CN103733859B - A kind of cassava blooms control technique - Google Patents

A kind of cassava blooms control technique Download PDF

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CN103733859B
CN103733859B CN201410008040.0A CN201410008040A CN103733859B CN 103733859 B CN103733859 B CN 103733859B CN 201410008040 A CN201410008040 A CN 201410008040A CN 103733859 B CN103733859 B CN 103733859B
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cassava
bud
control
regulation
test
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CN103733859A (en
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俞奔驰
罗燕春
李军
黄强
盘欢
郑华
文峰
付海天
陈显双
马崇熙
田益农
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SUBTROPICAL ZONE PLANT INST GUANGXI ZHUANG AUTONOMOUS REGION
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SUBTROPICAL ZONE PLANT INST GUANGXI ZHUANG AUTONOMOUS REGION
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Abstract

The invention belongs to technical field of crop cultivation; be specifically related to a kind of cassava to bloom control technique; it is characterized in that: comprise selection of land wholely; Cultivate administration; regulation florescence; protect flower and regulation and control Proportion of male and female flowers; Pollen Activity measures and test of pollination and crossbreeding; the present invention adopts the method for chemical regulation and artificial agronomic measures regulation and control; obtain the hybrid seed stablizing high-quality; have flowering time early, flowering rate is high, the features such as technical operation is simple, are applicable to China's major part cassava growing area and are cross-breeding.

Description

A kind of cassava blooms control technique
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of crop cultivation, be specifically related to a kind of cassava and bloom control technique.
Background technology
Cassava (Cassava) is shrub shape perennial crop, and one of the world three yampi class, extensively cultivates in subtropical and tropical zones.In China South Subtropical Area of China, cassava is the fifth-largest crop being only second to paddy rice, sweet potato, sugarcane and corn.It is in crop allocation, feed production, and the aspects such as commercial Application have important function, has become the crops of the extensively main producing starch of plantation and feed.Cassava is the block root of euphorbia plant cassava, tapioca root conically, cylindrical or spindle, meat, is rich in starch.Tapioca starch is best in quality, can be edible, or industrial making alcohol, fructose, glucose etc.
At present, in cassava plantation, cross breeding method is the breeding method that cassava generally adopts, and crossbreeding is hybridized between different population, different genotype individuality exactly, and selects the method for required kind in its hybrid generation.Hybridization can make the recombination of genes of parents, excellent genes parents being controlled various trait is incorporated into one, or the different minor genes controlling same proterties in parents are accumulated, generation exceedes the type of parent or forms various different type in this proterties, provides abundant material for selecting improved seeds.Cassava (2N) tool 36 is to dyeing, gene height heterozygosis, cassava crossbreeding, utilize the individuality of the various trait of first familiar generation exactly, select the defect individual of required proterties, because cassava is with planting stem as Reproduction object, institute seed selection offspring there will not be trait segregation, thus crossbreeding is the breeding method of very applicable cassava, and obtains good effect.
In China, Hainan, Guangxi and Guangdong are one of areas that cassava cultivated area is the widest, but, because this area is in monsoon climatic region, subtropics, because of the impact of climatic factor, some kinds can be bloomed, some kinds are not easily bloomed, between the time, difference is also comparatively large, and some times bloom, and some times do not bloom; The cassava florescence is all after September, and major part is after dividing October.Cassava generally needs 70-120 days from pollination to seed maturity.In these areas, cassava just blooms after September, pollinates, and because temperature is low, seed about needs 100-120 days from pollination to maturation.In theory, mid-September is the time diacritical point that pollination is educated in cassava hybridization, the seed of pollinating before critical point, and can meet seed development institute light requirement, warm condition, kernel maturing can reach more than eighty per cant; The seed that critical point is pollinated later, maturity is poor, and by ateliosis, germination rate is low maybe can not germinate.In Guangxi, each kind of flowering naturally cassava, the florescence is most after October, and kernel maturing is poor, and the crossbreeding having a strong impact on this area is normally carried out.In Hainan, although cassava can normally yield positive results, also normal hybrid seed can be obtained, but because typhoon is frequent, cassava easily lodge and typhoon to the damage of flower fringe and seed, not easily obtain long-term, stable hybrid seed source, in other each provinces, situation about running into and Guangxi are substantially identical.These factors, the cassava crossbreeding efficiency of serious restriction China.Past, the cassava breeding agency of China each department mainly obtains hybrid seed from CIAT and Thailand, but the breeding in this strange land, based on the improved seeds of locality for Parent, but kind domain of the existence sex differernce, improved seeds abroad, not necessarily show excellent at home, the breeding of this strange land, is directed at crossbreeding efficiency not high; In recent years; CIAT and Thailand no longer supply hybrid species son; the cassava crossbreeding of China's most area has the crisis of food shortage, finds a kind of cassava cross breeding method being extensively applicable to the cassava growing area of China, becomes a urgent problem.
