CN103746078B - Perovskite solar cell and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Perovskite solar cell and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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CN103746078B
CN103746078B CN201410040145.4A CN201410040145A CN103746078B CN 103746078 B CN103746078 B CN 103746078B CN 201410040145 A CN201410040145 A CN 201410040145A CN 103746078 B CN103746078 B CN 103746078B
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perovskite
light
layer
absorption layer
hole
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CN103746078A (en
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肖立新
郑灵灵
马英壮
陈志坚
曲波
王树峰
龚旗煌
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Peking University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a perovskite solar cell and a preparation method thereof. The perovskite solar cell comprises a substrate, a transparent electrode, an electron transport layer, an electron transport and light adsorption layer, a light adsorption layer, a hole transport and light adsorption layer, a hole transport layer and a top electrode which are sequentially laminated, wherein the light adsorption layer is a photovoltaic material light adsorption layer with a perovskite structure; the electron transport and light adsorption layer is a composite functional layer formed by embedding an electron transport material and a perovskite structure photovoltaic material; and the hole transport and light adsorption layer is a composite functional layer formed by embedding a hole transport material and a perovskite structure photovoltaic material. Both sides of the light adsorption layer of the perovskite solar cell are of a certain micro nano structure, so that the composite functional layers of which the materials are embedded can be formed by the light adsorption layer and the transport layers outside the light adsorption layer; contact areas of the light adsorption layer and the transport layers are greatly increased and the perovskite solar cell is beneficial for improving exciton separation and charge transfer efficiency, so that compounding of photo-generated electrons and a hole is inhibited and performance of a device is improved.

Description

A kind of perovskite solaode and preparation method thereof
Technical field
The invention belongs to perovskite solaode(PSC, PerovskiteSolar Cells)Field, is related specifically to A kind of have perovskite solaode of composite heterogenous junction structure and preparation method thereof.
Background technology
Solaode is the device directly luminous energy being changed into electric energy by photoelectric effect or Photochemical effects, also known as For photovoltaic cell.Perovskite solaode is a class solaode more novel at present, mainly uses similar ABX3 (A=CH3NH3 +Deng;B=Pb2+,Sn2+Deng;X=Cl-,Br-,I-Deng) photovoltaic material with perovskite structure to realize photoelectricity and turn Change, have the advantages that processing technology is simple, raw material sources are extensive, cheap.The basic structure of perovskite solaode Including substrate, transparency electrode, electron transport material, perovskite material light-absorption layer, hole mobile material and metal electrode.Perovskite Solaode converts light energy into electric energy and can be divided into three main process:(1)Light-absorption layer absorbs the photon of certain energy simultaneously Produce electron hole pair(Exciton);(2)There is separation of charge when exciton diffusion is to material interface;(3)Electronics is along electric transmission Material enters external circuit through electrode, and hole enters external circuit along hole mobile material through electrode, completes luminous energy to electricity by load The conversion of energy.
The parameter characterizing solar cell properties mainly has short-circuit current density, open-circuit voltage, fill factor, curve factor, opto-electronic conversion Efficiency.The operating current of unit light-receiving area under short circuit condition for the solaode is referred to as short-circuit current density(Jsc), now The voltage of battery output is zero;Solaode output voltage in the open circuit condition is referred to as open-circuit voltage(Voc), now battery The electric current of output is zero;Fill factor, curve factor(FF)It is peak power output P of unit light-receiving areamaxWith JscVocRatio, FF gets over Greatly, the performance of solaode is better;Photoelectric transformation efficiency is peak power output P of unit light-receiving areamaxWith incident too Sunlight energy density PinPercentage ratio, it is an important output characteristics of solaode, main and device architecture, hetero-junctions Characteristic, material character and environment etc. relevant.
Since 2009, document " A.Kojima, K.Teshima, Y.Shirai, T.Miyasaka, J.Am.Chem.Soc.2009,131,6050. " initially with perovskite material as solaode light absorbent, with Going deep into of research, the efficiency of perovskite solaode improves constantly.2012, document " M.M.Lee, J.Teuscher, T.Miyasak, T.N.Murakami, H.J.Snaith, Science2012,338,643. " and document " H.S.Kim, C.R.Lee,J.H.Im,K.B.Lee,T.Moehl,A.Marchioro,S.J.Moon,R.H.Baker,J.H.Yum, J.E.Moser,M.Gr?Tzel, N.G.Park, Sci.Rep.2012,2,591. " reports efficient solid-state perovskite too respectively Sun energy battery, greatly improves the photoelectric transformation efficiency of perovskite solaode.These perovskite solaodes adopt The heterojunction structure being all based on p-i-n structure.
