CN103821131B - The restorative procedure of development construction item soil and water conservation ecological - Google Patents

The restorative procedure of development construction item soil and water conservation ecological Download PDF

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CN103821131B
CN103821131B CN201410064680.3A CN201410064680A CN103821131B CN 103821131 B CN103821131 B CN 103821131B CN 201410064680 A CN201410064680 A CN 201410064680A CN 103821131 B CN103821131 B CN 103821131B
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water
soil
loss reducer
fertilizer
slope
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CN103821131A (en
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李占斌
李鹏
穆军
王添
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Xian University of Technology
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Xian University of Technology
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Abstract

The restorative procedure of development construction item soil and water conservation ecological, comprises the process to mining residues, is specially, and is piled up by mining residues, and at mining residues accumulation body Surface mulch soil, planting plants, applies water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly.The method that mining residues is piled up is: dregs, slag stone particle diameter reduce from bottom to top successively, upper epidermis mulching soil, and thickness of soil is determined according to planting plants, and to arbor, thickness of soil is 50cm, and to shrub, thickness of soil is 30cm.The present invention is directed to the restoration of the ecosystem problem in development construction item, mainly take biological control measure, auxiliary with the engineering measure of necessity, achieve the ecological recovery of development construction item, not only cost is lower, and enhances retention capacity of soil, improves the ability that vegetation adapts to and spends arid season.