Summary of the invention
For addressing the deficiencies of the prior art, the invention provides and a kind ofly overcome the cassava crossbreeding later stage and meet the microthermal climate impact bad on seed development, can avoid when relatively tropical coastal area breeding, typhoon is to the loss of hybrid seed, being applicable to the cassava of relative inland area manually to bloom the technology of regulation and control, is also the key technology of the cassava crossbreeding in a kind of cassava relative inland district.
Cassava of the present invention blooms control technique, it is characterized in that: comprise selection of land wholely, Cultivate administration, regulation florescence, protects flower and regulation and control Proportion of male and female flowers, and Pollen Activity measures and test of pollination and crossbreeding, and concrete implementation step is as follows:
(1) selection of land wholely
1. smooth. select barren not too much, chad is few, without ponding, wind sheltering or the soil having woods segment protect, plant in the first tenday period of a month in the first ten-day period of the March to April, within before plantation 1-2 month, carry out ploughing deeply thin rake, allow sunlight fully be exposed to the sun to soil, sterilization, level land;
2. ditch. by seeding row spacing trench digging, the dark 30-40cm of plough soil, ditch dark 20-25cm, plays furrow by line-spacing one meter;
3. the using of base manure. the Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium of described base manure to be every mu of consumption be 500-800kg farmyard manure, 10-12kg urea and 20-25kg N P and K concentration >=40%, fully mix, base manure imposes in the middle of furrow and mixes thoroughly with earth, and furrow face covers 1m broadly film, mulch film surrounding soil compaction;
(2) Cultivate administration
1. the selection of test material. adopt fully aging, stem slubbing is close, bud select intact, fresh, do not damage, otch has milk, the perennial root cassava of anosis worm as cassava bloom regulation and control test material;
2. conservation. temperature is lower than before 12 DEG C or before December 25 in the winter time, and add a cover little arch sky film or little arch sky film adds mulch film isothermal holding, rainy region to the bloom test material of regulation and control of above cassava, need begin to rehearse ditch;
3. put bud extremely to carry out putting bud by the end of March the middle of the month with plantation .3, April, when temperature reaches more than 16 DEG C, open little arch sky film and mulch film, by every strain in mid-March to put by the end of March bud, first remove the old bud gone out before mid-March, to long bud new after mid-March, every strain stays bud 2-3, and the bud stayed gets the not quite identical bud of growth situation, again unnecessary sprouting is removed, all the other Cultivate administrations Cultivate administration routinely;
(3) regulation florescence
1. the using of phosphate fertilizer: temperature rises to after more than 16 DEG C, disposable for 50-100kg fused calcium magnesium phosphate applying in soil is mixed thoroughly by mu:
2. the using of potash fertilizer: in the first tenday period of a month in April to the middle ten days, 16-48L water is converted 80-240g potassium dihydrogen phosphate, obtaining concentration is 0.5-1.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, blade face place sprays 2-3 time, and the time interval is one week;
3. the sprinkling on top and blade face: during plant height 15-25cm, be the phosphate fertilizer solution of 5-20mg/L, the refined sugar solution of 0.5-1.5% and 10% amino acid 500-1000 times liquid by concentration, abundant mixing, to cassava top and foliage spray 1-2 time, the amount of spraying just has been dripped be as the criterion to be squirted blade, and the time interval is one week;
4. flower forcing is sprayed: when plant height 40-60cm in early April to the middle ten days, be the glyphosate solution of 0.05-0.10mg/L by concentration, spend excellent plain 1000 times of liquid and chitin 500 times of liquid, after abundant mixing, cassava top and blade face are sprayed, the amount of spraying just has been dripped be as the criterion to be squirted blade, spray 1 time every 7-10 days, connect spray 2 times;
(4) flower and regulation and control Proportion of male and female flowers is protected
1. chemical regulation: in may the first tenday period of a month in the first tenday period of a month to June early squaring, be the phosphate fertilizer solution of 5-20mg/L, chitin 500 times of liquid and organic fertilizer by concentration, carry out sprinkling 1 time to the bud of cassava and blade face after abundant mixing, the amount of spraying just has been dripped be as the criterion to be squirted blade;
2. artificial agronomic measures regulation and control: budding length 0.8-1cm time, pluck other 3 axillalry buds, only stay bud;
(5) Pollen Activity measures and test of pollination
Put the initial stage the flowers are in blossom, the decoration method of acetic red dyeing and iodine-potassium iodide is adopted to carry out Pollen Activity mensuration and test of pollination to female, the male flower that control technique of blooming above obtains, can stained pollen be vigourous pollen, can inseminate solid, show female, male flower is vigourous;
(6) crossbreeding
By above vigourous female, male flower, carry out hybridization pollination, obtain the hybrid seed of the excellent Parent proterties of tool, as cassava select index material.
The selection of above-described test material adopts perennial root cassava, or the method adopting the whole strain of perennial root Cassava stalk stem band potato to transplant.
When above-described perennial root cassava refers to that cassava is ripe then, do not gather in the crops then, before winter temperature is lower than 12 DEG C or before December 25, cut off the bar stem on cassava top, it is the length of 10-30cm that bar stem is taken from from ground level, the test original material of regulation and control of blooming as cassava.
