CN103835707B - An analog of a large frozen Deep Shaft Model experiment - Google PatentsAn analog of a large frozen Deep Shaft Model experiment Download PDF
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- CN103835707B CN103835707B CN201310645777.9A CN201310645777A CN103835707B CN 103835707 B CN103835707 B CN 103835707B CN 201310645777 A CN201310645777 A CN 201310645777A CN 103835707 B CN103835707 B CN 103835707B
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 本发明涉及一种深立井冻结模拟装置，特别涉及一种模拟深立井冻结的大型模型试验装置。  The present invention relates to a freeze Deep Shaft simulation apparatus, and particularly to a simulation model of the large frozen Deep Shaft test apparatus. 背景技术 Background technique
 冻结法是在井筒开挖之前，从地面沿拟建竖井外围一定距离的同心圆周上间隔向下钻孔，孔底深入不透水层，然后在每个钻孔中沉放冻结管;在地面安装冷冻设备，用循环栗将制冷剂输入冻结管，经制冷剂长时间连续地吸取管外的热量，使周围地层冻结，使之能承受水、土压力并阻隔地下水，在它的保护下开挖地层和修筑衬砌。  Prior to freezing method is the wellbore excavation, drilling from the surface downwardly spaced along the periphery of the shaft concentric circumferences proposed certain distance, deep hole bottom impermeable layer, then frozen in each tube sinking the borehole; refrigeration equipment installed on the ground, Li refrigerant circulating pipes freeze input, through the refrigerant heat long outer tube is continuously drawn, so that the surrounding ground freezing, so that it can withstand water pressure of the soil and ground water barrier, in its protection and the formation excavation lining construction.
 因此，冻结法主要适用于在松散不稳定的冲积层，裂隙发育的含水岩层，淤泥、松软泥岩，以及饱和含水和水头特别高的地层进行竖井工程;其是一种借助人工制冷手段暂时加固地层和隔断地下水的特殊施工方法。  Thus, the method is primarily intended to Freezing Shaft Engineering loose unstable alluvium aqueous fractured rock, mud, soft shale, and saturated aqueous especially high and the head formations; which is an artificial means of cooling means special construction methods of formation and cut off groundwater temporary reinforcement.
 在实际采用冻结法凿井施工中，常需要对冻结方案进行论证优化设计，以确定最佳方案。  In the actual design optimization using sinking freezing method of construction is often desirable to demonstrate freezing programs, to determine the best solution. 在诸多研究方法中物理相似模拟试验以其直观准确的特点常作为冻结方案研究中的重要手段。 In many similar research methods in physics simulation test its intuitive accurate characteristics often as an important means to freeze the program research. 这就需要在竖井冻结施工之前以特征地层为研究对象开展相似模拟试验，以便掌握按某种冻结方案拟冻结地层中冻结壁的形成扩展情况及井筒开挖后冻结壁受力、变形规律，为竖井工程安全施工在方案的科学合理性上夯实基础。 This is carried out before the need to freeze the construction of the shaft as the research object in the formation characteristics similar simulation experiment, in order to grasp the force wall after freezing Freezing proposed by some frozen ground frozen wall formed in the case and extended the wellbore excavation, deformation law for shaft construction engineering safety on the solid foundation of scientific rationality programs. 但是，现有技术中的模拟装置存在如下技术缺陷:(1)试验装置有效试验空间普遍不足，边界效应与尺度效应常对试验结果造成不利影响。 However, the prior art has the following technical defects simulation apparatus: (1) Effective test test apparatus is generally insufficient space, the border effect and scale effect often adversely affect the test results. (2)结构受力与试验操作的方便性难以兼顾，部分试验台操作方便但结构受力不好，难以实现高压加载。 (2) by the structure of the test force and ease of operation is difficult to balance, test bench operation, but allow some discontinuity good structure, difficult to achieve a high-pressure loading. (3)对大型岩土试件模拟地压加载存在较大困难，隔膜易损导致试验失败。 (3) the presence of large specimens geotechnical analog pressure loading more difficult, resulting in failure of the test membrane vulnerable. (4)井筒开挖模拟存在较大难度，且难以对开挖后井帮的位移变形情况进行监测。 (4) there is a big difficulty simulated wellbore excavation and it is difficult to well after excavation displacement deformation helps to monitor. 发明内容 SUMMARY
 针对现有技术中存在的不足，本发明的目的在于提供一种更大试验空间，结构受力更合理，能够模拟深立井高地压环境与不同段高井筒开挖的大型模型试验装置，使得在深立井井筒冻结方案研究优化阶段，通过相似模拟实验获得深井高地压环境下冻结壁温度场、冻结壁与未冻土整体受力情况、冻结壁稳定性、冻结壁位移、井筒支护等方面的相关信息，为深立井井筒实际施工提供有力的技术支撑。  for the deficiencies in the prior art, the object of the present invention is to provide a larger test space, structure reasonable force, capable of simulating large-scale model test apparatus used in high pressure environment and the Deep Shaft different segments of high wellbore Excavation , so optimization of Vertical Shaft deep freezing stage, obtained by simulation similar to the deep freezing wall temperature field in high pressure environment, freezing wall and the forces are not integrally frozen, frozen wall stability, freeze wall displacement, bore support information and other aspects, to provide strong technical support for the actual construction of deep Vertical Shaft.
 本发明的技术方案是这样实现的:一种模拟深立井冻结的大型模型试验装置，包括模型试验筒、泥浆加载系统、液压系统、开挖模拟系统、制冷系统、监测系统和数据采集与控制系统，开挖模拟系统位于土试样内，土试样位于模型试验筒内，泥浆加载系统、液压系统和数据采集与控制系统均位于模型试验筒外，监测系统的一部分监测端埋于土试样内、 另一部分监测端位于开挖模拟系统内，监测系统的输出端与数据采集与控制系统的输入端连接，液压系统为开挖模拟系统提供液压驱动力，泥浆加载系统的泥浆输出口与模型试验筒内壁和土试样之间的空腔流体导通，制冷系统为土试样冻结提供循环低温液体。  aspect of the present invention is implemented as follows: an analog Deep Shaft freeze large model test apparatus comprising a test tube model, the slurry loading system, hydraulic system, the excavation simulation systems, refrigeration systems, monitoring and data collection system and the control system, the simulation system is located within the excavation of soil samples, soil samples located model test tube, slurry loading system, hydraulic system, and data acquisition and control system are located on the outer tube model test, part of the monitoring terminal monitoring system buried the soil sample, the other end portion of the monitoring system is located within the excavation analog output terminal and the input terminal of the data acquisition and control system is connected to the monitoring system, a hydraulic system providing hydraulic drive system to simulate the excavation force, mud slurry loading system output a fluid cavity between the port and the conduction model tests barrel inner wall and the soil sample, the soil sample is frozen cooling system provides cryogenic liquid circulation.
 上述模拟深立井冻结的大型模型试验装置，模型试验筒包括试验筒底座、中间筒身、上端盖、上法兰、下端盖和下法兰，下端盖固定安装在试验筒底座上，下法兰固定安装在下端盖上，中间筒身固定安装在下法兰上，上法兰固定安装中间筒身上，上端盖固定安装在上法兰上，中间筒身、上法兰和下法兰均同轴焊接安装；中间筒身上安装有渗流液流出管， 下端盖上分别安装有泥浆补压管、泥浆进液管和制冷进液管，上端盖上分别安装有放空管、 低温液排出管和压力检测管;在下端盖的中心处开设有第一台阶式安装孔，第一台阶式安装孔的上端孔径大于下端孔径，在第一台阶式安装孔的上端安装有下活动小端盖，下活动小端盖与第一台阶式安装孔的上端孔凸凹密封配合，下端盖下表面上固定安装有用于封闭第一台阶式安装孔下端开口的第一封板，  The large frozen Deep Shaft simulation model test apparatus, the test tube model test cartridge comprising a base, an intermediate barrel, a cap, an upper flange, a lower flange and a lower end cap, the end cap is fixedly mounted on the test tube base, the lower flange fixedly mounted on the lower end cap, the middle barrel fixedly mounted on the lower flange, the flange is fixedly mounted on the intermediate cylindrical body, the end cap flange fixedly mounted on the middle barrel, the upper and lower flanges are coaxially mounted by soldering; intermediate cylinder body is attached to the liquid outflow pipe flow, the lower end cap are mounted mud fill pressure pipe, the slurry liquid inlet pipe and cooling liquid inlet tube, an upper cover with a vent pipe are attached, the low-temperature liquid discharge , and pressure detecting pipe; at the center of the lower end cap defines a first stepped mounting hole, the upper end of the stepped aperture of the first mounting hole is larger than the lower end of the aperture, the upper end of the first stepped mounting hole is attached to the end cap in small , and the upper end of the end cap in small irregularities first stepped hole mounting hole sealing engagement, on the lower surface of the lower end cap attached to a first fixed closure plate for closing the lower end of the first stepped mounting hole opening, 下活动小端盖上开设有内外连接测试线引线孔和低温进液孔，制冷进液管依次穿过第一封板和下活动小端盖上的低温进液孔与位于模型试验筒内的低温进液分水器流体导通;在上端盖的中心处开设有第二台阶式安装孔，第二台阶式安装孔的上端孔径小于下端孔径，在第二台阶式安装孔的下端安装有上活动小端盖， 上活动小端盖上开设有内外连接测试线引线孔和液压油孔，上活动小端盖与第二台阶式安装孔的下端孔凸凹密封配合，上端盖上表面上固定安装有用于封闭第二台阶式安装孔上端开口的第二封板，低温液排出管位于模型试验筒内的一端与低温回液分水器流体导通。 Defines the activity test leads and external leads connected to the inlet hole and the hole on a small low end cap, passes through the refrigerant inlet pipe on cryogenic first closure plate and the lower end cap in small bore inlet tube located Model Test a low temperature trap into the liquid conducting fluid; a second step defines a mounting hole at the center of the end cap, the upper end of the second stepped mounting hole diameter is smaller than the lower end of the aperture in the lower end of the second stepped mounting hole is mounted on the in small cap, defines the activity test leads and external leads connected to the hydraulic bore hole and, in small holes on the lower end cap and the second stepped punch mounting hole with a small sealing cap, the upper end fixedly mounted on the surface of the cover a second sealing plate for closing an upper end of the second stepped mounting hole opening, the low-temperature liquid discharge pipe is located one end of the cylinder model test fluid trap cryogenic liquid return through the guide.
