CN103766261B - Exopalaemon carinicauda 1 year continuous many batches of artificial cultivating method - Google Patents

Exopalaemon carinicauda 1 year continuous many batches of artificial cultivating method Download PDF

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CN103766261B
CN103766261B CN201410065166.1A CN201410065166A CN103766261B CN 103766261 B CN103766261 B CN 103766261B CN 201410065166 A CN201410065166 A CN 201410065166A CN 103766261 B CN103766261 B CN 103766261B
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shrimp
parent
pond
batch
exopalaemon carinicauda
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CN103766261A (en
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李健
刘萍
李吉涛
陈萍
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Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

A kind of Exopalaemon carinicauda 1 year continuous many batches of artificial cultivating method, belong to technical field of aquaculture, its step comprise close shrimp select to put in a suitable place to breed with indoor wintering, oogenesis parent shrimp rearing of surviving the winter, oogenesis parent shrimp pond, first batch cultivate gather in the crops and parent selects and remain and second batch cultivate the parent carry out the 3rd batch and cultivate of gathering in the crops or select and remain simultaneously.The present invention, by indoor culture Exopalaemon carinicauda parent shrimp, obtains oogenesis parent shrimp in advance, and reasonable arrangement puts close shrimp and the time of results commercial sized prawn in a suitable place to breed, realizes stubble cultivation more than a year, improves cultivating pool availability and economic benefit.In China Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang one is with and realizes two generations breeding every year, and Guangdong areas to the south can realize three batches of cultivation.