Content of the invention
Perovskite can not only extensively absorb solar spectrum, and has splendid charge transport properties.In order to fully sharp Use these properties, the invention provides a kind of perovskite solaode and preparation method thereof, prepared using the inventive method Perovskite solaode, the both sides of its light-absorption layer all have certain micro-nano structure, thus with its outside transport layer it Between can form the mutually chimeric complex functional layer of material, the contact area of light-absorption layer and transport layer is greatly improved, is conducive to carrying High exciton dissociation and charge transfer efficiency, thus suppressing the compound of light induced electron and hole, improve device performance.
Technical scheme is as follows:
A kind of perovskite solaode, including the substrate stacking gradually, transparency electrode, electron transfer layer, electric transmission- Light-absorption layer, light-absorption layer, hole transport-light-absorption layer, hole transmission layer and top electrode, wherein:Described light-absorption layer is to have perovskite The photovoltaic material light-absorption layer of structure;Described electric transmission-light-absorption layer is electron transport material and perovskite structure photovoltaic material is embedding Close the complex functional layer being formed;Described hole transport-light-absorption layer is hole mobile material and perovskite structure photovoltaic material is fitted together to The complex functional layer being formed.
The backing material being applied to perovskite solaode of the present invention has the transparent materials such as glass, flexiplast.In addition, Can also be in the irradiation side of substrate(Outside)Antireflective film is added on surface, improves the transmitance of incident illumination.
Transparency electrode is located on the inner surface of substrate, and the material of transparency electrode can be indium tin oxide(ITO, Indium Tin Oxides), fluorine tin-oxide(FTO,fluorine doped tin oxide), aluminum zinc oxide(AZO, aluminium-doped zinc oxide)Deng conventional transparent electrode material.Frequently with ITO electro-conductive glass or FTO conduction glass Glass is as substrate and transparency electrode.
In electron transfer layer and electric transmission-light-absorption layer electron transport material used common for metal-oxide, such as oxygen Change titanium(TiO2), zinc oxide(ZnO), zirconium oxide(ZrO2)Deng.Wherein TiO2It is the most normal in current perovskite solar cell device Electron transport material.Electron transfer layer is the thin film that aggregated metal oxide is formed on the transparent electrodes, generally thickness Compacted zone between 10nm~100nm, plays the effect of transmission electronics, prevents electrode and light-absorption layer directly contact simultaneously.
Light-absorption layer adopts perovskite crystal to prepare, and its effect is to absorb incident illumination.The simple light-absorption layer of device of the present invention It is made up of the compact-grain of perovskite material, thickness is generally in 100~200nm.If additionally, particle diameter is introduced on light-absorption layer existed 200nm~400nm about perovskite crystal formed micro-nano structure, incident illumination can not only be absorbed, also advantageously improve light Scattering in whole device, thus improve the absorption to incident illumination further.Common perovskite material mainly has similar ABX3(A=CH3NH3 +Deng;B=Pb2+,Sn2+Deng;X=Cl-,Br-,I-Deng) the organic inorganic hybridization perovskite of type crystal structure, its energy Gap is in 1.0-2.0eV.
Mainly by hole transport to metal electrode, thickness is usually 50~300nm to hole transmission layer.Hole transmission layer and Hole mobile material in hole transport-light-absorption layer is typically the material of higher hole mobility, can be organic material And/or inorganic material, organic material such as Spiro-MeOTAD, P3HT, PTAA, TAPC, NPB, TPD etc., inorganic material such as CuI, CuSCN、Cu2O, CuO, NiO, MoOx etc..
Electric transmission-light-absorption layer is located between electron transfer layer and light-absorption layer, is porous metal oxide and perovskite material The micro-nano interpenetrating structure that material is formed, plays extinction and electric transmission effect, usual thickness about 400nm~600nm.Porous metals oxygen Compound and perovskite material form the interlaced nanoscale microstructure with high specific surface area(10nm~100nm)Thin Multiple microscopic appearance structure such as film, such as nano-pore, nano wire, nano-pillar, nanotube, nano flower, nanotrees.High-specific surface area Appearance structure be conducive to improve material contact area, be favorably improved electronic transmission performance.