 上述模拟深立井冻结的大型模型试验装置，上法兰和下法兰均采用坡口设计，即: 上法兰与上端盖的接触面边缘相对于上法兰面所在水平面向下倾斜，下法兰与下端盖的接触面边缘相对于下法兰面所在水平面向上倾斜。  The large-scale model experiment means the analog frozen Deep Shaft, upper and lower flanges are made of the groove design, namely: the flange and the contact surface on the edge of the end cap relative to the horizontal flange is located downwardly , the contact edge of the lower flange surface of the lower end cap is located with respect to the horizontal surface of the flange is inclined upwardly.
 上述模拟深立井冻结的大型模型试验装置，在上端盖与上法兰的接触面上以及在下端盖与下法兰的接触面上均设置有密封槽，在密封槽内安装有丁氰橡胶密封垫圈；上活动小端盖与上端盖之间以及下活动小端盖与下端盖之间设置有铜板垫圈和丁氰橡胶密封垫圈。  The large-scale model experiment means the analog Deep Shaft frozen, and the contact surface on the end cap and lower end cap and the contact surface on the flange of the lower flange is provided with a sealing groove, is mounted in the seal groove butoxy nitrile rubber gasket; activity on the small cap between the upper cap and is provided with a copper washer and nitrile rubber gasket between the end cap and lower end cap in small.
 上述模拟深立井冻结的大型模型试验装置，中间筒身与上法兰以及中间筒身与下法兰均为焊接连接，上端盖与上法兰以及下端盖与下法兰均为螺栓连接;上法兰与上端盖的接触面自上端盖上的密封槽处且相对于上法兰面所在水平面向下倾斜角度X为1.5〜2.5 度，下法兰与下端盖的接触面自下端盖上的密封槽处且相对于下法兰面所在水平面向上倾斜角度X为1.5〜2.5度。  Large model experiment means the analog Deep Shaft frozen, with the intermediate barrel upper flange and lower flange are intermediate barrel with a welded connection, the cover and the upper flange and a lower end cap and the lower flange are bolts connection; flange contact surface with the upper self-sealing end cap at the upper end of the groove from the bottom end cap and with respect to the upper surface of the flange where X is the horizontal angle 1.5~2.5 degrees downward, the lower flange contact surface with the lower end cap cover and seal with respect to the groove of the flange where the inclination angle X is the horizontal direction of 1.5~2.5.
 上述模拟深立井冻结的大型模型试验装置，上端盖的上表面上以及下端盖的下表面上均焊接有内环形肋板和外环形肋板，内环形肋板围成的圆的直径小于外环形肋板围成的圆的直径，上端盖上的内环形肋板和外环形肋板的圆心为上端盖的中心，下端盖上的内环形肋板和外环形肋板的圆心为下端盖的中心，上端盖的中心与下端盖的中心均在中间筒身的轴线上;在内环形肋板和外环形肋板之间以及外环形肋板外侧均等角度轮辐式布置有直肋板，即:内环形肋板和外环形肋板之间沿径向均匀焊接有12根直肋板，外环形肋板的外侧沿径向均匀焊接有24根直肋板。  The large-scale model experiment means the analog Deep Shaft frozen, are welded to the inner annular rib and an outer annular rib on the upper surface of the upper cap and the lower surface of the lower end cap, inner annular rib surrounded by the diameter of a circle the center circle of the end cap outer annular rib is less than the diameter of a circle surrounded the upper end of the cover inner annular rib and an outer annular rib, the lower end cap inner annular rib and an outer annular rib of the lower end of the center the central lid, the centers of the end caps are in the lower end cap on the intermediate barrel axis; annular rib between the inner and the outer annular rib and an outer annular rib disposed outside of spoke angles uniformly straight ribs, That is: welded even radial rib 12 between the straight inner annular rib and an outer annular rib, radially outside the outer annular rib 24 welded uniformly straight rib.
 上述模拟深立井冻结的大型模型试验装置，泥浆加载系统包括泥浆搅拌桶、泥浆栗和电机伺服泥浆加载单元，泥浆栗的泥浆输入端与泥浆搅拌桶流体导通，泥浆栗的泥浆输出端与泥浆进液管流体导通，电机伺服泥浆加载单元的控制信号输入端与PLC的控制信号输出端连接;制冷系统包括低温槽、循环栗、低温进液分水器、低温回液分水器和模型冻结管，低温槽的低温液出口与循环栗的低温液入口流体导通，循环栗的低温液出口与制冷进液管流体导通，制冷进液管与低温进液分水器流体导通，低温进液分水器埋在土试样内且位于土试样底部，模型冻结管的下端与低温进液分水器流体导通，模型冻结管的上端贯穿土试样并与低温回液分水器流体导通，低温回液分水器的低温回液出口与低温液排出管流体导通;监测系统包括温度传感器、土压力传感器、  The large-scale model experiment means the analog Deep Shaft frozen slurry loading system comprises a mud mixing tub, the slurry Li and motor servo slurry loading unit, mud Li mud input terminal of the slurry mixing vessel in fluid communication, mud Li mud output end of the slurry inlet pipe fluid control signal input terminal is turned on, the mud motor servo loading unit connected to the control signal output terminal of the PLC; refrigeration system comprises a cold tank, Li cycle, low temperature trap into the liquid, the liquid return cryogenic trap and model freezing pipes, circulating cryogenic fluid outlet Li cryogenic tank cryogenic liquid inlet in fluid communication, the refrigeration cycle cryogenic liquid outlet chestnut fluid inlet tube is turned on, the refrigerant inlet pipe and the low temperature fluid into the liquid trap turned on, the low-temperature liquid into the soil trap embedded in the soil at the bottom of the sample and the sample, the lower end of the model and the low temperature freezing liquid trap pipe inlet in fluid communication, the upper end of the model soil sample through the tube and frozen with a low temperature trap the liquid return fluid turned back to the low temperature cryogenic liquid return outlet with a cryogenic liquid trap liquid discharge pipe conducting fluid; monitoring system comprises a temperature sensor, a pressure sensor earth, 隙水压传感器和位移传感器，土压力传感器、孔隙水压传感器和一部分温度传感器分别埋在土试样内，位移传感器和另一部分温度传感器位于开挖模拟系统内；数据采集与控制系统包括数据采集器和PC机，数据采集器的数据输出端与PC机的数据输入端连接，温度传感器、土压力传感器、孔隙水压传感器和位移传感器的测试引线穿过上活动小端盖上的内外连接测试线引线孔与数据采集的数据输入端连接。 Nip pressure sensor and a displacement sensor, a pressure sensor earth, pore water pressure sensor and a temperature sensor portion are buried in the soil samples, another portion of the displacement sensor and a temperature sensor located within the excavation simulation system; data acquisition and control system comprises a data acquisition data input terminal and the PC, data output terminal of the data collector is connected to the PC, a temperature sensor, the test sensor leads soil pressure, pore pressure sensors and the displacement sensor is connected through the inner and outer cap in small test on a lead wire hole data acquisition and data input connected.
