond breeding method of attachment base ecology
CN105123574A (en) * 2015-07-28 2015-12-09 中国科学院水生生物研究所 Substrate ecological crucian pond culturing method
CN105523637B (en) * 2015-12-29 2018-02-27 张豫 River water ecological environment self-regeneration method based on zoobenthos algae water plant fish
CN105523637A (en) * 2015-12-29 2016-04-27 张豫 A benthonic animal-algae-aquatic plant-fish based river water ecological environment self-remediation method
CN105621619A (en) * 2016-02-04 2016-06-01 济宁市任城区路口渔业专业合作社 Lakeside wetland aquatics, fishes and benthos water purification system and purification method thereof
CN107347417A (en) * 2017-08-17 2017-11-17 舒城县万佛湖渔业总公司 A kind of cultural method of aquatic Gorgon fruit and fish spatial mixing
CN107896957A (en) * 2017-10-16 2018-04-13 浙江诚邦园林股份有限公司 A kind of construction method of sustainability ecoscape water body
CN108163981A (en) * 2017-12-29 2018-06-15 广州普邦园林股份有限公司 A kind of method for repairing polluted lake landscape water body
CN108658237A (en) * 2018-05-22 2018-10-16 上海海洋大学 The biological purification system of alkalinity artificial lake's water quality with high salt
CN109626766A (en) * 2018-07-25 2019-04-16 长沙理工大学 A kind of ecology of urban river is regulated and stored the construction method in lake
CN109879447A (en) * 2019-03-23 2019-06-14 广东华碧环保股份有限公司 The construction method of the Water in landscape lake ecosystem
CN110980955A (en) * 2019-12-05 2020-04-10 中建三局绿色产业投资有限公司 Treatment method of water ecosystem aiming at eutrophic water body
CN113170708A (en) * 2021-04-25 2021-07-27 北京市水科学技术研究院 Method for constructing underwater ecosystem of river and lake supplemented with reclaimed water
CN113292165A (en) * 2021-04-30 2021-08-24 珠海华发城市研究院有限公司 Benefit type ecological chain water quality purification method

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