Description

Exopalaemon carinicauda 1 year continuous many batches of artificial cultivating method
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of aquaculture, be specifically related to a kind of Exopalaemon carinicauda 1 year artificial cultivating method of continuous many batches.
Background technology
Seawater shrimp culture, based on to shrimps, mainly comprise the kinds such as Crustin, Environment of Litopenaeus vannamei Low, Penaeus monodon, Marsupenaeus japonicus, and Palaemon kind is emerging breed variety both at home and abroad at present.
Exopalaemon carinicauda (Exopalaemon carinicauda Holthuis, 1950) white shrimp is had another name called, little Bai shrimp and winter jasmine shrimp etc., be subordinate to Arthropoda (Arthropoda), Crustachia (Crustacea), Decapoda (Decapoda), Palaemonidae (Palaemonidae), Palaemon (Exopalaemon), mainly be distributed in the less salt waters, shallow sea of China's Mainland bank and west bank, the Korea peninsula, with the Bohai Sea and Huanghai Sea output maximum, be only second to Chinese prawn (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) and Chinese green food (Acetes chinensis), for the middle-size and small-size economic shrimps that China is important.Exopalaemon carinicauda have growth rapidly, the feature such as strong adaptability, mating season be long, its meat is fine and smooth, and delicious flavour is a kind of high protein, low fat, be rich in the superior seafood product of EPA/DHA, and per kilogram price 60-80 unit is with in Jiangsu and Zhejiang Provinces one.Except for except eating raw, Exopalaemon carinicauda also can be processed into dried shrimps, because it is in golden yellow, therefore also has the title of " golden gammarid rice ", and its ovum can drying one-tenths shrimp seed, is also the seafood delights dry product of preciousness.Exopalaemon carinicauda has the advantages such as growth is fast, environmental suitability is wide, premunition is strong, the breeding cycle is short, easy raising.
In recent years, Exopalaemon carinicauda propagates scale artificially more than 300,000 mu at China coast, has become Coastal beach area ecological pond culture main characteristics kind, economizes the Important Economic shrimps having become Pond culture, raised together with fish crab shellfish etc. in Jiangsu, Zhejiang etc.Existing Exopalaemon carinicauda cultivation mainly relies on to fish for natural waters natural seeding, wild fry spring or throw in wild oogenesis parent shrimp and makes it breed voluntarily in pond, exists and easily carries and propagate the problems such as cause of disease (Lu Wu You etc., 1995; Xu Wenjun etc., 2010; Li Xincang etc., 2012).Existing aquaculture model first in pond, drops into the seedling such as Portunus trituberculatus Miers, mud crab mud crab at annual 5-6 month, then the Exopalaemon carinicauda parent of people oogenesis is put, namely in growing pond, be certainly bred as Exopalaemon carinicauda seed from numerous, form product after November, gather in the crops (Dong Jianbo etc., 2005; Huang is equality then, and 2004; Wu Xugan etc., 2002), often carry out one batch of cultivation every year.Mei Xiaole etc. (2005) test mullet, the integrated culture of razor clam of hanging, Exopalaemon carinicauda, utilize mullet, the biological complementary of razor clam of hanging, Exopalaemon carinicauda carries out non-harmful integrated culture, effectively can utilize Water space, reduce the generation of disease.In sum, it is unclear to there is parent's genetic background in existing cultural method, and fishes for the portable cause of disease of wild close shrimp, can only carry out the defects such as one batch of cultivation every year, have impact on the performance of pond comprehensive benefit.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is to solve technical problem is to provide a kind of Exopalaemon carinicauda 1 year continuous many batches of artificial cultivating method, solves dependence natural waters and fish for parent propagation problem, cut off cause of disease vertical transmission route, realize the continuous two batches of objects efficiently cultivated in pond.
The present invention completes by following operation sequence:
A kind of Exopalaemon carinicauda 1 year continuous many batches of artificial cultivating method, comprise close shrimp select to put in a suitable place to breed with indoor wintering, oogenesis parent shrimp rearing of surviving the winter, oogenesis parent shrimp pond, first batch cultivate gather in the crops and parent selects and remain and second batch cultivate the parent carry out the 3rd batch and cultivate of gathering in the crops or select and remain simultaneously.
Described close shrimp is selected and indoor wintering: annual early winter from propagate artificially pond select do not carry contagiosity cause of disease Exopalaemon carinicauda as overwintering parent shrimp, overwintering parent shrimp requires long more than the 5.5cm of body, and close shrimp moves into cement pit indoor wintering; Filter underground sea water 20 ~ 30cm in gaza's in wintering pond, the formalin that close shrimp adds after entering pond or potassium permanganate soak, then gradually Chi Shui is filled it up with diluent substrate concentration;
Further, the close shrimp female-male proportion of described immigration indoor water mud sump is 1:0.7.
Further, described formalin or the concentration of potassium permanganate are (100 ~ 150) × 10 -6or 20 × 10 -6, soak time is 1 hour.
Described oogenesis parent shrimp rearing of surviving the winter: the breeding density of Wintering Period parent shrimp overwintering period water temperature should remain on 10 DEG C depending on breeding condition; Water Quality Control Indexes is: salinity 20 ~ 30, below ammonia-nitrogen content 0.5mg/L, dissolved oxygen at more than 5mg/L, below chemical oxygen consumption (COC) 2mg/L; Change water 30% every day, bait throwing in doses is 3 ~ 5% of close shrimp body weight, and illumination controls at 200Lux, and cultivate through 2 ~ March, Exopalaemon carinicauda starts mating, oogenesis;
Described oogenesis parent shrimp pond is put in a suitable place to breed: when pond natural temperature reaches 12 DEG C, and the Exopalaemon carinicauda oogenesis parent shrimp cultivated indoor wintering puts into the cultivating pool of fertile base bait, and putting quantity in a suitable place to breed is 3 ~ 5g/m 2, the dissolved oxygen in pond water is at more than 5mg/L;
Further, described Exopalaemon carinicauda is put in a suitable place to breed in pond has swimming crab, shellfish or fish to raise together with.
First batch of described cultivation results are selected and remain with parent: after pond culture 2-4 month, gathered in the crops by the commodity Exopalaemon carinicauda of long-living for the body 4.5cm of reaching in batches; And stop second batch of cultivation in male and female 1:1 ratio and use close shrimp, female male parent shrimp Volume Composition density is 10g/m 2above;
Described second batch of cultivation or the parent carry out the 3rd batch of cultivation of simultaneously selecting and remain: after first batch of cultivation results and parent select and remain, cultivate 3 ~ 4 months, according to the market demand, the Exopalaemon carinicauda reaching commercial specification in cultivating pool is gathered in the crops successively, if now water temperature allows select and remain parent and carry out the 3rd batch of cultivation simultaneously.