 上述模拟深立井冻结的大型模型试验装置，开挖模拟系统包括支撑架、回缩护筒、 开挖伸缩筒和驱动机构，回缩护筒的下端为开口端、上端为封闭端，支撑架的上端自回缩护筒的开口端伸入到回缩护筒内，并且支撑架的上端与回缩护筒固定连接;驱动机构与开挖伸缩筒驱动连接，开挖伸缩筒的上端套装在回缩护筒内并可在回缩护筒内做上下往复运动，开挖伸缩筒的外壁与回缩护筒的内壁密封配合;支撑架包括开挖系统底座和一端固定安装在开挖模拟系统底座上的支撑柱，支撑柱的顶端与回缩护筒的上端封盖固定连接;驱动机构为安装在回缩护筒与开挖伸缩筒之间形成的空腔内的动作油缸，动作油缸具有缸筒和活塞杆，缸筒远离活塞杆的一端与上端封盖固定连接，活塞杆远离缸筒的一端与伸缩筒托架固定连接，伸缩筒托架与开挖伸缩筒固定连接。  Large model experiment means the analog Deep Shaft frozen excavation simulation system includes a support frame, retraction casing, excavation telescopic cylinder and a drive mechanism, the retraction of the lower end of the casing open end, a closed upper end, the upper end of the support frame is retracted from the opening end of the casing projects into the retaining cylinder to the retracted, and the retraction of the support frame and the upper casing is fixedly connected; excavation and a drive mechanism drivingly connected to the telescopic cylinder, the upper end of the telescopic cylinder excavation Support package may make the barrel retracted retracted retaining cylinder reciprocates up and down between the outer wall of the excavation and retraction of the telescopic cylinder casing sealing engagement; excavation system comprising a support frame and a base end fixedly mounted in the excavation support column on the analog system base, with the upper end of the retraction to the top of the casing cover fixed to the support column; actuation of the cylinder cavity is mounted a drive mechanism between a retracted telescopic cylinder casing and the formation excavation operation and a cylinder having a cylinder rod, one end of the cylinder remote from the piston rod is fixedly connected with the upper end of the closure, one end of a piston rod connected to the telescopic bracket away from the cylinder, telescopic cylinder bracket is fixedly connected with the excavation of the telescopic cylinder.
 上述模拟深立井冻结的大型模型试验装置，伸缩筒托架为一个带状板，带状板的两端分别固定安装在开挖伸缩筒的内壁上;缸筒外表面上固定安装有传感器托架立杆，传感器托架立杆的上端与缸筒外表面固定连接，传感器托架立杆的下端自缸筒向下延伸至小于或等于活塞杆自由端向下的最大行程，在传感器托架立杆上自下而上分别安装有传感器托架，每个传感器托架上均安装有位移传感器;开挖伸缩筒的外壁与回缩护筒的内壁之间设置有筒间密封胶圈;在开挖伸缩筒与回缩护筒之间的空腔内还分别设置有温度传感器和小型微光照明数码摄像头;温度传感器、位移传感器和小型微光照明数码摄像头的测试引线自回缩护筒的封闭端引出；开挖伸缩筒下端端面与开挖系统底座上的台阶面密封配合， 并且开挖伸缩筒下端端面与开挖系统底座上的台阶面之间  The large-scale model experiment means the analog Deep Shaft frozen, the telescopic cylinder is a band-shaped plate bracket, both ends of the belt-shaped plate are respectively fixedly mounted on the inner wall of the excavation of the telescopic cylinder; cylinder fixedly attached to the outer surface pole sensor bracket, the sensor bracket pole outside the upper end surface of the cylinder is fixedly connected with the lower end of the sensor bracket uprights extend to the free end of the rod is less than or equal to the maximum downward stroke from the cylinder down in the sensor bottom-pole respectively mounted on the carriage with a sensor bracket, each of the sensors are mounted on the carriage displacement sensor; cylinder is provided with a gasket between the inner wall and the outer wall of the excavation telescopic cylinder retraction of casing ; cavity between the cylinder and the telescopic retraction excavation casing are further provided with a temperature sensor and a small digital camera, an illumination LLL; test leads temperature sensor, a displacement sensor and a small digital camera shimmer lighting care self-retracting the closed end of the lead cylinder; the stepped surface between the lower end of the upper end surface of the telescopic cylinder excavation excavation system with a sealing seat, and the excavation of the stepped surface on the lower end of the telescopic cylinder base end surface of the excavation system 置有底座密封胶圈，台阶面位于开挖系统底座的上表面下方的水平面上;推出动作油管穿过回缩护筒的封闭端与动作油缸的活塞腔流体导通，回缩动作油管穿过回缩护筒的封闭端与动作油缸的活塞杆腔流体导通。 There gasket facing the base, the stepped surface is located below the horizontal plane of the upper surface of the base of the excavation system; Release actuation of the cylinder closed end and the piston chamber through the fluid conducting tubing retraction operation of the casing, tubing through retraction operation a fluid guide rod chamber closed end and the retraction operation of the cylinder casing through.
 本发明的有益效果是:本发明的技术方案使得在深立井井筒冻结开挖之前能够对冻结开挖施工过程进行相似模拟，进而获得深立井高地压环境下冻结壁温度场、冻结壁与未冻土整体受力情况、冻结壁稳定性、冻结壁位移、井筒支护等方面的相关信息，为深立井井筒的实际开挖施工提供可靠的依据。  Advantageous effects of the invention are: aspect of the present invention enables similar simulation before the excavation process of freezing in a deep freeze Vertical Shaft excavation, and then get under freezing wall temperature field Deep Shaft in high pressure environment, freezing wall and the overall force is not frozen, the frozen wall stability, freeze the information related to the wall displacement, bore support, to provide a reliable basis for the excavation of deep Vertical Shaft. 附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION
 图1为本发明中的开挖模拟系统处于回缩状态的结构示意图。  FIG. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of the simulation system excavation invention in a retracted position.
 图2为图1所示的开挖模拟系统的AA剖面结构示意图。  FIG. 2 is a simulation of excavation system shown in FIG 1 is a schematic structural cross-sectional view AA.
 图3为本发明中的开挖模拟系统处于推出状态的结构示意图。  In the present invention, FIG. 3 is a schematic structural diagram EXCAVATION SYSTEM Release state.
 图4为图3所示的开挖模拟系统的BB剖面结构示意图。 Schematic  FIG. 4 is a simulation of the system shown in FIG. 3 Excavation of BB cross-sectional structure.
 图5为本发明模拟深立井冻结的大型模型试验装置的原理图。  Figure 5 Schematic analog Deep Shaft frozen large models test device of the present invention.
 图6为本发明模拟深立井冻结的大型模型试验装置的模型试验筒的内部结构示意图。  FIG. 6 is a schematic internal configuration of the test tube model of large-scale model experiment means freezing simulation of Deep Shaft present invention.
 图7为图6所示模型试验筒的上端盖的上表面上以及下端盖的下表面的结构示意图。 On the upper surface of the upper cap  FIG. 7 is a model test tube, and the structure shown in FIG. 6 a schematic view of the lower surface of the lower end cap. [〇〇23]图8为上、下法兰的结构示意图。 [〇〇23] Fig. 8 is a schematic structural view of the lower flange.
图9为图8所示上、下法兰的局部放大结构示意图。  FIG. 9 is shown on FIG. 8, a schematic structure of a partial enlarged lower flange. [〇〇25]图中:100-模型试验筒，200-泥浆加载系统，300-液压系统，400-制冷系统，500-数据采集与控制系统。 [〇〇25] FIG: model test tube 100, 200- slurry loading system, a hydraulic system 300, 400- refrigeration system, data acquisition and control system 500.