The whole strain of above-described perennial root Cassava stalk stem band potato is transplanted, refer to when cassava is ripe, do not gather in the crops then, before winter temperature is lower than 12 DEG C or before December 25, cut off the bar stem on cassava top, take from bar stem and tapioca root highly for 10-30cm from ground, the soil in other new selection is transplanted in the whole strain of Cassava stalk stem band potato.
Above-described seeding row spacing adopts 0.8 × 0.8m, 0.8-0.9 × 0.9m or 0.7-0.8 × 1.0m.
Above-describedly excellent element is spent to refer to boron content to be the boron fertilizer of 13%-17% and zinc content to be the micro-fertilizer obtained after zinc fertilizer two kinds of trace element fertilizers mixing of 23%-47%.
Above-described chitin refers to that chitosan or shitosan content are the chitin liquid fertilizer of 30-60g/L.
Above-described organic fertilizer refers to that silk reeling wastewater content is 80 ~ 60 parts, amino acid is 20 ~ 10 parts, N P and K total nutrient content is 10 ~ 5 parts.
Above-described silk reeling wastewater adopts the silk reeling wastewater of discharging after cassava cocoon or mulberry cocoon industry throwing, and through liquid that retting was fermented.
The present invention has following outstanding substantive distinguishing features and significant progress:
1. flowering time early.The present invention adopts perennial root cassava or the whole strain of perennial root Cassava stalk stem band potato to transplant to bloom controlled material as cassava, and the form that little arch sky film or little arch sky film add mulch film carries out heat-insulating and cold process to regulation and control test material of blooming, can rot and accelerate growth of seedling by anti-potato, enter flower bud differentiation period ahead of time, be equipped with the regulate and control method that artificial and agronomic measures combines, as the selection of test material, conservation, put bud, flower forcing is sprayed and is protected the complex art control measures such as flower sprinkling, make cassava can shift to an earlier date 3-4 month to bloom, achieve cassava to bloom in 5-9 month, fully meet high latitude area to the light temperature needed for cassava crossbreeding, condition, the vigourous male and female flowering of a greater number can be produced, overcome flowering naturally, florescence is after October, seed can not be fully grown shortcoming.
2. flowering rate is high, obtains the hybrid seed stablizing high-quality.The present invention adopts perennial root cassava or the whole strain of perennial root Cassava stalk stem band potato to transplant to bloom controlled material as cassava, and encircle the form that little sky film or sky film add mulch film heat-insulating and cold is carried out to controlled material, plant in advance March, the growth period different according to cassava is used and is suitable for different types of fertilizer simultaneously, the various nutritions needed when fully ensure that cassava grows, and then the root block facilitating cassava grows fast, the present invention is adopted manually to bloom control technique, the male and female flowering that there is vigor and pollination power and be applicable to being cross-breeding can be induced, obtain the cassava hybrid seed stablizing high-quality, through test in 2 years, 6 kind flowering rate of the technology of the present invention induced flowering reach 100%, can realize in 5-9 month blooming for 1-2 time.
3, wide adaptability, easily implements.The present invention adopts the method for chemical regulation and artificial agronomic measures regulation and control, regulate and control the florescence that cassava blooms artificially, be conducive to artificial hybridization and avoid typhoon to the loss of hybrid seed, overcome the impact that cassava crossbreeding later stage chance microthermal climate is bad on seed development, thus obtain stable hybrid seed, solve cassava crossbreeding only to carry out in Hainan Province, the present invention is applicable to China's most area completely, especially comparatively high latitude area, the Guangxi in typhoon Shao Fa district, Yunnan, Fujian, the torrid zones such as Guangdong, subtropical zone is extensively carried out, be conducive to cassava localization crossbreeding, improve breeding efficiency, accelerate breeding process, and technical operation is simple, chemical fertilizer formula is easy to get.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment, further detailed description is done to the present invention,
Cassava of the present invention blooms control technique, it is characterized in that: comprise selection of land wholely, Cultivate administration, regulation florescence, protects flower and regulation and control Proportion of male and female flowers, and Pollen Activity measures and test of pollination and crossbreeding, and concrete implementation step is as follows:
(1) selection of land wholely
1. smooth. select barren not too much, chad is few, without ponding, wind sheltering or the soil having woods segment protect, plant in the first tenday period of a month in the first ten-day period of the March to April, within before plantation 1-2 month, carry out ploughing deeply thin rake, sunlight is allowed fully to be exposed to the sun to soil, a large amount of germ and insect and insect ovum etc. can be eliminated, level land;
2. ditch. by seeding row spacing trench digging, the dark 30-40cm of plough soil, ditch dark 20-25cm, and play furrow by line-spacing one meter, described seeding row spacing can adopt 0.8 × 0.8m, 0.8-0.9 × 0.9m or 0.7-0.8 × 1.0m;
3. the using of base manure. the Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium of described base manure to be every mu of consumption be 500-800kg farmyard manure, 10-12kg urea and 20-25kg N P and K concentration >=40%, fully mix, base manure imposes in the middle of furrow and mixes thoroughly with earth, furrow face covers 1m broadly film, mulch film surrounding soil compaction, can foster and apply fertilizer and improve soil, increasing nutrient, ensureing the whole demand of period to nutrient of growing of cassava;
(2) Cultivate administration