General Requirements had been gathered in the crops before pond water temperature is reduced to 10 DEG C, otherwise water temperature reduces Exopalaemon carinicauda hypoergia, mostly slips in silt and defies capture.The 3rd batch of cultivation also can be carried out in southern area.
The present invention's beneficial effect compared with prior art:
1, current, in natural waters, Exopalaemon carinicauda oogenesis parent shrimp could be obtained 5-7 month, the present invention is by indoor culture Exopalaemon carinicauda parent shrimp, obtain oogenesis parent shrimp in advance, reasonable arrangement puts close shrimp and the time of results commercial sized prawn in a suitable place to breed, realizes stubble cultivation more than a year, improves cultivating pool availability and economic benefit.In China Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang one is with and realizes two generations breeding every year, and Guangdong areas to the south can realize three batches of cultivation.
2, the present invention adopts and propagates relative shrimp overwintering artificially, can cut off contagiosity cause of disease by disinfectant measure, can reduce the cultivation incidence of disease.
3, the environmental condition such as Artificial Control temperature of the present invention, realize female shrimp oogenesis synchronous, and egg laying rate of red swamp is high, is applicable to large-scale cultivation.
4, the present invention realizes Exopalaemon carinicauda and entirely propagates artificially, does not rely on wild resource, can carry out fine-variety breeding.
Embodiment
Below by embodiment, the technical solution of the present invention is further explained, but protection scope of the present invention is not by any pro forma restriction of embodiment.
Embodiment 1
The present embodiment 2013 carries out Exopalaemon carinicauda many batches cultivation in From Shandong Rizhao Aquaculture Corporation of setting sail, and adopts Exopalaemon carinicauda and Portunus trituberculatus Miers Polyculture, respond well.
A kind of Exopalaemon carinicauda 1 year continuous many batches of artificial cultivating method, comprise close shrimp select to put in a suitable place to breed with indoor wintering, oogenesis parent shrimp rearing of surviving the winter, oogenesis parent shrimp pond, first batch cultivate gather in the crops and parent selects and remain and second batch cultivate the parent carry out the 3rd batch and cultivate of gathering in the crops or select and remain simultaneously.
1, close shrimp is selected to select with at the beginning of 2012 11 months indoor wintering do not carry contagiosity cause of disease, energetic male and female Exopalaemon carinicauda as overwintering parent shrimp, long more than the 5.5cm of overwintering parent shrimp body from propagating pond artificially, moves into cement pit indoor wintering in sex ration 1:0.7 ratio; Gaza's filter underground sea water 20 ~ 30cm in wintering pond, close shrimp adds (100 ~ 150) × 10 after entering pond -6formalin or 20 × 10 -6potassium permanganate soak 1 hour, then gradually Chi Shui is filled it up with diluent substrate concentration;
2, to survive the winter oogenesis parent shrimp rearing: the breeding density of Wintering Period parent shrimp overwintering period water temperature should remain on 10 DEG C depending on breeding condition; Water Quality Control Indexes is: salinity 20 ~ 30, below ammonia-nitrogen content 0.5mg/L, dissolved oxygen at more than 5mg/L, below chemical oxygen consumption (COC) 2mg/L; Change water 30% every day, bait throwing in doses is 3 ~ 5% of close shrimp body weight, and illumination controls at 200Lux, and cultivate through 2 ~ March, Exopalaemon carinicauda starts mating, oogenesis;
3, oogenesis parent is put in shrimp pond:
Cultivating pool area 5 mu, shines pond by the emptying of culturing pool ponding, envelope lock before cultivation at the beginning of 3 months, removes mud and foreign material, turn over and be exposed to the sun or repeatedly rinse at the bottom of the pond thicker to sediments.By water filling 10cm ~ 20cm in pond, use the disinfecting drug full pool spilling head such as chlorine-containing disinfectant or iodine-containing disinfectant, oxidant, quicklime, kill the causal organisms such as protozoa, virus, bacterium and trash fish shrimp etc.
Culturing pool sterilization water inlet in latter 7 days ~ 10 days, 40cm ~ 50cm of intaking for the first time.Applying fertilizer, beneficial bacteria preparation, breed excellent unicellular alga, small-sized miniature Polychaeta, oligochaetes, shell-fish, nematode, shellfish larvae, insect larvae, beneficial microbe, zoogloea etc.The culturing pool depth of water reaches 1m by the end of March, and transparency is at about 40cm, and micro-algae is based on green alga, diatom, Freshwater Chrysophytes, and the dissolved oxygen in pond water is at more than 5mg/L.
When April 9, pond water temperature reached 12 DEG C, put indoors artificial in a suitable place to breed and cultivate oogenesis overwintering parent shrimp, breeding density is 4g/m 2at the beginning of 5 months, Portunus trituberculatus Miers second phase young crab is put in pond again in a suitable place to breed, puts seedling amount 3000/mu.Cultivation feed comprises manufactured feed, fresh small fish and shellfish.Conventional manufactured feed day, the rate of throwing something and feeding was 3% ~ 5%, fresh food day the rate of throwing something and feeding be 7% ~ 10%.Put the seedling initial stage, day feeding volume 4 times, evenly throwing something and feeding in full pond, puts the seedling later stage, and along with the growth such as shrimp, crab, throw the amount of raising and strengthen, the feeding volume after afternoon accounts for 60% of whole day feeding volume.
4, first batch of cultivation results is selected and remain with parent:
Late June, namely Exopalaemon carinicauda body reaches 4.5cm starts to gather in the crops successively, and first batch of cultivation commodity Exopalaemon carinicauda results is continued until by the end of July.Stop second batch of cultivation in male and female 1:1 ratio simultaneously and use close shrimp, female male parent shrimp Volume Composition density is 10g/m 2above.
5, second batch of cultivation results:
By the end of October, second batch of cultivation commodity Exopalaemon carinicauda starts results.Pond culture Exopalaemon carinicauda reaches commercial specification will fish for out pond in time, the loss otherwise male and female shrimp mating breeding easily causes death.If in Guangdong areas to the south, can select and remain parent while second batch of results commercial sized prawn, can realize three batches of cultivation.
Cultivation result: Exopalaemon carinicauda first batch of crop 60kg/ mu, the output value 2400 yuan/mu; Exopalaemon carinicauda second batch of crop 120kg/ mu, 4800/ mu, output value unit; Portunus trituberculatus Miers crop 60kg/ mu, the output value 4800 yuan/mu; The cultivation of shrimp crab adds up to output 240kg/ mu, and the output value 12000 yuan/mu, economic benefit is good.
Embodiment 2
The present embodiment cultivates by prior art, and catch Exopalaemon carinicauda oogenesis parent shrimp mid-June from natural waters and put into cultivating pool, Exopalaemon carinicauda and Portunus trituberculatus Miers are raised together with, and other cultivating condition is identical with embodiment 1.Through the culture experiment of 5 months, cultivation result was: Exopalaemon carinicauda crop 80kg/ mu, the output value 3200 yuan/mu; Portunus trituberculatus Miers crop 55kg/ mu, the output value 4400 yuan/mu; The cultivation of shrimp crab adds up to output 135kg/ mu, the output value 7600 yuan/mu, and economic benefit is not as embodiment 1.