 1-测试引线，2-推出动作油管，3-回缩动作油管，4-温度传感器，5-位移传感器，6-支撑柱，7-回缩护筒，8-筒间密封胶圈，9-小型微光照明数码摄像头，10-伸缩筒托架，11-开挖系统底座，12-底座密封胶圈，13-位移传感器顶杠，14-外挖面，15-传感器托架立杆，16-传感器托架，17-土试样，18-开挖伸缩筒，19-活塞杆，20-缸筒，21-试验筒底座，22-中间筒身，23-上端盖，24-上法兰，25-下端盖，26-下法兰，27-泥衆补压管，28-泥衆进液管，29-制冷进液管，30-放空管，31-低温液排出管，32-压力检测管，33-下活动小端盖，34-第一封板， 35-上活动小端盖，36-第二封板，37-丁腈橡胶密封垫圈，38-内环形肋板，39-外环形肋板， 40-直肋板，41-电机伺服泥浆加载单元，42-低温槽，43-循环栗，44-低温进液分水器，45-低温回液分水器，46-模型冻结管，47-计算机，48-土压力传感器，4  1- test lead, tubing operation between Release 2-, 3- tubing retraction operation, 4 temperature sensors, displacement sensors 5-, 6- support column, retraction casing 7-, 8- cylinder gasket 9- compact digital cameras dim light illumination, the telescopic cylinder bracket 10-, 11- excavation system base, the base sealing gasket 12-, 13- top bar displacement sensor, 14 an outer cutting face, the sensor bracket 15 Li rod, the sensor bracket 16-, 17- soil sample, excavation telescopic cylinder 18, 19 of the piston rod, the cylinder 20, the test tube base 21, 22 intermediate the barrel, end cap 23-, 24- the upper flange, the lower end cap 25, the lower flange 26-, 27- fill all the mud pressure pipe, mud all the liquid inlet pipe 28-, 29- refrigerant inlet tube, vent pipe 30-, 31- cryogenic liquid discharge pipe , 32- pressure detection pipe, the end cap 33 in small, 34- first closure plate, in small end cap 35, a second closure plate 36-, 37- nitrile rubber gasket, the annular rib 38- plate, 39- outer annular rib, straight ribs 40, the mud motor servo loading unit 41-, 42- cold tank, 43 cycles Li, 44- cryogenic trap into the liquid, the liquid return cryogenic trap 45- 46-model freeze pipes, computer 47-, 48- soil pressure sensor, 4 9-泥浆，50-制冷液，51-空气或泥浆，52-压力表座，53-泥浆压力传感器，54-低温液，55-渗流液流出管，56-土压力传感器，57-孔隙水压传感器，58-液压站，59-数据采集器，60-尼龙网，61-膨润土胶泥，62-孔隙水压传感器。 9- mud, cooling fluid 50, air or slurry 51, 52- gauge blocks, mud pressure sensor 53-, 54- cryogenic liquid, the liquid outflow pipe flow 55-, 56- soil pressure sensor, 57- water pressures sensors, hydraulic station 58-, 59- data acquisition, 60- nylon mesh, bentonite clay 61-, 62- pore water pressure sensor. 具体实施方式 Detailed ways
 如图5所示，本实施例模拟深立井冻结的大型模型试验装置包括模型试验筒100、 泥浆加载系统200、液压系统300、开挖模拟系统、制冷系统400、监测系统和数据采集与控制系统500，开挖模拟系统位于土试样17内，土试样17位于模型试验筒100内，泥浆加载系统200、液压系统300和数据采集与控制系统500均位于模型试验筒100外，监测系统的一部分监测端埋于土试样17内、另一部分监测端位于开挖模拟系统内，监测系统的输出端与数据采集与控制系统500的输入端连接，液压系统300为开挖模拟系统提供液压驱动力，泥浆加载系统200的泥浆输出口与模型试验筒100内壁和土试样17之间的空腔流体导通，制冷系统400为土试样17冻结提供循环低温液体。  5, the large-scale model test apparatus comprises a freezing simulation model Deep Shaft testing cylinder 100, the slurry loading system embodiment 200, a hydraulic system 300, excavation simulation system, refrigeration system 400, the data acquisition and monitoring system and control system 500, the excavation of soil sample in the simulation system 17 is located, the soil sample test tube 17 is located within the model 100, the slurry loading system 200, hydraulic system 300 and the data acquisition and control system 500 are positioned outside the model 100 testing cylinder, the end part of the monitoring of the monitoring system 17 buried in the soil sample, the other end portion located within the excavation analog monitoring system, input and output of the monitoring system of data acquisition and control system 500 is connected to a hydraulic system for the simulation of excavation system 300 providing hydraulic driving force, the cavity in fluid communication, the refrigeration system between the inner wall 100 and outlet mud slurry loading tube model test systems 200 and 400 is a soil sample 17 sample 17 soil freezing cycle provide cryogenic liquid. [〇〇28] 如图6所示，模型试验筒包括试验筒底座21、中间筒身22、上端盖23、上法兰24、下端盖25和下法兰26,下端盖25固定安装在试验筒底座21上，下法兰26固定安装在下端盖25 上，中间筒身22固定安装在下法兰26上，上法兰24固定安装中间筒身22上，上端盖23固定安装在上法兰24上，中间筒身22、上法兰24和下法兰26均同轴焊接安装；中间筒身22上安装有渗流液流出管55，下端盖25上分别安装有泥浆补压管27、泥浆进液管28和制冷进液管29，上端盖23上分别安装有放空管30、低温液排出管31和压力检测管32;在下端盖25的中心处开设有第一台阶式安装孔，第一台阶式安装孔的上端孔径大于下端孔径，在第一台阶式安装孔的上端安装有下活动小端盖33,下活动小端盖33与第一台阶式安装孔的上端孔凸凹密封配合，下端盖25下表面上固定安装有用于封闭第一台阶式安装孔下端 [〇〇28] As shown, the test tube model test cartridge comprising a base 21, an intermediate barrel 622, the end cap 23, the upper flange 24, lower end cap 25 and the lower flange 26, the lower end cap 25 is fixedly mounted in the test on the cartridge base 21, the lower flange 26 fixedly mounted on the lower end cap 25, the middle barrel 22 is fixedly mounted on the lower flange 26, the intermediate flange 24 is fixedly mounted on the barrel 22, the end cap 23 is fixedly mounted on the flange 24, the intermediate barrel 22, the upper flange 24 and lower flange 26 are welded coaxially mounted; middle barrel are mounted seepage liquid outflow pipe 55, 22 on the lower end cap 25 are attached to the mud pressure compensation pipe 27, the mud the refrigerant inlet pipe 28 and inlet tube 29, end caps 23 are mounted on the vent pipe 30 with a low-temperature liquid discharge pipe 31 and a pressure sensing tube 32; the lower end cap 25 defines at the center a first stepped mounting hole, the upper end of the stepped aperture of the first mounting hole is larger than the lower end of the aperture, the upper end of the first stepped mounting hole is attached to the lower end cap 33 in small, lower end cap 33 and the upper end in small stepped hole of the first mounting hole punch sealing engagement , on the lower surface of the lower end cap 25 is fixedly mounted closing the lower end of the first stepped bore for mounting 开口的第一封板34， 下活动小端盖33上开设有内外连接测试线引线孔和低温进液孔，制冷进液管依次穿过第一封板34和下活动小端盖上33的低温进液孔与位于模型试验筒内的低温进液分水器44流体导通;在上端盖23的中心处开设有第二台阶式安装孔，第二台阶式安装孔的上端孔径小于下端孔径，在第二台阶式安装孔的下端安装有上活动小端盖35,上活动小端盖35上开设有内外连接测试线引线孔和液压油孔，上活动小端盖35与第二台阶式安装孔的下端孔凸凹密封配合，上端盖33上表面上固定安装有用于封闭第二台阶式安装孔上端开口的第二封板36,低温液排出管31位于模型试验筒内的一端与低温回液分水器45流体导通。 Opening the first closure plate 34, defines the activity test leads and external leads connected to the inlet hole and the low-temperature end cap 33 a small hole, passes through the refrigerant inlet tube 34 and a first sealing plate 33 of the lower end cap in small cryogenic liquid inlet hole located model test tube cryogenic fluid into the liquid trap 44 is turned on; stepped defines a second mounting hole at the center of the end cap 23, the stepped end of the second mounting hole is smaller than the pore diameter of the lower end of the aperture in the lower end of the second stepped mounting hole is mounted on the movable small cap 35, defines the test leads and external pin holes 35 and the hydraulic oil hole in small cap, the end cap 35 and the second in small stepped the lower end of the hole punch mounting hole in sealing engagement with a second sealing plate for closing an upper end of the second stepped mounting hole 36 opening on the end cap 33 is fixedly mounted on the upper surface, the low temperature liquid discharge pipe 31 is located at one end of the barrel model test low back liquid trap 45 in fluid communication. 在上端盖23 与上法兰24的接触面上以及在下端盖25与下法兰26的接触面上均设置有密封槽，在密封槽内安装有丁氰橡胶密封垫圈37;如图8和图9所示，本实施例中的上法兰24和下法兰26均采用坡口设计，即:上法兰24与上端盖23的接触面自上端盖23上的密封槽处且相对于上法兰面所在水平面向下倾斜角度X为2度，下法兰26与下端盖25的接触面自下端盖上的密封槽处且相对于下法兰面所在水平面向上倾斜角度X为2度。 The contact surface and the lower end cap 25 and the lower flange 23 on the end cap flange 24 and the upper contact surface 26 is provided with a sealing groove, is mounted in the seal groove nitrile rubber gasket 37; and FIG. 8 As shown in FIG. 9, the present embodiment the upper flange 24 and lower flange 26 are made of embodiments groove design, namely: the upper end cap 24 and contact surface 23 on the flange of the seal groove from the upper end cap 23 with respect to the the downward angle of the horizontal flange where X is 2 degrees, the lower flange 26 and the lower end cap 25 from the contact surface at the lower end cap and the seal groove with respect to the horizontal flange is located upwardly inclined angle of 2 degrees X . 上活动小端盖35与上端盖23之间以及下活动小端盖33与下端盖25之间设置有铜板垫圈和丁氰橡胶密封垫圈37。 On the active end cap 35 and the small upper cap 23 and the lower end cap is provided with a copper plate in small and nitrile rubber gasket 37 between gasket 33 and the lower end cap 25. 中间筒身22与上法兰24以及中间筒身22与下法兰26均为焊接连接，上端盖23与上法兰24以及下端盖25与下法兰26均为螺栓连接。 The intermediate barrel 22 and the upper flange 24 and the intermediate barrel 22 and connected to the lower flange 26 are welded, the end cap 23 is connected with the upper flange 24 and a lower end cap 25 and the lower flange 26 are bolt. [〇〇29] 如图7所示，上端盖23的上表面上以及下端盖25的下表面上均焊接有内环形肋板38和外环形肋板39,内环形肋板38围成的圆的直径小于外环形肋板39围成的圆的直径，上端盖23上的内环形肋板38和外环形肋板39的圆心为上端盖23的中心，下端盖上25的内环形肋板38和外环形肋板39的圆心为下端盖25的中心，上端盖23的中心与下端盖25的中心均在中间筒身22的轴线上;在内环形肋板38和外环形肋板39之间以及外环形肋板39外侧均等角度轮辐式布置有直肋板40, S卩:内环形肋板38和外环形肋板39之间沿径向均匀焊接有12根直肋板40,外环形肋板39的外侧沿径向均匀焊接有24根直肋板40。 [〇〇29] As shown in FIG 7, the annular ribs are welded to the inner plate 38 and outer annular rib 39 on the upper surface of the end cap 23 and the lower surface of the lower end cap 25, inner annular rib 38 surrounded by a circle an outer diameter smaller than the annular rib 39 surrounded diameter of a circle, the upper end cap 23 within the annular rib 38 and an outer annular rib 39 of the end cap 23 to the center of the center of the lower end cap 25 of the inner annular rib 38 and an outer annular rib 39 is centered on the center of the lower end cap 25, the centers of the end cap 25 on the end cap 23 are in the middle of the barrel on the axis 22; 38 between the inner annular rib and an outer annular rib 39 Equal angle 39 and an outer annular outer ribs are arranged spoke straight ribs 40, S Jie: uniformly radially inner annular weld 39 between the ribs 38 and outer annular rib 12 has a straight rib 40, an outer annular rib radially outer plate 39 is welded to a uniform 24 straight rib 40.