1. the selection of test material. adopt fully aging, stem slubbing is close, bud point is intact, fresh, do not damage, otch has milk, the perennial root cassava of anosis worm blooms as cassava the test material of regulation and control, the selection of described test material adopts perennial root cassava, or the method adopting the whole strain of perennial root Cassava stalk stem band potato to transplant, when perennial root cassava refers to that cassava is ripe then, do not gather in the crops then, before winter temperature is lower than 12 DEG C or before December 25, cut off the bar stem on cassava top, bar stem take from from ground level be the length of 10-30cm, as cassava bloom regulation and control test original material, the whole strain of perennial root Cassava stalk stem band potato is transplanted and is referred to when cassava is ripe, do not gather in the crops then, before winter temperature is lower than 12 DEG C or before December 25, cut off the bar stem on cassava top, take from bar stem and tapioca root highly for 10-30cm from ground, the soil in other new selection is transplanted in the whole strain of Cassava stalk stem band potato,
2. conservation. temperature is lower than before 12 DEG C or before December 25 in the winter time, the bloom test material of regulation and control of above cassava is added a cover to little arch sky film or little arch sky film and added mulch film and carry out heat-insulating and cold process, can prevent regulation and control test material from causing rotten because of low temperature and accelerating growth of seedling, enter flower bud differentiation period ahead of time, rainy region, need begin to rehearse ditch;
3. put bud extremely to carry out putting bud by the end of March the middle of the month with plantation .3, early to sprout for good, at the bud that March takes out, generally can induce and bloom 1-2 time in 5-9 month or more than 2 times; The bud taken out April, generally only blooming in 5-9 month 1 time, and induced flowering difficulty is larger, in April, when temperature reaches more than 16 DEG C, open little arch sky film and mulch film, by every strain in mid-March to put by the end of March bud, first remove the old bud gone out before mid-March, to long bud new after mid-March, every strain stays bud 2-3, the bud stayed gets the not quite identical bud of growth situation, then removed by unnecessary sprouting, can elongate the florescence, overcome flowering asynchronism, all the other Cultivate administrations Cultivate administration routinely;
(3) regulation florescence
1. the using of phosphate fertilizer: temperature rises to after more than 16 DEG C, disposable for 50-100kg fused calcium magnesium phosphate applying in soil is mixed thoroughly, be conducive to cassava flower bud differentiation by mu;
2. the using of potash fertilizer: in the first tenday period of a month in April to the middle ten days, 16-48L water is converted 80-240g potassium dihydrogen phosphate, obtaining concentration is 0.5-1.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, spray 1-2 time at cassava top and blade face place, the time interval is one week, disease-resistant, cold-resistant, the drought resisting of cassava and ability resistant to lodging can be strengthened, be conducive to the quality improving male and female flowering.
3. the sprinkling on top and blade face: during plant height 15-25cm, be the phosphate fertilizer solution of 5-20mg/L, the refined sugar solution of 0.5-1.5% and 10% amino acid, 500 times of liquid by concentration, abundant mixing, to cassava top and foliage spray 1-2 time, the amount of spraying just has been dripped be as the criterion to be squirted blade, the time interval is one week, can increase quantity and Female Flower Number that cassava blooms;
4. flower forcing is sprayed: when plant height 40-60cm in early April to the middle ten days, be the glyphosate solution of 0.05-0.10mg/L by concentration, spend excellent plain 1000 times of liquid and chitin 500-1000 times liquid, after abundant mixing, cassava top and blade face are sprayed, the amount of spraying just has been dripped be as the criterion to be squirted blade, 1 time is sprayed every 7-10 days, connect spray 2 times, Nutrient Absorption can be promoted, strengthen nutrition, the growth busy trend of cassava can be broken to the glyphosate solution of cassava sprinkling low concentration, create the environment being conducive to blooming, can induce and promote cassava early flowering, after general spray about 15-30 days, bud can be showed, cassava can be induced to bloom in 5-9 month, the first batch of florescence is at the beginning of mid-May to 6 month, about 30 days florescences, before July, most kind reaches 100%, avoid because high latitude and winter low temperature are on the impact of seed development, it is that the boric acid of 0.05%-0.2% or borax soln and solution of zinc sulfate two kinds of trace elements are fertile at interior micro-solution that described Hua Yousu refers to containing concentration, described chitin refers to that chitosan or shitosan content are the chitin liquid fertilizer of 30-60g/L,
(4) flower and regulation and control Proportion of male and female flowers is protected
1. chemical regulation: in may the first tenday period of a month in the first tenday period of a month to June early squaring, be the phosphate fertilizer solution of 5-20mg/L, chitin 500-1000 times liquid and organic fertilizer by concentration, after abundant mixing, sprinkling is carried out 1 time to the bud of cassava and blade face, the amount of spraying just has been dripped be as the criterion to be squirted blade, Nutrient Absorption, enhancing nutrition, pre-insect-pest can be promoted, improve disease resistance, be conducive to the ratio that female Floral development is formed and regulates and controls male and female flowering; Described chitin refers to that chitosan or shitosan content are the chitin liquid fertilizer of 30-60g/L, and described organic fertilizer refers to that silk reeling wastewater content is 80 ~ 60 parts, amino acid is 20 ~ 10 parts, N P and K total nutrient content is 5 ~ 10 parts; Described silk reeling wastewater adopts the silk reeling wastewater of discharging after cassava cocoon or mulberry cocoon industry throwing, and through liquid that retting was fermented;
2. artificial agronomic measures regulation and control: budding length 0.8-1cm time, pluck other 3 axillalry buds, only stay bud, inflorescence abortion or degeneration that nutrition inequality causes can be overcome, be conducive to female Floral development and formed and regulation and control Proportion of male and female flowers;