Claims (7)

1. an Exopalaemon carinicauda 1 year continuous many batches of artificial cultivating method, it is characterized in that its step comprise close shrimp select to put in a suitable place to breed with indoor wintering, oogenesis parent shrimp rearing of surviving the winter, oogenesis parent shrimp pond, first batch cultivate gather in the crops and parent selects and remain and second batch cultivate the parent carry out the 3rd batch and cultivate of gathering in the crops or select and remain simultaneously, described oogenesis parent shrimp rearing of surviving the winter: the breeding density of Wintering Period parent shrimp should depending on breeding condition, and overwintering period water temperature remains on 10 DEG C; Water Quality Control Indexes is: salinity 20 ~ 30, below ammonia-nitrogen content 0.5mg/L, dissolved oxygen at more than 5mg/L, below chemical oxygen consumption (COC) 2mg/L; Change water 30% every day, bait throwing in doses is 3 ~ 5% of close shrimp body weight, and illumination controls at 200Lux, and cultivate through 2 ~ March, Exopalaemon carinicauda starts mating, oogenesis.
2. method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that described close shrimp is selected and indoor wintering: annual early winter is selected do not carry contagiosity cause of disease, energetic male and female Exopalaemon carinicauda as overwintering parent shrimp from propagating pond artificially, overwintering parent shrimp requires long more than the 5.5cm of body, and close shrimp moves into cement pit indoor wintering; Gaza's filter underground sea water 20 ~ 30cm in wintering pond, close shrimp adds formalin after entering pond or potassium permanganate soaks, and then gradually Chi Shui is filled it up with diluent substrate concentration.
3. method according to claim 2, is characterized in that the close shrimp female-male proportion moving into cement pit indoor wintering is 1:0.7.
4. method according to claim 2, is characterized in that the concentration of described formalin or potassium permanganate is for (100 ~ 150) × 10 -6or 20 × 10 -6, soak time is 1 hour.
5. method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that described oogenesis parent shrimp pond is put in a suitable place to breed: when pond natural temperature reaches 12 DEG C, the Exopalaemon carinicauda oogenesis parent shrimp cultivated indoor wintering puts into the cultivating pool of fertile base bait, and putting quantity in a suitable place to breed is 3 ~ 5g/m 2, the dissolved oxygen in pond water is at more than 5mg/L.
6. method according to claim 5, is characterized in that Exopalaemon carinicauda is put in a suitable place to breed in pond and had swimming crab, shellfish or fish to raise together with.
7. method according to claim 1, is characterized in that first batch of described cultivation results are selected and remain with parent: after pond culture 2-4 month, gathered in the crops by the commodity Exopalaemon carinicauda of long-living for the body 4.5cm of reaching in batches; And stop second batch of cultivation in male and female 1:1 ratio and use close shrimp, female male parent shrimp Volume Composition density is 10g/m 2above.
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