 如图5和图6所示，泥浆加载系统200包括泥浆搅拌桶、泥浆栗和电机伺服泥浆加载单元41，泥浆栗的泥浆输入端与泥浆搅拌桶流体导通，泥浆栗的泥浆输出端与泥浆进液管28流体导通，电机伺服泥浆加载单元41的控制信号输入端与PLC的控制信号输出端连接;制冷系统包括低温槽42、循环栗43、低温进液分水器44、低温回液分水器45和模型冻结管46， 低温槽42的低温液出口与循环栗43的低温液入口流体导通，循环栗43的低温液出口与制冷进液管29流体导通，制冷进液管29与低温进液分水器44流体导通，低温进液分水器44埋在土试样17内且位于土试样17底部，模型冻结管46的下端与低温进液分水器44流体导通，模型冻结管46的上端贯穿土试样17并与低温回液分水器45流体导通，低温回液分水器45的低温回液出口与低温液排出管31流体导通;监测系统包括温度传感器4、土 As shown in  Figures 5 and 6, the slurry was stirred slurry loading system 200 includes a tub, a servo motor and Li mud slurry loading unit 41, the mud input terminal Li mud slurry mixing vessel in fluid communication, the output of mud slurry chestnut end of the slurry inlet pipe 28 in fluid communication, a control signal input terminal of the servo motor slurry loading unit 41 connected to the control signal output terminal of the PLC; cryogenic refrigeration system comprising a groove 42, 43 cycles Li, low temperature into the liquid trap 44, a low temperature trap 45 and the liquid return tube 46 models freezing, low temperature cryogenic fluid tank outlet 42 Li circulating cryogenic fluid inlet 43 in fluid communication, circulating Li cryogenic liquid refrigerant outlet 43 of the fluid inlet tube 29 is turned on, cooling inlet pipe 29 and the low temperature fluid into the liquid trap 44 is turned on, the low-temperature liquid into the trap 44 are buried in the ground, the soil at the bottom of the sample 17 and sample 17, the lower end of the model frozen low-temperature pipe 46 into the liquid trap conduction fluid 44, the upper end of the model frozen soil sample tube 46 through the pipe 17 and the discharge guide 31 and a low temperature fluid return outlet liquid cryogenic liquid cryogenic fluid back to the fluid trap 45 is turned back to the low temperature fluid trap 45 through; monitoring system comprises a temperature sensor 4, the soil 压力传感器、孔隙水压传感器和位移传感器5,土压力传感器48、孔隙水压传感器62和一部分温度传感器4埋在土试样17内，位移传感器5和另一部分温度传感器4位于开挖模拟系统内；数据采集与控制系统500包括数据采集器和PC机，数据采集器的数据输出端与PC机的数据输入端连接，温度传感器4、土压力传感器、孔隙水压传感器和位移传感器5的测试引线1穿过上活动小端盖35上的内外连接测试线引线孔与数据采集的数据输入端连接。 A pressure sensor, a pore water pressure sensor and the displacement sensor 5, the earth pressure sensor 48, and a portion of the pore water pressure sensor 62 temperature sensor 4 buried in the ground sample in 17, the displacement sensor 5 and a temperature sensor 4 is located in another part of the system to simulate the excavation ; and 500 includes a PC data acquisition, data acquisition and data output of the data acquisition control system and the data input terminal is connected to the PC, the temperature sensor 4, soil pressure sensor, a pore water pressure sensor and the displacement sensor test lead 5 1 through the data input terminal in small cap on the inside and outside connecting holes 35 and the test line lead is connected to the data acquisition.
 如图1至图4所示，开挖模拟系统包括支撑架、回缩护筒7、开挖伸缩筒18和驱动机构，回缩护筒7的下端为开口端、上端为封闭端，支撑架的上端自回缩护筒7的开口端伸入到回缩护筒7内，并且支撑架的上端与回缩护筒7固定连接;驱动机构与开挖伸缩筒18驱动连接，开挖伸缩筒18的上端套装在回缩护筒7内并可在回缩护筒7内做上下往复运动，开挖伸缩筒18的外壁与回缩护筒7的内壁密封配合。  As shown in FIG. 1 to FIG Excavation simulation system includes a support frame 4, retraction casing 7, excavation telescopic cylinder 18 and a drive mechanism, the retraction of the lower casing 7 is an open end, a closed upper end , the upper end of the support frame is retracted from the opening end of the casing 7 extends into the retraction casing 7 and the upper end of the support frame 7 is fixedly connected retraction casing; driving mechanism 18 and the telescopic cylinder connected excavation, opening digging an upper end 18 of the telescopic cylinder in the retraction package casing 7 and in the retracted casing 7 reciprocate up and down within the excavation 18 of the telescopic cylinder wall and the outer wall of the casing 7 retraction sealing engagement. 在本实施例开挖模拟系统中:(a)支撑架包括开挖系统底座11和一端固定安装在开挖系统底座11上的支撑柱6,支撑柱6的顶端与回缩护筒7的上端封盖固定连接，支撑柱6为本试验装置的主要受力结构，用于支撑本实验装置的自身荷载及试验土体17上表面施加的面荷载；(b)驱动机构为安装在回缩护筒7与开挖伸缩筒18之间形成的空腔内的动作油缸，动作油缸具有缸筒20和活塞杆19,缸筒20远离活塞杆19的一端与上端封盖固定连接，活塞杆19远离缸筒的一端与伸缩筒托架10固定连接，伸缩筒托架10与开挖伸缩筒18固定连接，伸缩筒托架10可将活塞动作同步传递到开挖伸缩筒18; (c)本实施例中的伸缩筒托架10为一个带状板，带状板的两端分别固定安装在开挖伸缩筒18的内壁上；(d)缸筒20外表面上固定安装有传感器托架立杆15,用于固定位移传感器5、 小型微光照明数码摄像头9和 In this embodiment, the excavation analog systems: (a) excavating system comprises a support frame 11 and a base end fixed to a support column mounted on the base 11 of the excavation system 6, the upper end of the support column to the top of the retraction of the protective tube 6 of 7 lid fixedly connected, support column structure of main bearing 6 of the present test apparatus, the surface for supporting the load applied to the upper surface of the self-loading apparatus according to the present experiment and test soil 17; (b) a drive mechanism installed in the retracted guard 7 and the cylindrical cavity 18 formed between the cylinder excavation telescopic cylinder operation, actuation of the cylinder 20 having a cylinder and a piston rod 19, one end of the upper cylinder 20 remote from the piston rod 19 is fixedly connected to the closure, a piston rod 19 remote from the One end of the telescopic cylinder bracket 10 is fixedly connected to the cylinder, the telescopic cylinder 10 and the bracket 18 is fixedly connected to the telescopic cylinder excavation, telescopic cylinder piston bracket 10 may be transmitted to the excavation operation synchronized telescopic cylinder 18; (C) according to the present embodiment Examples of the telescopic cylinder bracket 10 is a belt-shaped plate, both ends of the belt-shaped plate are respectively fixedly mounted on the inner wall 18 of the telescopic cylinder excavation; 20 on the outer surface (D) of the cylinder is fixedly mounted sensor bracket uprights 15, for fixing the displacement sensor 5, illumination glimmer small digital cameras and 9 度传感器4,传感器托架立杆15的上端与缸筒20外表面固定连接，传感器托架立杆15的下端自缸筒20向下延伸至大于或等于活塞杆19的自由端向下的最大行程，在传感器托架立杆15上自下而上分别安装有传感器托架16,每个传感器托架16 上均安装有位移传感器5,位移传感器5在传感器托架立杆15上的位置可以手动调节，这样可准确控制活塞杆19伸出、回缩的位移量；(e)开挖伸缩筒18的外壁与回缩护筒7的内壁之间设置有筒间密封胶圈8; (f)温度传感器4、位移传感器5和小型微光照明数码摄像头9的测试引线1自回缩护筒7的封闭端引出；(g)开挖伸缩筒18下端端面与开挖系统底座11上的台阶面密封配合，并且开挖伸缩筒18下端端面与开挖系统底座11上的台阶面之间设置有底座密封胶圈12,台阶面位于开挖系统底座11的上表面下方的水平面上；(h)推出动作油管2穿过回缩护筒7的封 Sensor 4, the upper end of the mast cylinder 15 and the outer surface of the sensor bracket 20 is fixedly connected to the lower end of the sensor bracket 15 extends downwardly uprights greater than or equal to the free end of the piston rod 19 of the cylinder 20 from the downward maximum stroke sensor bracket uprights 15 are mounted from bottom to top with a sensor bracket 16, each of the sensor bracket 16 are attached to the displacement sensor 5, the displacement sensor 5 in the sensor bracket uprights 15 may be a position on the manual adjustment, so that the control rod 19 can be accurately projected, retraction displacement amount; (e) the outer wall of the excavation and retraction of the telescopic cylinder is provided between the casing tube 7 gasket 8 between the inner wall 18; (F ) test leads temperature sensor 4, the displacement sensor 5 and a small digital camera shimmer illumination 9 of a self-retracting the closed end 7 of casing extraction; the step (g) of the telescopic cylinder excavation lower end surface of the excavation system 18 of the base 11 with face seal and the lower end surface of the excavation and the telescopic cylinder 18 is provided between the stepped surface excavation system on the base 11 with a gasket seat 12, the stepped surface is located below the horizontal plane of the upper surface of the base system 11 of the excavation; (H ) Release retraction operation pipe casing 2 through 7 端与动作油缸的活塞腔流体导通，回缩动作油管3穿过回缩护筒7的封闭端与动作油缸的活塞杆腔流体导通。 End of the action fluid piston cylinder chamber turned, retraction of the retraction operation of casing pipe 3 through the rod chamber in fluid communication with the closed end 7 of the cylinder operation.