Description

The restorative procedure of development construction item soil and water conservation ecological
Technical field
The invention belongs to ecological restoration technical field, be specifically related to a kind of restorative procedure of development construction item soil and water conservation ecological.
Background technology
Development of resources construction is the important component part in the national economic development.The area that china natural resources is abundant is also often ecologically fragile area, is particularly along with serious soil erosion.The soil and water conservation ecological reparation how strengthening development construction item is one of main contents of ecologically fragile area eco-environment restoration and development.
In traditional conservation technology, biological control measure is main water-and-soil conservation measures, and to strengthen planting trees, closing etc. be the main contents of biological control measure.But due to the strong disturbance of development & construction activity, change pre-existing topography landforms and soil profile structure, traditional ecological reestablishment is difficult to realize effectively fast quick-recovery; Simultaneously in ecologically fragile area, due to drought and water shortage, severe water and soil erosion, therefore causes soil profile to destroy, and leaks Lou fertile, is difficult to the situation spending arid season.
Summary of the invention
The object of this invention is to provide a kind of restorative procedure of development construction item soil and water conservation ecological, solve the soil profile existed in existing development construction item and destroy, leak Lou fertile, be difficult to the problem spending arid season.
Technical scheme of the present invention is, the restorative procedure of development construction item soil and water conservation ecological comprises the process to mining residues, be specially: mining residues is piled up, at mining residues accumulation body Surface mulch soil, planting plants, applies water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly.
Feature of the present invention is also:
For smooth ground, first mining residues is stacked into ground, and builds gutter, barricade, bank protection, then at mining residues accumulation body Surface mulch soil, planting plants, applies water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly.
For roadbed side slope, be first stacked in side slope by mining residues, and build gutter, barricade, bank protection, then at mining residues accumulation body Surface mulch soil, planting plants, applies water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly.
Above-mentioned mining residues stacking method is: dregs, slag stone particle diameter reduce from bottom to top successively, upper epidermis mulching soil.
The thickness of mulching soil is determined according to planting plants, and to arbor, thickness of soil is 50cm, and to shrub, thickness of soil is 30cm.
The mass ratio of above-mentioned water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly is 8 ~ 9:10 ~ 12.
Above-mentioned the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly is made up of water-loss reducer and urea, and wherein water-loss reducer is the insoluble type water-loss reducer of water, and water-loss reducer addition is 2% of urea quality.
The insoluble type water-loss reducer of water is cross-linked polyacrylamide and polyacrylic acid potassium salt copolymer.
Also comprise the process for high gradient slope and excavation face, be specially, the side slope of stone matter bores implantation hole, in implantation hole, insert soil, the stalk of pulverizing or crop residues, the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly, planting plants.
Around planting plants, cover local common Agro-ecology discarded object, cultivate the soil organism, cover with the gravel that diameter is 1-3cm simultaneously.
Feature of the present invention is also: at mining residues heap, high gradient slope establishes and excavation face is put drainage, reinforced facility or support facility.
The present invention has following beneficial effect:
1, the present invention is directed to the restoration of the ecosystem problem in development construction item, mainly take biological control measure, auxiliary with the engineering measure of necessity, by the soil planting plants covered, reach the effect of root system fixing slag stone and consumption rainfall energy, thus landslide and soil erosion can be prevented and treated, and then achieve the ecological recovery of development construction item.
2, technical solution of the present invention is to gather materials on the spot, and the auxiliary the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly based on water-loss reducer, cost is lower.
3, the present invention is directed to the major disturbances type that development construction item is formed, rebuild the soil profile after degree of depth disturbance, added the soil organism, decreased invalid evaporation, enhanced retention capacity of soil.
4, the present invention proposes the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly, improves the ability that vegetation adapts to and spends arid season.
Detailed description of the invention
The present invention is further illustrated below in conjunction with specific embodiment,
Embodiment 1, adaptability ofgrowth Dumping Sites soil and water conservation ecological restorative procedure.
(1) experimental plot overview
Flatly Dumping Sites experimental plot height above sea level 950m, area is 511m2, slag thickness 50cm, and slag stone particle diameter reduces from top to bottom successively, slag stone surface earthing, and wherein thickness of earth covering is respectively 50cm and 30cm, the gradient about 15 °.Simultaneously according to Design of Dumping Sites standard and hydrology achievement designing and arranging water system, Dumping Sites upstream charge for remittance is got rid of in laying main drain, position of confluxing in Dumping Sites upstream, lays a gutter in packway at different levels.Dumping Sites gutter is the gradient 15 °, to ensure that within the scope of the small watershed of slag field, design flood is discharged safely.Dumping Sites main drain adopt brick structure, Dumping Sites main drain internal orifice size bottom width 23cm, height 10.6cm, each Dumping Sites props up gutter size all by 11.5cm × 5.3cm(bottom width × height) trapezoidal cross-section design, side slope than be 1:1.1.For preventing heap slag charge slump or being scattered, arrange stone masonry slag blocking wall, top width 0.5 at slag muck toe, slag muck side slope is than being 1:1.1, and free face is vertical, buried depth 50cm, and after slope toe excavation 1:1.5 side slope, backfill block stone, apart from top 50cm.Establish drain hole spacing 1m respectively, and clay core wall and anti-filter cloth are set in corresponding position.Earthing is local dry red soil, from rejected reasons.
(2) experimental material
1. for examination vegetation
Leucaena leucacephala (Leucaenaleucocephala), belonging to Mimosaceae Leucaen defoliation small arbor or shrub, is drought-resistant, barren pantropical plant.Rapidly, drought-resistance ability is strong in growth, is the important species that dry-hot valley implements vegetation recovery.Browse is rich in protein, can make high-quality feed.
2. for examination material: water-loss reducer is cross-linked polyacrylamide and the polyacrylic acid potassium salt copolymer of the insoluble type of water, and Beijing Sang Song Agro-ecology science and technology limited Company provides.The fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly: self-control, by water-loss reducer and urea formulated, (first urea is made into the urea liquid that mass concentration is 30%, add the water-loss reducer of 2% (urea quality) again, dry at 80 DEG C and make), wherein water-loss reducer is cross-linked polyacrylamide and polyacrylic acid potassium salt copolymer.
(3) experimental design
Dumping Sites Water conservation in community fertilizer conservation experiment on vegetation restoration designs blank test respectively, water-loss reducer, the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly, water-loss reducer+the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly 4 kinds of preserve moisture and fertility methods process.
(4) test method
Before planting mining residues is piled earthing smooth, then adopt hole-method sowing Leucaena leucacephala.Slag stone mulching soil, from rejected reasons, is respectively 9.16,1.07 and 1.05g/kg for the examination soil organism, full nitrogen and content of tatal phosphorus.Test designs 4 process, water-loss reducer (A group), the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly (B group), water-loss reducer+the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly (C group), blank test (D group) altogether.
Water-loss reducer: dig cave on earthing, adopts hole-method sowing Leucaena leucacephala seed, applies in cave, be sown into 12g water-loss reducer seed, banket with soil in cave after mixing, then in the thick crop residues of earthing layer overlay 15-20cm.After having planted, water 1 water.
The fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly: dig cave on earthing, adopts hole-method sowing Leucaena leucacephala seed, applies in cave, be sown into 13g the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly seed, banket with soil in cave after mixing, then in the thick crop residues of earthing layer overlay 15-20cm.After having planted, water 1 water.
Water-loss reducer+the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly: dig cave on earthing, adopt hole-method sowing Leucaena leucacephala seed, 12g water-loss reducer and 13g the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly are applied in cave, after mixing with soil, is sown into seed, banket, then in the thick crop residues of earthing layer overlay 15-20cm.After having planted, water 1 water.