Hole transport-light-absorption layer is located between hole transmission layer and light-absorption layer, by perovskite material and hole mobile material The mutually chimeric laminated film being formed, thickness, generally between 100nm~200nm, plays extinction and hole transport effect.Pass through Control the growth conditionss of perovskite material, adjust the surface topography of perovskite material, jagged material interface can be formed, from And expand the contact area of hole transmission layer and light-absorption layer, thus improving cavity transmission ability, reducing the compound of both hole and electron, carrying High battery efficiency.
Top electrode typically using the material with higher work-functions, the such as metal such as gold, silver, copper, aluminum and conductive carbon material, The manufacture method such as vacuum coating and solution film forming can be adopted.
The perovskite solaode of the present invention has the multiple structure similar to p- (pi)-i- (in)-n, in the devices Introduce electric transmission-light-absorption layer and two composite beds of hole transport-light-absorption layer(Pi and in), its preparation method includes following step Suddenly:
1)Substrate and transparency electrode adopt electron transport material prepare dense film, form electron transfer layer;
2)Utilize electron transport material to form micro-nano porous membrane on the electron transport layer, then grow perovskite material, Form electric transmission-light-absorption layer and light-absorption layer thereon, the surface topography simultaneously controlling light-absorption layer is in continuously fine and close zigzag;
3)In surface spin coating or the evaporation hole mobile material of light-absorption layer, form hole transport-light-absorption layer and thereon Hole transmission layer;
4)Top electrode is prepared on hole transmission layer.
Above-mentioned steps 1)Electron transfer layer can pass through the precursor solution of coating electronic transmission material, then high temperature sintering Preparation.
Above-mentioned steps 2)The thickness of the porous membrane of middle utilization electron transport material preparation is in 400-600nm.Perovskite material Material is grown in the hole of this porous membrane, forms electric transmission-light-absorption layer, and the perovskite material growing on porous membrane Material forms fine and close crystal grain, and thickness 100-200nm, is light-absorption layer, and the pattern of its upper surface passes through to control the anti-of growth perovskite Answer the concentration of solution(Such as 5mg/mL~50mg/mL)Regulated and controled etc. condition, thus ensureing that finally there is continuously fine and close saw Dentation pattern.
Above-mentioned steps 4)Top electrode can be prepared on hole transmission layer using the method for vacuum coating or solution film forming.
At present the structure of perovskite battery is substantially p-i-n structure, and proposed by the present invention " based on double composite heterogenous junctions Perovskite solaode ", using the multiple structure being analogous to p- (pi)-i- (in)-n, introduce two composite beds (pi) And(in)In the device structure, increasing the contact area of light light-absorption layer and charge transport layer, being conducive to the transmission of electric charge, thus pressing down Light induced electron processed is compound with hole, finally improves device performance.
Brief description
Fig. 1 is perovskite solar cell device structure chart, wherein:1-FTO electro-conductive glass;2- electron transfer layer;3- electricity Sub- transmission-light-absorption layer;4- light-absorption layer;5- hole transport-light-absorption layer;6- hole transmission layer;7- metal electrode.
Fig. 2 is the electron microscope picture of the perovskite solar battery structure of embodiment 1 preparation, and wherein, upper figure is calcium titanium The upper surface topography figure of ore deposit light-absorption layer;Figure below is device junction composition, is 1-FTO electro-conductive glass, 2- electronics biography from the bottom to top successively Defeated layer, 3- electric transmission-light-absorption layer, 4- light-absorption layer, 5- hole transport-light-absorption layer and 6- hole transmission layer.
Fig. 3 is the absorption spectrum of perovskite material in embodiment 1 and the device of comparative example 1 preparation.
Fig. 4 is under AM1.5G illumination, the VA characteristic curve of the perovskite solaode of embodiment 1 and comparative example 1.
Specific embodiment
Describe device of the present invention and preparation method thereof below by embodiment in detail, but do not constitute the limit to the present invention System.
Embodiment 1:Composite heterogenous junction structure(p-(pi)-i-(in)-n)Device preparation
1st, prepare PbI2Solution:PbI2Concentration be 1.0M, solvent be dimethylformamide.
2nd, prepare CH3NH3I solution:Concentration 10mg/mL, is dissolved in isopropanol.