 在进行试验之前，应将开挖模拟系统按照以下步骤进行安装:(a)分别连接推出与回缩动作临时油管，将试验装置开挖伸缩筒18缩回至回缩护筒7内；(b)根据模拟开挖段高调整试验装置内传感器托架立杆15延伸长度及各传感器的位置关系，调整位移传感器顶杠13伸出长度，调整摄像头拍摄角度；(c)将开挖伸缩筒18推出，使之与开挖系统底座11稳定接触；(d)在开挖伸缩筒18外壁表面涂刷一道凡士林；(e)拆除临时油管；(f)将调整好的试验装置吊装至模型试验筒内，埋置在试验土体17内，将周边土体夯实；(g)将试验装置的推出动作油管2和回缩动作油管3通过模型试验筒转接口与外部油管连接、各类测试线缆也通过模型试验筒转接口引出模型试验筒外；(h)实验装置安装完成。  Before the test, the simulation system shall be installed in accordance with the excavation of the following steps: (a) are connected with tubing Release temporary retraction operation, the test apparatus excavation cylinder 18 is retracted into the telescopic retraction casing 7 ; (b) adjusting the positional relationship between the sensor bracket high uprights 15 extending the length of the test device and the sensors of the excavation sections according to the analog, adjusting the displacement sensor 13 extends the length of the top bar, the camera shooting angle adjustment; (c) the excavation Release telescopic cylinder 18, so as to stabilize the excavation system 11 in contact with the base; (d) the excavation of the outer wall surface 18 of the telescopic cylinder brushing a petrolatum; (e) removal of temporary pipeline; (f) the lifting means to the adjusted test model test tube embedded in a test soil 17, the surrounding soil compaction; (G) of operation of the launch test apparatus 2 and the pipe 3 pipeline retraction operation switch interface with external tubing connector model test tube, all kinds of test cable also turn cylindrical model test model test interface leads outer cylinder; (H) experimental installation is complete.
 本实施例试验装置按照上述步骤安装完成之后，可按照如下试验步骤进行试验: (a)井筒开挖模拟前，设置井筒开挖段高和开挖速度，并根据井筒开挖段高和开挖速度设定试验装置的开挖伸缩筒18回缩长度、速度及相应进油量。  Example test apparatus according to the present embodiment is completed after the above steps to install, can be tested in the following test procedure: (a) Before the wellbore excavation analog, provided the wellbore excavation and the excavation section high speed, and high wellbore excavation sections according excavation speed setting means and the test excavation telescopic cylinder 18 retracted length, feed rate and the corresponding fuel. (b)模型试验进入井筒开挖模拟环节时，当开始开挖时，试验装置会自动开启回缩油管阀门，液压油通过回缩动作油管3进入动作油缸的活塞杆腔，活塞杆19开始按照预先设置的参数完成回缩动作，进而通过伸缩筒托架10带动开挖伸缩筒18向上运动而回缩至回缩护筒7内。 (B) the model test to simulate the excavation into the wellbore part, when starting the excavation, the test device will automatically retract line valve open, the hydraulic oil in the rod chamber into the actuation of the cylinder by retracting operation pipe 3, the piston rod 19 in accordance with the start pre-set parameters retraction operation is completed, the carriage 10 driven in turn by the telescopic cylinder 18 is moved upward excavation telescopic cylinder and retracted to the retracted within the casing 7. (c)位移传感器5顶杠随着开挖伸缩筒18的回缩会依次弹出并碰触土体开挖面，自动记录开挖面侧向位移情况。 (C) displacement sensor 5 with the excavating bar will retract the telescopic cylinder 18 sequentially eject the excavation face and touch the soil, the lateral displacement of automatically recording the excavation face. (d)温度传感器4会自动记录开挖面的温度情况。 (D) a temperature sensor 4 automatically recorded temperatures excavation face. (e)小型微光照明数码摄像头9将会实时采集并传回开挖面的变形影像。 (E) Real-time digital compact camera shimmer lighting 9 will collect and return the image modification excavation face.
 本实施例模拟立井井筒开挖的试验装置在工作时:利用支撑柱6作为受力结构，动作油缸通过伸缩筒托架10带动开挖伸缩筒18动作，开挖模拟装置埋置于试验土体17内，通过开挖伸缩筒18回缩模拟井筒开挖，可通过固定在装置内的位移传感器5测量开挖面的位移变形，还可测量开挖面的温度，并可通过小型微光照明数码摄像头9实时显示开挖面的变形情况。  Simulation Test device according to the present embodiment Vertical Shaft excavation during operation: using a support column 6 as the force structure, the operation of the cylinder bracket 10 by the telescopic cylinder 18 is operated to drive the telescopic cylinder excavation, excavation of the simulation device is embedded in the test soil 17, the telescopic cylinder 18 is retracted by the excavation simulated wellbore excavation, it can be obtained by the displacement sensor 5 measures the displacement of the deformable surface is fixed in the excavation apparatus may also measure the temperature of the excavation face, and through a small 9 glimmer lighting digital cameras real-time display of the deformation of the excavation face. [〇〇35] 本实施例的模拟立井井筒开挖的试验装置具有如下优点:可实现高压密闭条件下对井筒开挖进行模拟;能精确控制开挖段高;能自动测量开挖面的侧向变形;可实时传回开挖面变形图像;可用于开展深井高地压环境下冻结壁温度场、冻结壁与未冻土整体受力情况、冻结壁稳定与变形、冻结壁位移、井筒支护等方面的科学试验研究。 An analog test excavation VERTICAL SHAFT [〇〇35] embodiment of the present embodiment has the following advantages: the excavation can be implemented to simulate a wellbore under high pressure closed condition; high excavation can be precisely controlled period; automatically measuring excavation face side the deformation; real-time images back to the excavation surface deformation; can be used to carry out the freezing temperature field wall at deep Mine High pressure environment, freeze wall and not the forces as a whole permafrost, the frozen wall stability and deformation of frozen wall displacement, bore support experimental study science and other aspects. [〇〇36] 本实施例模拟深立井冻结的大型模型试验装置中:上端盖23与上法兰24之间以及下端盖25与下法兰26之间的采用高强螺栓连接，上下各布置64根M64的高强螺栓。 Deep Shaft embodiment of the analog test apparatus frozen large models [〇〇36] of this: the end cap 23 and the high-strength bolts as well as between the lower end cap 26 and the lower flange 25 between the flanges 24, 64 are arranged up and down the high-strength bolts M64 root. 上端盖23 与上法兰24之间以及下端盖25与下法兰26之间的连接面采用密封设计，上、下法兰采用了坡口设计，以避免上、下端盖在内压作用下变形翘曲引发的密封失效;如图8和图9所示，本实施例中上法兰24与上端盖23的接触面自上端盖23上的密封槽处且相对于上法兰面所在水平面向下倾斜角度X为2度，下法兰26与下端盖25的接触面自下端盖上的密封槽处且相对于下法兰面所在水平面向上倾斜角度X为2度，在内压为8兆帕的时候，上法兰24与上端盖23 之间以及下法兰26与下端盖25仍然密封良好，没有渗漏发生。 Between the upper end cap 23 and 24 and a connecting surface between the lower end cap 26 and the lower flange 25 on the flange sealed design, the upper and lower flange in the groove designed to avoid on the lower end cap Internal Pressure seal failure caused by warping deformation; FIGS. 8 and 9, in this embodiment the upper flange 24 and the contact surface on the end cap 23 from the upper seal groove 23 and the end cap with respect to the horizontal flange is located X is a surface inclined downward angle of 2 degrees, the lower flange surface of the lower end cap 26 contact with the self-sealing groove 25 at the lower end cap and the flange surface with respect to the horizontal direction where the inclination angle X is 2 degrees, the inner pressure of 8 MPa when the flanges 24 and 23 and between the lower flange 26 and the lower end cap 25 is still a good seal on the cover, there is no leakage occurs. 下端盖25设有模具筒定位块， 以便在模具筒安装时对其进行定位。 Cylinder mold cover 25 is provided with the positioning block to be positioned in the die cylinder mounting. 温度传感器4采用铜_康铜热电偶;土压力传感器56采用电阻应变式微型土压力传感器，孔隙水压力传感器57采用电阻应变式微型孔隙水压力传感器;位移传感器5采用磁致伸缩式位移传感器。 The temperature sensor 4 _ copper constantan thermocouple; earth resistance strain pressure sensor 56 using pressure sensor earth micro pore water pressure resistance strain sensor 57 using micro-pore water pressure sensor; 5 magnetostrictive displacement sensor displacement sensor. [〇〇37] 本实施例模拟深立井冻结的大型模型试验装置的组装步骤如下:[〇〇38] (1)将低温进液分水器44安装在下活动小端盖33上，然后将下活动小端盖33安装在下端盖25上，拧紧下活动小端盖33紧固螺栓；[〇〇39] (2)将制冷进液管29 (盐水高压胶管管路)连接至下活动小端盖33上的下进液孔，低温进液分水器44出口连接钢丝软管，钢丝软管外套巾32钢管做抗压保护； [〇〇37] assembly step of the present embodiment simulate large-scale model experiment apparatus frozen Deep Shaft embodiment is as follows: [〇〇38] (1) into the cryogenic liquid trap 44 is mounted on the lower end cap 33 in small, then the next in small cap 33 is mounted on the lower end cap 25, tightening the fastening bolts 33 in small cap; [〇〇39] (2) the refrigerant inlet pipe 29 (brine pipe high pressure hose) is connected to the small end of the activity lower cover 33 into the liquid inlet, the outlet 44 into the liquid cryogenic trap connected to a hose wire, steel wire hose jacket napkin 32 do compression protection;