(5) Pollen Activity measures and test of pollination
Put the initial stage the flowers are in blossom, adopt the decoration method of acetic red dyeing and iodine-potassium iodide to the female of control technique acquisition that bloom above, male flower carries out Pollen Activity mensuration and test of pollination, can stained pollen be vigourous pollen, can inseminate solid, show female, male flower is vigourous, can be used as crossbreeding material, choose and newly select 048, south plants 199, GR891, SC205, SC5, SC124 six kinds are as regulation and control test kind, the decoration method of acetic red dyeing and iodo-potassium iodide is adopted to carry out Pollen Activity mensuration to above six kinds, measurement result exhibits vigour higher, average vigor is respectively 96.8 % and 96.4 %, adopt natural crossing, average ripening rate is 48.3%, show that pollen is vigourous, be suitable as crossbreeding,
(6) crossbreeding
By above vigourous female, male flower, carry out hybridization pollination, obtain the hybrid seed of the excellent Parent proterties of tool, as cassava select index material.
Embodiment 1:
Cassava of the present invention blooms control technique, comprises following technical step:
(1) selection of land wholely
1. smooth. select barren not too much, chad is few, without ponding, wind sheltering or the soil having woods segment protect, plant in the first tenday period of a month in the first ten-day period of the March to April, within before plantation 1-2 month, carry out ploughing deeply thin rake, allow sunlight fully be exposed to the sun to soil, sterilization, level land;
2. ditch. by seeding row spacing trench digging, the dark 30-40cm of plough soil, ditch dark 20-25cm, and seeding row spacing adopts 0.8 × 0.8m, plays furrow by line-spacing one meter;
3. the using of base manure. the Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium of described base manure to be every mu of consumption be 500-800kg farmyard manure, 10-12kg urea and 20-25kg N P and K concentration >=40%, fully mix, base manure imposes in the middle of furrow and mixes thoroughly with earth, and furrow face covers 1m broadly film, mulch film surrounding soil compaction;
(2) Cultivate administration
1. the selection of test material. adopt fully aging, stem slubbing is close, bud select intact, fresh, do not damage, otch has milk, the perennial root cassava of anosis worm as cassava bloom regulation and control test material;
2. conservation. temperature is lower than before 12 DEG C or before December 25 in the winter time, and add a cover little arch sky film or little arch sky film adds mulch film isothermal holding, rainy region to the bloom test material of regulation and control of above cassava, need begin to rehearse ditch;
3. put bud extremely to carry out putting bud by the end of March the middle of the month with plantation .3, April, when temperature reaches more than 16 DEG C, open little arch sky film and mulch film, by every strain in mid-March to put by the end of March bud, first remove the old bud gone out before mid-March, to long bud new after mid-March, every strain stays bud 2-3, and the bud stayed gets the not quite identical bud of growth situation, again unnecessary sprouting is removed, all the other Cultivate administrations Cultivate administration routinely;
(3) regulation florescence
1. the using of phosphate fertilizer: temperature rises to after more than 16 DEG C, disposable for 50-100kg fused calcium magnesium phosphate applying in soil is mixed thoroughly by mu:
2. the using of potash fertilizer: in the first tenday period of a month in April to the middle ten days, 16-48L water is converted 80-240g potassium dihydrogen phosphate, obtaining concentration is 0.5-1.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, blade face place sprays 2-3 time, and the time interval is one week;
3. the sprinkling on top and blade face: during plant height 15cm, be the phosphate fertilizer solution of 5mg/L, the refined sugar solution of 0.5% and 10% amino acid, 500 times of liquid by concentration, fully mix, to cassava top and foliage spray 1-2 time, the amount of spraying just has been dripped be as the criterion to be squirted blade, and the time interval is one week;
4. flower forcing is sprayed: when plant height 40cm in early April to the middle ten days, be the glyphosate solution of 0.05mg/L by concentration, boron content is the boron fertilizer of 13% and chitin 500 times of liquid of zinc content to be the micro-fertile 1000 times of liquid and chitosan that obtain after zinc fertilizer two kinds of trace element fertilizers mixing of 23% or shitosan content be 30g/L, after abundant mixing, cassava top and blade face are sprayed, the amount of spraying just has been dripped be as the criterion to be squirted blade, spray 1 time every 7-10 days, connect spray 2 times;
(4) flower and regulation and control Proportion of male and female flowers is protected
1. chemical regulation: in may the first tenday period of a month in the first tenday period of a month to June early squaring, the silk reeling wastewater content that chitin 500 times of liquid of to be the phosphate fertilizer solution of 5mg/L, chitosan or shitosan content by concentration be 30g/L and retting were fermented is 80 parts, the organic fertilizer of amino acid/11 5 parts, N P and K total nutrient content 10 parts, carry out sprinkling 1 time to the bud of cassava and blade face after abundant mixing, the amount of spraying just has been dripped be as the criterion to be squirted blade;
2. artificial agronomic measures regulation and control: budding length 0.8-1cm time, pluck other 3 axillalry buds, only stay bud;
(5) Pollen Activity measures and test of pollination
Put the initial stage the flowers are in blossom, the decoration method of acetic red dyeing and iodine-potassium iodide is adopted to carry out Pollen Activity mensuration and test of pollination to female, the male flower that control technique of blooming above obtains, can stained pollen be vigourous pollen, can inseminate solid, show female, male flower is vigourous;
(6) crossbreeding
By above vigourous female, male flower, carry out hybridization pollination, obtain the hybrid seed of the excellent Parent proterties of tool, as cassava select index material.