3rd, the preparation of device function layer, referring to Fig. 1, the main each functional layer including being laminated in substrate and transparency electrode 1: Electron transfer layer 2, electric transmission-light-absorption layer 3, light-absorption layer 4, hole transport-light-absorption layer 4, hole transmission layer 6, and metal electricity Pole 7.Preparation process is as follows:
1)Using FTO electro-conductive glass as substrate and transparency electrode 1, thickness 2-5mm, below 50 ohm of surface resistance;
2)Double (levulinic ketone group) diisopropyl titanate esters of 0.15M are coated with using spin-coating method on substrate(titanium diisopropoxidebis(acetylacetonate))Precursor solution, 350 DEG C~500 DEG C high temperature sinterings in Muffle furnace 30min~90min, obtains the TiO of thickness about 10-100nm2Dense film is as electron transfer layer 2;
3)Electric transmission-light-absorption layer 3, light-absorption layer 4 and hole transport-light-absorption layer 5 are continuous preparations.
Prepare the TiO of 400-600nm first2Perforated membrane:Nano-TiO is coated with the electron transport layer using spin-coating method2Granule The precursor solution of colloid(DHS-TPP3, Dalian HeptaChroma SolarTech Co., Ltd.), put into 350 DEG C of Muffle furnace~ 500 DEG C of high temperature sintering 30min~90min, form nano level porous membrane, and this porous membrane can be with the calcium titanium of follow-up preparation Embedded structure realized by pit wood material, forms electric transmission-light-absorption layer 3.
Perovskite material adopts solwution method fabricated in situ:First in TiO2Spin coating PbI on perforated membrane2Solution, puts into after drying CH3NH3Growth perovskite material is soaked, in the process, perovskite material is grown in TiO in I solution2In the hole of perforated membrane, Form electric transmission-light-absorption layer, and the crystal grain of densification, thickness about 100- can be formed in electric transmission-light-absorption layer upper surface 200nm, this is perovskite light-absorption layer 4.The upper surface topography of light-absorption layer can be adjusted by the concentration controlling solution growth, thus Improve the interfacial structure of the hole transport-light-absorption layer being subsequently formed.The upper surface topography of light-absorption layer mainly passes through following two sides Face is controlling:One is to control PbI2Concentration, two be control CH3NH3The concentration of I reaction solution.By controlling reaction density, energy Access preferable perovskite pattern, the light-absorption layer of densification can be formed, there is higher surface area again.Table in calcium titanium ore bed Face spin coating hole mobile material spiro-MeOTAD(Concentration is 0.17M, and solvent adopts chlorobenzene), coarse with light-absorption layer 4 surface Granule forms hole transport-light-absorption layer 5, thickness about 100-200nm, there is also about 50- on hole transport-light-absorption layer 5 simultaneously The thick hole transmission layer 6 of 300nm, is shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.
4th, using silver, vacuum thermal evaporation 80-150nm is in device upper surface for metal electrode.
Comparative example 1:No composite heterogenous junction structure(p-i-n)Device preparation
1st, prepare perovskite solution, using the PbI of 1.0M2, the CH of 1.0M3NH3I, solvent is dimethylformamide.
2nd, the preparation of device function layer, the main each functional layer including being laminated in substrate and transparency electrode:Electric transmission Layer, light-absorption layer, hole transmission layer, and metal electrode.Preparation process is as follows:
1)Using FTO electro-conductive glass as substrate and transparency electrode, thickness 2-5mm, below 50 ohm of surface resistance;
2)The titanium diisopropoxidebis of 0.15M is coated with using spin-coating method on substrate (acetylacetonate) precursor solution, in Muffle furnace, 350 DEG C~500 DEG C high temperature sintering 30min~90min, obtain thickness The TiO of degree about 10-100nm2Dense film is as electron transfer layer;
3)Perovskite solution is spun on electron transfer layer, by the lower 90 DEG C of annealing of vacuum, forms light-absorption layer.
4)Spin coating hole mobile material spiro-MeOTAD on light-absorption layer(Concentration is 0.17M, and solvent adopts chlorobenzene), obtain Hole transmission layer to thickness about 50-300nm.
3rd, using silver, vacuum thermal evaporation 80-150nm is in device upper surface for metal electrode.
Device performance is tested
The device of no composite heterogenous junction prepared by the device containing composite heterogenous junction that prepare embodiment 1 and comparative example 1 is put Under standard solar simulator, transparency electrode and metal electrode connecting test instrument are tested.
What Fig. 3 was given is the absorption spectrum of perovskite material in device it can be seen that the absorption containing composite heterogenous junction is higher than No composite heterogenous junction, thus reach efficient light capture.