 (3)安装对开模具筒，将模具筒置于下端盖25上，抵紧模具筒定位块，在对开模具筒内壁上刷涂隔离剂；  (3) mounted cylindrical split mold, the mold is placed on the lower cylinder end cap 25, is positioned tightly against the die cylinder block, the cylinder wall of the split mold release agent applicator;
 (4)采用底卸式料桶装土，龙门起重机提吊料桶转运至模具筒，均匀卸土，用液压夯实机逐层夯实；[〇〇42] (5)模具筒内土体高度至安装模型冻结管46位置时，停止装土，吊装模型冻结管46，准确定位各模型冻结管46，连接配液圈与钢丝软管；[〇〇43] (6)继续向模具筒内填土，手工夯实模型冻结管46之间的土体，在土试样17特定深度及特定位置(根据试验需要具体选择和设定)安放温度传感器4、土压力传感器56和孔隙水压力传感器57，夯实过程中应尽可能保证传感器位置不动，仔细整理传感器引线，逐层向上引出，夯实过程中避免破坏引线；[〇〇44] (7)当填土至开挖模拟系统安装深度时，将开挖模拟系统吊装至土体中心位置，并仔细校核位置。  (4) The soil hopper drum mounted gantry cranes Lifting cylinder barrel transported to the mold, uniform soil unloading, a hydraulic ramming machine-layer compaction; [〇〇42] (5) Soil mold cylinder when the height of the model to the mounting position of the tube 46 to freeze and stop the soils, freezing lifting tube model 46, accurate positioning of the models freeze pipe 46 connected to the dosing ring and the steel tube; [〇〇43] (6) continue to the mold cylinder the filling, compaction manually model the frozen soil between the pipes 46, 4, and the soil pore water pressure sensor 56 pressure sensor 17 at a particular depth and particular location of the soil sample (according to the test set and to select the specific needs) mounted temperature sensor 57, should ensure the best possible compaction process does not move the position of the sensor, the sensor leads careful finishing, drawn up layer by layer, to avoid damage during compaction leads; [〇〇44] (7) to fill when the excavation depth simulation system is installed , the hoisting system to simulate the excavation of soil a central location and carefully check the position. 开挖伸缩筒外壁涂抹隔离剂，然后在开挖模拟系统周边填土夯实使之固定。 Excavation release agent applicator telescopic cylinder outer wall and an analog system in the excavation so that the peripheral fixed compacted fill. [〇〇45] ⑶继续填土、分层夯实、布置传感器，直至填土与模型冻结管46上部集液圈齐平，连接集液圈与低温回液分水器45。 [〇〇45] ⑶ continue filling, hierarchical compaction, the sensor arrangement, until filling the freezing tube with the model 46 the upper ring header is flush with the connection ring cryogenic liquid collecting liquid return manifold 45.
 ⑶拆除对开模具筒连接螺栓，用螺旋千斤顶将对开模具筒顶开，用龙门起重机将模具筒吊离，起吊中小心操作避免碰触土试样；[〇〇47] (10)在脱模后土试样17周围及顶面包裹两层膨润土防渗毯(图5中未示出)，搭接处用膨润土胶泥粘接，在膨润土防渗毯外用打包带将土试样17扎紧；[〇〇48] (11)在膨润土防渗毯外涂抹一层膨润土胶泥61，缠绕两层网孔大于或等于40目的尼龙网60,打包带扎紧，在尼龙网外再涂抹一层膨润土胶泥61;膨润土防渗毯的防渗作用极大降低了进入试样土体中的水量，而且，进入的少量水份也不足以对试样构成影响，因此可方便的实现对土试样17的整体高压加载;膨润土防渗毯的柔性大，能够拉伸，对付变形能力强；如果试验土样在加载泥浆压力下发生较大的变形或不均匀的变形，膨润土防渗毯也能够完全自适应，不会发生破裂或渗  ⑶ split mold removal tube connecting bolt, a screw jack with a mold tube would open the top, with a gantry crane cylinder hanging from the mold, lifting the soil careful to avoid touching the specimen; [〇〇47] (10 ) wrapped in two layers of bentonite impermeable release blanket 17 and the surrounding soil behind the sample top surface (not shown in FIG. 5), an adhesive lap bentonite clay, a bentonite clay samples packaged with an external impermeable blanket 17 truss; [〇〇48] (11) apply a layer of bentonite clay bentonite impermeable outer blanket 61 wound around the two layers equal to or greater than 40 mesh nylon net was 60, strap fastened, nylon mesh and then coated on the outer a layer of bentonite clay 61; bentonite seepage blanket seepage action greatly reduces the amount of water entering the soil sample, and, the small amount of water into the structure on the samples is not enough, and therefore can be easily achieved soil the overall high-pressure loading of the sample 17; bentonite impermeable flexible blanket large, capable of stretching, deformation ability to deal with; If the test soil deformation occurring large deformation under loading or uneven mud pressure, bentonite blanket also seepage can fully adaptive, will not rupture or bleeding occurs ，确保加载泥浆及水份不会进入试验土样内；即使在极端条件下膨润土防渗毯有破损，由于在膨润土防渗毯外层有膨润土胶泥61且两层膨润土胶泥61之间有尼龙网60，在破损处随着泥浆的失水，泥膜沉积将越来越厚，而且膨润土胶泥涂层的存在也加速了泥膜的形成，因而可以很好地防止加载泥浆中水份进入试验土样；由于膨润土防渗毯具有很强自修复能力的特殊性质，使得该方法不仅适用于表面相对光滑的小试件和大试件，还适用于具有较大压缩变形量的大试件以及压缩时发生不均匀变形的试件。 To ensure that the mud and water will not be loaded into the test soil; blanket seepage even under extreme conditions bentonite damaged, since bentonite clay bentonite seepage blanket layer 61 and between the two layers of bentonite clay with a nylon mesh 61 60, breakage of the slurry with the water loss, increasing the thickness of the film deposition clay, bentonite clay and there is also accelerated the formation of a coating film of mud, which can well prevent moisture from entering the slurry loading test of soil comp; as bentonite seepage blanket strong self-healing properties with special capabilities, such that the method is applicable not only to a relatively smooth surface of the specimen and the small large specimen, the specimen is also applicable to large deformation have a large amount of compression and a compression uneven deformation occurs in the specimen.
 (12)将各类测试引线1、推出动作油管2、回缩动作油管3、低温液排出管31从膨润土防渗毯开孔处引出，并用膨润土胶泥将防渗毯开孔处粘接压实；  (12) leads to various test 1, the operation of pushing pipe 2, pipe 3 retraction operation, the low temperature liquid discharge pipe 31 leads from the opening at the blanket impermeable bentonite, bentonite clay and the adhesion at the openings impermeable blanket then compacted;
 (13)清理下端盖25上的密封槽内土肩，安装丁氰橡胶密封垫圈37,龙门起重机平稳起吊试验筒体(上法兰24、中间筒身22和下法兰26焊接在一起)，对正土试样17,缓慢降低试验筒体，试验筒体下落过程尽量不磕碰土试样17，试验筒体将近接触下端盖25时，使试验筒体法兰螺栓孔与下端盖25螺栓孔对正，插入4〜6根大螺栓，然后将试验筒体直接落到位。  Soil sealing groove 25 under the shoulder on the end cap (13) clean, nitrile rubber mounting gasket 37, stable gantry crane lifting cylinder test (the upper flange 24, the intermediate barrel 22 and the lower flange 26 is welded together), 17 positive soil sample, the test cylinder was slowly reduced, try not to process the test cylinder bump falling soil samples 17, 25 when the end cap, the test cylinder and the lower cap flange bolt holes at the test cartridge nearly in contact bolt holes 25 aligned, the bolt is inserted into the large root 4 ~ 6, the test cartridge then fall directly into place.