Blank test: dig cave on earthing, adopts hole-method sowing Leucaena leucacephala seed, does not add any fertilizer.After having planted, water 1 water.
Each group of daily management is consistent.
(5) result
Table 1 different disposal is on the impact of Leucaena leucacephala survival rate
See table 1, the Leucaena leucacephala of different disposal, after spending a rainy season and dry season, survival rate shows different results.In processed group, A group, B group, C group these 3 groups is processed into motility rate all higher than D group, and survival rate growth rate is respectively 6.56%, 7.87% and 13.36%.Wherein, the process of C group is the most remarkable on the impact of Leucaena leucacephala survival rate, and its survival rate increase can reach 13.16%(with blank test ratio).This shows, the process of C group and water-loss reducer+the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly obtains good effect.
As can be seen from the results, this several process combined effect, all higher than independent process, shows that various process has cooperative effect.Particularly in 2010, the mining residues heap vegetation of this experimental plot subjected to the test of Yunnan Province Serious Drought Event, and ramp after rainy season arrives, show good growing way and effect.
Particularly in 2010, the vegetation of mining residues heap subjected to the test of Yunnan Province Serious Drought Event, and ramp after rainy season arrives, show good growing way and effect.
Embodiment 2, the amending method of dry-hot valley roadbed side slope soil and water conservation ecological.
(1) experimental plot overview
Roadbed side slope waste experimental plot height above sea level 955m, area is 360m2, slag thickness 50 ~ 200cm, and slag stone particle diameter reduces from top to bottom successively, slag stone surface earthing, and wherein thickness of earth covering is respectively 50cm, the gradient 25 °.Simultaneously according to Design of Dumping Sites standard and hydrology achievement designing and arranging water system, Dumping Sites upstream charge for remittance is got rid of in laying gutter, position of confluxing in roadbed side slope Dumping Sites upstream.The roadbed side slope Dumping Sites gutter gradient is 25 °, to ensure that within the scope of the small watershed of roadbed side slope slag field, design flood is discharged safely.Roadbed side slope Dumping Sites main drain adopt brick structure, Dumping Sites main drain size is all by 11.5cm × 5.3cm(bottom width × height) trapezoidal cross-section design, side slope compare be 1:1.1.For preventing heap slag charge slump or being scattered, arrange stone masonry slag blocking wall at slag muck toe, top width 0.5, slag muck side slope 1:1.1, free face is vertical, buried depth 50cm, and after slope toe excavation 1:1.5 side slope, backfill block stone, apart from top 50cm.Establish drain hole spacing 1m respectively, and clay core wall and anti-filter cloth are set in corresponding position.Soil is local dry red soil, from rejected reasons.
(2) experimental material
1. for examination vegetation
Cream paulownia (JatrophacurcasL.), cries Jatropha curcus, Jatropha curcas etc. again.Belong to Euphorbiaceae (Euphorbiaceae) Jatropha machaka.In China, be mainly distributed in the provinces and regions such as Yunnan, Sichuan, Guangxi, Hainan with wild state.Happiness light, the warm hot weather of happiness, do not select soil, drought-resistant barren.Cream paulownia is important Tree Species as Bio-energy, and seed oil content is 20% ~ 40%, is the first-class raw material of production biodiesel.
2. for examination material
Water-loss reducer: the insoluble type of water, Beijing Sang Song Agro-ecology science and technology limited Company provides.The fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly: self-control.
(3) experimental design
The roadbed Dumping Sites experimental plot of testing in 2007-04 is self-built in study area is carried out.Community slag stone mulching soil is from rejected reasons.Test establishes 4 kinds of process, i.e. blank test (CK), water-loss reducer process (I), the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly process (II) and water-loss reducer+the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly process (III) altogether.
(4) test method
By smooth for roadbed side slope waste before plantation, then adopt hole-method sowing cream paulownia.12g water-loss reducer is added in every cave, process I trial zone.Process II every cave, trial zone and add 13g the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly.Process III every cave, trial zone and add 12g water-loss reducer and 13g the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly simultaneously, first water-loss reducer or the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly are applied in cave, after mixing with soil, be sown into seed again.2-4 grain cream paulownia seed is put in every cave.In blank test district and directly sow in cave by cream paulownia seed, after having planted, water 1 water.The daily management of each district is consistent.
(5) result
See table 2, the cream paulownia of different disposal, after spending a rainy season and dry season, survival rate shows different results.In processed group, the survival rate of I, II and III trial zone is all higher than CK group.Survival rate growth rate is respectively 6.14%, 7.12% and 12.94%.Wherein, the cream paulownia survival rate testing IIIth district is the highest, can find out, the process of IIIth district and water-loss reducer+the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly obtains good effect.
Table 2 different disposal is on the impact of cream paulownia survival rate
Embodiment 3, the restorative procedure of the soil and water conservation ecological of the high gradient slope that earth excavation causes in development construction item.
In the present embodiment, before to high gradient slope process, first adopt the method for embodiment 2 to utilize spoir to abandon quarrel and roadbed side slope is processed, then adopt the method for embodiment 1 to abandon quarrel to all the other spoirs to process.
As follows to the processing method of high gradient slope:
(1) experimental plot design
Planting alimentation rock side-slope experimental plot, hole height above sea level is 760m, the slope aspect southeast, area 60m2.Domatic hard and steady, soil-rock ratio is about 1:3.The gradient 75 °.Simultaneously according to Design of Dumping Sites standard and hydrology achievement designing and arranging water system, Dumping Sites upstream charge for remittance is got rid of in laying gutter, position of confluxing in the steep excavation slope upstream of height.The high steep excavation slope gutter gradient is 75 °, discharges safely with design flood within the scope of the steep excavation slope small watershed of height.High steep excavation slope main drain adopts brick structure, and main drain size is all by 11.5cm × 5.3cm(bottom width × height) trapezoidal cross-section design, side slope ratio is 1:1.1.Domatic exposed, substantially without vegetative coverage.
(2) materials and methods
1. examination vegetation is supplied to be cream paulownia and Leucaena leucacephala for examination vegetation
2. for examination material water-loss reducer: the insoluble type of water, Beijing Sang Song Agro-ecology science and technology limited Company provides.The fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly: self-control.
(3) experimental design
Test is carried out self-built high gradient slope community in study area.Community implantation hole soil is from rejected reasons.2 kinds of method process are established in test altogether, adopt blank test respectively and apply water-loss reducer+the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly process.Totally 6 communities, 3 communities are established in often kind of process, each plot area 5m2.
(4) test method
First hole on the rock side-slope that pretreatment is good, aperture 10cm, hole depth 40cm, pitch of holes 50cm, blossom type is laid.Then in the implantation hole of accomplishing fluently, insert soil, bagasse, then apply water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly, finally plant into cream paulownia and Leucaena leucacephala.
Add water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly in water-loss reducer+every hole, the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly process trial zone simultaneously, after water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly are mixed with soil, then plant into cream paulownia and Leucaena leucacephala.After having planted, water 1 water.The daily management of each district is consistent.
Grow after 3 months and the plant height of each process community cream paulownia, the number of sheets, leaf area, strain footpath are measured.Second Year is observed each process community cream paulownia survival rate April.
(5) result
The recovery effects of plantation cream paulownia is significantly better than plantation Leucaena leucacephala.With regard to vegetation survival rate in dry season, cream paulownia is 90.58%, and Leucaena leucacephala is only 54.72%.Cream paulownia water-loss reducer+the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly process obtains good recovery effects.Compared with blank test, its cream paulownia plant height growth rate, number of sheets growth rate, maximum leaf area increase reach respectively 11.43%, 12.94% and 13.42% × 11.32%(long × wide), average strain footpath increases by 10.43%, and chlorophyll content increases by 2.57%, cream paulownia survival rate in dry season 90.58%.Select the cream paulownia of water-loss reducer+the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly process to carry out vegetation recovery at rock side-slope and can obtain good recovery effects.