Using in 100mW/cm in experimentation2Solar simulator(Newport)Current-voltage under AM1.5G illumination By current-voltage instrument(Keithley2611)Air at room temperature measures.Measurement result is as shown in figure 4, read V by Fig. 4oc、 Jsc, and calculate FF and η, as shown in table 1.
The volt-ampere performance parameter of table 1 perovskite battery
Describe the perovskite sun based on MULTILAYER COMPOSITE hetero-junctions provided by the present invention above by embodiment in detail Can battery.MULTILAYER COMPOSITE hetero-junctions, on the basis of general p-i-n structure, introduces two-layer mixing material transition zone, defines p-(pi)-i-(in)The heterojunction structure of-n.Such transition layer structure can increase light-absorption layer and electron transfer layer and hole The contact area of transport layer, thus being conducive to the separation of charge in battery to transmit with electric charge, effectively reduces electronics with hole in electricity Compound inside pond, thus improving the performance of device.
It will be understood by those of skill in the art that in the scope without departing from present invention essence, can be to the device of the present invention Part structure makes certain deformation or modification, and its preparation method is also not necessarily limited to the content disclosed in embodiment.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of perovskite solaode, including the substrate stacking gradually, transparency electrode, electron transfer layer, electric transmission-suction Photosphere, light-absorption layer, hole transport-light-absorption layer, hole transmission layer and top electrode, wherein:Described light-absorption layer is to have perovskite knot The photovoltaic material light-absorption layer of structure;It is characterized in that, described perovskite solaode is the perovskite based on double composite heterogenous junctions Solaode, has the multiple structure of p-pi-i-in-n, and wherein composite bed in is described electric transmission-light-absorption layer, is electronics Transmission material and perovskite structure photovoltaic material are fitted together to the complex functional layer of formation;Composite bed pi is described hole transport-extinction Layer, is the complex functional layer that hole mobile material and perovskite structure photovoltaic material are fitted together to formation;In described hole transport-extinction In layer, perovskite structure photovoltaic material is in continuously fine and close zigzag with the chimeric interface of hole mobile material.
2. perovskite solaode as claimed in claim 1 is it is characterised in that described backing material is glass or flexibility is moulded Material;The material of described transparency electrode is indium tin oxide, fluorine tin-oxide or aluminum zinc oxide.
3. perovskite solaode as claimed in claim 1 it is characterised in that described electron transfer layer and electric transmission- Electron transport material in light-absorption layer is metal-oxide.
4. perovskite solaode as claimed in claim 1 is it is characterised in that described electric transmission-light-absorption layer is porous The micro-nano interpenetrating structure that metal-oxide is formed with perovskite structure photovoltaic material.
5. perovskite solaode as claimed in claim 1 is it is characterised in that described perovskite structure photovoltaic material is ABX3The organic inorganic hybridization perovskite of type crystal structure.
6. perovskite solaode as claimed in claim 1 is it is characterised in that described hole transport-light-absorption layer and hole Hole mobile material in transport layer be organic material and/or inorganic material, described organic material be selected from Spiro-MeOTAD, One or more of P3HT, PTAA, TAPC, NPB and TPD;Described inorganic material is selected from CuI, CuSCN, Cu2O、CuO、NiO One or more of with MoOx.
7. perovskite solaode as claimed in claim 1 is it is characterised in that described top electrode is metal electrode or conduction Material with carbon element electrode.
8. the preparation method of the arbitrary described perovskite solaode of claim 1~7, comprises the following steps:
1) adopt electron transport material to prepare dense film on substrate and transparency electrode, form electron transfer layer;
2) utilize electron transport material to form the porous membrane of micro/nano level on the electron transport layer, then grow perovskite structure Photovoltaic material, forms electric transmission-light-absorption layer and light-absorption layer thereon, and the surface topography simultaneously controlling light-absorption layer is in continuously fine and close Zigzag;
3) in surface spin coating or the evaporation hole mobile material of light-absorption layer, hole transport-light-absorption layer and hole thereon are formed Transport layer;
4) top electrode is prepared on hole transmission layer.
9. preparation method as claimed in claim 8 is it is characterised in that in step 2) perovskite structure photovoltaic material is grown on institute State in the hole of porous membrane, form electric transmission-light-absorption layer, and the perovskite structure light growing on described porous membrane Volt material forms light-absorption layer, regulates and controls the upper of light-absorption layer by the concentration controlling the reaction solution of growth perovskite structure photovoltaic material Surface topography, forms continuously fine and close zigzag pattern.
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