 (14)在土试样17中间位置安装上活动小端盖35,将各类测试引线1、推出动作油管2、回缩动作油管3及测试引线1通过上活动小端盖35上的油管连接孔和引线孔引出，向引线管浇筑环氧树脂并固化，完成引线孔密封；[〇〇52] (15)吊装上端盖23,对正低温液排出管31和上活动小端盖35,缓慢下落上端盖23，并对正试验筒体螺栓孔，固定上活动小端盖35,安装并连接低温液排出管31法兰；[〇〇53] (16)安装上、下端盖全部法兰螺栓，将其余螺栓插入螺栓孔并旋上螺母，先手动紧固，然后采用螺栓拉伸器四点对称同步拉伸四条螺栓，手动旋紧螺母，依次轮流对每个螺栓采取相同操作，在紧固螺栓过程中，应采取三轮拧紧方式，即每个螺栓需进行三次拉伸，达到试验筒体与端盖的可靠连接； On  (14) in small cap 35 in an intermediate position on the soil specimen 17 is mounted, the various test leads 1, 2 Release tubing operation, the retraction operation of the lead pipe 3 and tested by a small cap 35 on the active tubing connection hole and the lead hole leads, pouring an epoxy resin and cured to a lead pipe, complete sealing pin holes; 23 on the end cap [〇〇52] (15) lifting, the discharge pipe 31 and the end cap in small positive cryogenic liquid 35, the cover 23 slowly drops, and a positive test cylinder bolt holes in small cap 35 is fixed, and mounting flange 31 connected to the low-temperature liquid discharge pipe; [〇〇53] (16) is mounted, the entire lower end cap flange bolts, the bolt inserted into the bolt holes and the rest of the nut screwed, to manual fastening, bolt tension and then using the four point symmetry simultaneous stretching four bolts, manually tighten the nut, the same operations take their turn for each bolt, in the fastening bolt during tightening to be taken three ways, i.e. three each of the bolts need to be stretched, to achieve a reliable connection test cylinder and the end cap;
 (17)将泥浆进液管28连接至下端盖25的泥浆进液口快速接头，并锁紧；[〇〇55] (18)用制冷进液管29将低温进液分水器44与低温槽42进行连接；  (17) connected to the slurry inlet pipe 28 to the lower end cap 25 of the slurry liquid inlet quick coupling and locking; [〇〇55] (18) with a liquid refrigerant inlet pipe 29 into the liquid cryogenic trap 44 is connected to the cold tank 42;
 (19)用高压油管将推出动作油管2和回缩动作油管3与液压站58连接；[〇〇57] (20)将各类传感器的测试引线1与数据采集器59连接；[〇〇58] (21)安装上端盖23、放空阀及放空管30,安装泥浆压力传感器53。  (19) The introduction of high-pressure tubing with the tubing 2 and retracting operation of the operation pipe 3 connected to the hydraulic station 58; [〇〇57] (20) 1 59 connected to the data acquisition test leads of various types of sensors; [ 〇〇58] (21) mounted on the end cap 23, vent valve 30 and the vent pipe, mud pressure sensor 53 is mounted.
 (22)将装置上的剩余备用法兰接口用盲法兰封闭。  (22) on the remaining backup flange blind flange closure device interfaces.
 利用本实施例大型模型试验装置模拟深立井冻结试验步骤如下:  With the present test model device for simulating large frozen Test Example Deep Shaft embodiment the following steps:
 (1)配置膨润土泥浆；  (1) Configuration bentonite slurry;
 (2)设定低温槽42内的制冷液温度，启动低温槽42;[〇〇63] (3)启动数据采集与控制系统500;  (2) setting the liquid refrigerant temperature in the low temperature tank 42, the low-temperature start groove 42; [〇〇63] (3) Start data acquisition and control system 500;
 (4)设定试验压力，打开放空阀、进液阀，关闭补压阀，开启高压泥浆栗，向试验筒体内注入泥浆，直至放空管连续溢出泥浆后，关闭放空阀；  (4) the set test pressure, opening the vent valve, inlet valve, the pressure compensating valve is closed, opening the high-pressure mud Li, in vivo testing cylinder into the mud, after the continuous vent pipe until overflow mud, vent valve is closed;
 (5)利用高压泥衆栗向试验筒内注衆加压，分0.5Mpa、IMpa、2Mpa、4Mpa和设计试验压力5个等级逐次顺序加载，直至压力稳定，关闭进液阀，关闭高压泥浆栗，[〇〇66] (6)启动PLC控制系统，打开补压阀，PLC自动采集试验筒体内压力数据，如压力不足则自动开启电机伺服加载单元41，进行系统加压，压力达到设定压力则自动关闭电机伺服加载单元41，进行压力保持；[〇〇67] ⑵打开制冷液进液阀和回液阀，启动循环栗43,开始井筒冻结模拟；  (5) all the sludge using high pressure cylinder to press the test Li all injection, sub 0.5Mpa, IMpa, 2Mpa, 4Mpa design and test pressure loading sequence 5 successive levels until the pressure stabilized, the inlet valve is closed, closed Li high pressure mud, [〇〇66] (6) start the PLC control system, opens the pressure compensating valve, PLC automatic acquisition vivo testing cylinder pressure data, such as insufficient pressure automatically loading unit servo motor 41 is turned on, the system pressure, the pressure reached set pressure of the servo motor is turned off automatically loading unit 41, the pressure holding; [〇〇67] ⑵ refrigerant fluid inlet valve opens and the liquid return valve 43 starts a loop Li, freezing starts the wellbore simulation;
 (8)当井筒冻结转入开挖环节时，开启液压站，井筒开挖模拟前，设置井筒开挖段高和开挖速度，并根据井筒开挖段高和开挖速度设定开挖模拟系统的开挖伸缩筒回缩长度、速度及相应进油量；  (8) When the wellbore into the freeze part of the excavation, opening hydraulic station, before excavation of the wellbore simulation, set high speed wellbore excavation and the excavation section, and set in accordance with a high velocity the wellbore excavation and the excavation sections excavation simulation system excavation telescopic cylinder retracted length, feed rate and the corresponding fuel;
 ⑶开挖模拟系统进入井筒开挖模拟环节时，开启回缩动作油管阀门，液压油通过回缩动作油管3进入动作油缸，动作油缸开始按照井筒开挖段高和开挖速度完成回缩动作。 When  ⑶ excavation simulation system to simulate the excavation into the wellbore part, the operation of the retraction line valve open, the hydraulic oil actuation of the cylinder 3 into the tubing by retracting operation, actuation of the cylinder bore in accordance with high back complete start excavation and the excavation sections speed shrink action.
 (10)位移传感器5顶杠随着开挖伸缩筒18的回缩会依次弹出并碰触土体开挖面， 自动记录开挖面侧向位移情况。  (10) as the displacement sensor 5 bar Excavation retracted telescopic cylinder 18 will turn and touch pop soil excavation face, automatically recording the lateral displacement of the excavation face.
 (11)温度传感器4会自动记录开挖面的温度情况。  (11) a temperature sensor 4 automatically recorded temperatures excavation face.
 (12)小型微光照明数码摄像头9将会实时采集并传回开挖面的变形影像。  (12) a small digital camera shimmer lighting 9 will return real-time acquisition and image modification excavation face.
 (13)继续试验，直至试验结束，保存全部试验数据。  (13) The test is continued until the end of the test, all the test data storage.
 上述实施例仅仅是为清楚地说明本发明创造所作的举例，而并非对本发明创造具体实施方式的限定。  The above-described embodiments are merely to clearly illustrate the present inventions made by way of example, and not creation of the present invention is limited to the specific embodiments. 对于所属领域的普通技术人员来说，在上述说明的基础上还可以做出其它不同形式的变化或变动。 Those of ordinary skill in the art, on the basis of the above described variations or changes may be made in various other forms. 这里无需也无法对所有的实施方式予以穷举。 It is unnecessary and can not be exhaustive of all embodiments. 而由此所引申出的显而易见的变化或变动仍处于本发明创造权利要求的保护范围之中。 And obvious variations or variations therefrom come out of the still in the scope of the present inventions claims.
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|CN104318844B (en) *||2014-09-28||2017-02-15||中国石油大学(华东)||Multifunctional module formation mud invasion physical simulation system|
|CN104847343B (en) *||2015-05-15||2018-03-06||中国矿业大学||Shaft wellbore stability simulation apparatus and method for receiving the aqueous layer becomes movable Effect|
|CN107085085B (en) *||2017-03-06||2018-04-17||安徽理工大学||Thermal coupling three artificial freezing water grouting soil disturbance test device and method|
|CN107269627A (en) *||2017-08-11||2017-10-20||南通市腾达锻压机床厂||Remote state display and fault analysis application system|
|CN108104716A (en) *||2017-12-13||2018-06-01||中国石油大学(华东)||Device for simulation of well drilling in frozen soil zone|
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|US7516785B2 (en) *||2006-10-13||2009-04-14||Exxonmobil Upstream Research Company||Method of developing subsurface freeze zone|
|CN202002925U (en) *||2011-03-25||2011-10-05||安徽理工大学||Low temperature box for testing mechanical performance of artificially frozen soil|
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