Claims (6)

1. the restorative procedure of development construction item soil and water conservation ecological, is characterized in that, comprises the process to mining residues, is specially: piled up by mining residues, and at mining residues accumulation body Surface mulch soil, planting plants, applies water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly;
For smooth ground, first mining residues is stacked into ground, and builds gutter, barricade, bank protection, then at mining residues accumulation body Surface mulch soil, planting plants, applies water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly; For roadbed side slope, be first stacked in side slope by mining residues, and build gutter, barricade, bank protection, then at mining residues accumulation body Surface mulch soil, planting plants, applies water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly;
The mass ratio of described water-loss reducer and the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly is 8 ~ 9:10 ~ 12; Described the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly is made up of water-loss reducer and urea, and wherein water-loss reducer is the insoluble type water-loss reducer of water, and water-loss reducer addition is 2% of urea quality.
2. the restorative procedure of development construction item soil and water conservation ecological as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, the method that described mining residues is piled up is: dregs, slag stone particle diameter reduce from bottom to top successively, upper epidermis mulching soil.
3. the restorative procedure of development construction item soil and water conservation ecological as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, the thickness of mulching soil is determined according to planting plants, and to arbor, thickness of soil is 50cm, and to shrub, thickness of soil is 30cm.
4. the restorative procedure of development construction item soil and water conservation ecological as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: also comprise the process for high gradient slope and excavation face, be specially, the side slope of stone matter bores implantation hole, soil, the stalk of pulverizing or crop residues, the fertilizer of retaining water and releasing nutrients slowly is inserted, planting plants in implantation hole.
5. the restorative procedure of development construction item soil and water conservation ecological as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that: around planting plants, cover local common Agro-ecology discarded object, cultivate the soil organism, cover simultaneously with the gravel that diameter is 1-3cm.
6. the restorative procedure of development construction item soil and water conservation ecological as claimed in claim 4, is characterized in that: arrange drainage in mining residues heap, roadbed side slope, high gradient slope and excavation face, reinforce facility or support facility.
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