Embodiment 2:
Cassava of the present invention blooms control technique, comprises following technical step:
(1) selection of land wholely
1. smooth. select barren not too much, chad is few, without ponding, wind sheltering or the soil having woods segment protect, plant in the first tenday period of a month in the first ten-day period of the March to April, within before plantation 1-2 month, carry out ploughing deeply thin rake, allow sunlight fully be exposed to the sun to soil, sterilization, level land;
2. ditch. by seeding row spacing trench digging, the dark 30-40cm of plough soil, ditch dark 20-25cm, and seeding row spacing adopts 0.8-0.9 × 0.9m, plays furrow by line-spacing one meter;
3. the using of base manure. the Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium of described base manure to be every mu of consumption be 500-800kg farmyard manure, 10-12kg urea and 20-25kg N P and K concentration >=40%, fully mix, base manure imposes in the middle of furrow and mixes thoroughly with earth, and furrow face covers 1m broadly film, mulch film surrounding soil compaction;
(2) Cultivate administration
1. the selection of test material. adopt fully aging, stem slubbing is close, bud select intact, fresh, do not damage, otch has milk, regulation and control of blooming as cassava are transplanted in the whole strain of the perennial root Cassava stalk stem band potato of anosis worm test material;
2. conservation. temperature is lower than before 12 DEG C or before December 25 in the winter time, and add a cover little arch sky film or little arch sky film adds mulch film isothermal holding, rainy region to the bloom test material of regulation and control of above cassava, need begin to rehearse ditch;
3. put bud extremely to carry out putting bud by the end of March the middle of the month with plantation .3, April, when temperature reaches more than 16 DEG C, open little arch sky film and mulch film, by every strain in mid-March to put by the end of March bud, first remove the old bud gone out before mid-March, to long bud new after mid-March, every strain stays bud 2-3, and the bud stayed gets the not quite identical bud of growth situation, again unnecessary sprouting is removed, all the other Cultivate administrations Cultivate administration routinely;
(3) regulation florescence
1. the using of phosphate fertilizer: temperature rises to after more than 16 DEG C, disposable for 50-100kg fused calcium magnesium phosphate applying in soil is mixed thoroughly by mu:
2. the using of potash fertilizer: in the first tenday period of a month in April to the middle ten days, 16-48L water is converted 80-240g potassium dihydrogen phosphate, obtaining concentration is 0.5-1.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, blade face place sprays 2-3 time, and the time interval is one week;
3. the sprinkling on top and blade face: during plant height 20cm, be the phosphate fertilizer solution of 10mg/L, the refined sugar solution of 1.0% and 10% amino acid, 500 times of liquid by concentration, fully mix, to cassava top and foliage spray 1-2 time, the amount of spraying just has been dripped be as the criterion to be squirted blade, and the time interval is one week;
4. flower forcing is sprayed: when plant height 50cm in early April to the middle ten days, be the glyphosate solution of 0.07mg/L by concentration, boron content is the boron fertilizer of 15% and chitin 1000 times of liquid of zinc content to be the micro-fertile 1000 times of liquid and chitosan that obtain after zinc fertilizer two kinds of trace element fertilizers mixing of 35% or shitosan content be 60g/L, after abundant mixing, cassava top and blade face are sprayed, the amount of spraying just has been dripped be as the criterion to be squirted blade, spray 1 time every 7-10 days, connect spray 2 times;
(4) flower and regulation and control Proportion of male and female flowers is protected
1. chemical regulation: in may the first tenday period of a month in the first tenday period of a month to June early squaring, chitin 1000 times of liquid of to be the phosphate fertilizer solution of 10mg/L, chitosan or shitosan content by concentration be 60g/L and through the silk reeling wastewater content that retting was fermented be 70 parts, the organic fertilizer of 20 parts, amino acid, N P and K total nutrient content 8 parts, carry out sprinkling 1 time to the bud of cassava and blade face after abundant mixing, the amount of spraying just has been dripped be as the criterion to be squirted blade;
2. artificial agronomic measures regulation and control: budding length 0.8-1cm time, pluck other 3 axillalry buds, only stay bud;
(5) Pollen Activity measures and test of pollination
Put the initial stage the flowers are in blossom, the decoration method of acetic red dyeing and iodine-potassium iodide is adopted to carry out Pollen Activity mensuration and test of pollination to female, the male flower that control technique of blooming above obtains, can stained pollen be vigourous pollen, can inseminate solid, show female, male flower is vigourous;
(6) crossbreeding
By above vigourous female, male flower, carry out hybridization pollination, obtain the hybrid seed of the excellent Parent proterties of tool, as cassava select index material.
Embodiment 3:
Cassava of the present invention blooms control technique, comprises following technical step:
(1) selection of land wholely
1. smooth. select barren not too much, chad is few, without ponding, wind sheltering or the soil having woods segment protect, plant in the first tenday period of a month in the first ten-day period of the March to April, within before plantation 1-2 month, carry out ploughing deeply thin rake, allow sunlight fully be exposed to the sun to soil, sterilization, level land;
2. ditch. by seeding row spacing trench digging, the dark 30-40cm of plough soil, ditch dark 20-25cm, and seeding row spacing adopts 0.7-0.8 × 1.0m, plays furrow by line-spacing one meter;
3. the using of base manure. the Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium of described base manure to be every mu of consumption be 500-800kg farmyard manure, 10-12kg urea and 20-25kg N P and K concentration >=40%, fully mix, base manure imposes in the middle of furrow and mixes thoroughly with earth, and furrow face covers 1m broadly film, mulch film surrounding soil compaction;
(2) Cultivate administration
1. the selection of test material. adopt fully aging, stem slubbing is close, bud select intact, fresh, do not damage, otch has milk, regulation and control of blooming as cassava are transplanted in the perennial root cassava of anosis worm or the whole strain of perennial root Cassava stalk stem band potato test material;
2. conservation. temperature is lower than before 12 DEG C or before December 25 in the winter time, and add a cover little arch sky film or little arch sky film adds mulch film isothermal holding, rainy region to the bloom test material of regulation and control of above cassava, need begin to rehearse ditch;
3. put bud extremely to carry out putting bud by the end of March the middle of the month with plantation .3, April, when temperature reaches more than 16 DEG C, open little arch sky film and mulch film, by every strain in mid-March to put by the end of March bud, first remove the old bud gone out before mid-March, to long bud new after mid-March, every strain stays bud 2-3, and the bud stayed gets the not quite identical bud of growth situation, again unnecessary sprouting is removed, all the other Cultivate administrations Cultivate administration routinely;
(3) regulation florescence
1. the using of phosphate fertilizer: temperature rises to after more than 16 DEG C, disposable for 50-100kg fused calcium magnesium phosphate applying in soil is mixed thoroughly by mu:
2. the using of potash fertilizer: in the first tenday period of a month in April to the middle ten days, 16-48L water is converted 80-240g potassium dihydrogen phosphate, obtaining concentration is 0.5-1.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, blade face place sprays 2-3 time, and the time interval is one week;
3. the sprinkling on top and blade face: during plant height 25cm, be the phosphate fertilizer solution of 20mg/L, the refined sugar solution of 1.5% and 10% amino acid, 500 times of liquid by concentration, fully mix, to cassava top and foliage spray 1-2 time, the amount of spraying just has been dripped be as the criterion to be squirted blade, and the time interval is one week;
4. flower forcing is sprayed: when plant height 60cm in early April to the middle ten days, be the glyphosate solution of 0.10mg/L by concentration, boron content is the boron fertilizer of 17% and chitin 800 times of liquid of zinc content to be the micro-fertile 1000 times of liquid and chitosan that obtain after zinc fertilizer two kinds of trace element fertilizers mixing of 47% or shitosan content be 50g/L, after abundant mixing, cassava top and blade face are sprayed, the amount of spraying just has been dripped be as the criterion to be squirted blade, spray 1 time every 7-10 days, connect spray 2 times;
(4) flower and regulation and control Proportion of male and female flowers is protected
1. chemical regulation: in may the first tenday period of a month in the first tenday period of a month to June early squaring, chitin 800 times of liquid of to be the phosphate fertilizer solution of 20mg/L, chitosan or shitosan content by concentration be 50g/L and through the silk reeling wastewater content that retting was fermented be 60 parts, the organic fertilizer of amino acid/11 0 part, N P and K total nutrient content 5 parts, carry out sprinkling 1 time to the bud of cassava and blade face after abundant mixing, the amount of spraying just has been dripped be as the criterion to be squirted blade;
2. artificial agronomic measures regulation and control: budding length 0.8-1cm time, pluck other 3 axillalry buds, only stay bud;
(5) Pollen Activity measures and test of pollination
Put the initial stage the flowers are in blossom, the decoration method of acetic red dyeing and iodine-potassium iodide is adopted to carry out Pollen Activity mensuration and test of pollination to female, the male flower that control technique of blooming above obtains, can stained pollen be vigourous pollen, can inseminate solid, show female, male flower is vigourous;
(6) crossbreeding
By above vigourous female, male flower, carry out hybridization pollination, obtain the hybrid seed of the excellent Parent proterties of tool, as cassava select index material.
Embodiment 4
The present invention selects different cultivars cassava to carry out artificial regulatory same flowering naturally of blooming to carry out Experimental Comparison, result of the test: in table 1, table 2;
Table 1: the artificial regulatory of different cultivars cassava is bloomed same flowering naturally data statistics result
Table 2:6 kind flowering naturally and artificial regulatory are bloomed statistics,
Male flower quantity Female Flower Number Hermaphrodite flower quantity To bloom number of times Abloom rate %
Flowering naturally 44.8 3.6 0 0.67 28.3
Artificial regulatory 63.2 6.0 7.8 2.2 100
Improve percentage % 41.1 66.7 —— 198.5 253.4
Can be found out by test above, the present invention regulates and controls cassava and blooms and have multiple advantage: artificial regulatory bloom hero, Female Flower Number is more than flowering naturally; And the hermaphrodite flower shown unique characteristics can be formed, hermaphrodite flower also can be cross-breeding; Number of times of blooming also there are differences, the number of times that artificial regulatory is bloomed than free flowering more than one times often, and the florescence have notable difference, artificial regulatory blooms the florescence in the 5-12 month, generally can bloom the 5-9 month 2 times, and the natural opening florescence is in the 9-12 month, the major part florescence is after October.
Method that to be a little this technology bloom as a kind of regulation and control of cassava crossbreeding that the present invention protects, has independent intellectual property right, without license or technology transfer, can not carry out identical regulation and control and to bloom method, be cross-breeding.

Claims (8)

1. cassava blooms a regulate and control method, it is characterized in that: comprise selection of land wholely, Cultivate administration, regulation florescence, protects flower and regulation and control Proportion of male and female flowers, and Pollen Activity measures and test of pollination and crossbreeding, and concrete implementation step is as follows:
(1) selection of land wholely
1. smooth: select barren not too much, chad is few, without ponding, wind sheltering or the soil having woods segment protect, plant in the first tenday period of a month in the first ten-day period of the March to April, within before plantation 1-2 month, carry out ploughing deeply thin rake, allow sunlight fully be exposed to the sun to soil, sterilization, level land;
2. ditch: by seeding row spacing trench digging, the dark 30-40cm of plough soil, ditch dark 20-25cm, plays furrow by line-spacing one meter;
3. the using of base manure: the Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium of described base manure to be every mu of consumption be 500-800kg farmyard manure, 10-12kg urea and 20-25kg N P and K concentration >=40%, fully mix, base manure imposes in the middle of furrow and mixes thoroughly with earth, and furrow face covers 1m broadly film, mulch film surrounding soil compaction;
(2) Cultivate administration
1. the selection of test material: adopt fully aging, stem slubbing is close, bud select intact, fresh, do not damage, otch has milk, the perennial root cassava of anosis worm as cassava bloom regulation and control test material;
2. conservation: temperature is lower than before 12 DEG C or before December 25 in the winter time, add mulch film isothermal holding, rainy region to the bloom test material little arch sky film of regulation and control of above cassava, need begin to rehearse ditch;
3. bud and plantation is put: mid-March is to carrying out putting bud by the end of March, April, when temperature reaches more than 16 DEG C, open little arch sky film and mulch film, by every strain in mid-March to put by the end of March bud, first remove the old bud gone out before mid-March, to long bud new after mid-March, every strain stays bud 2-3, and the bud stayed gets the not quite identical bud of growth situation, again unnecessary sprouting is removed, all the other Cultivate administrations Cultivate administration routinely;
(3) regulation florescence
1. the using of phosphate fertilizer: temperature rises to after more than 16 DEG C, disposable for 50-100kg fused calcium magnesium phosphate applying in soil is mixed thoroughly by mu;
2. the using of potash fertilizer: in the first tenday period of a month in April to the middle ten days, 16-48L water is converted 80-240g potassium dihydrogen phosphate, obtaining concentration is 0.5-1.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, blade face place sprays 2-3 time, and the time interval is one week;
3. the sprinkling on top and blade face: during plant height 15-25cm, be the phosphate fertilizer solution of 5-20mg/L, the refined sugar solution of 0.5-1.5% and 10% amino acid, 500 times of liquid by concentration, abundant mixing, to cassava top and foliage spray 1-2 time, the amount of spraying just has been dripped be as the criterion to be squirted blade, and the time interval is one week;
4. flower forcing is sprayed: when plant height 40-60cm in early April to the middle ten days, be the glyphosate solution of 0.05-0.10mg/L by concentration, spend excellent plain 1000 times of liquid and chitin 500-1000 times liquid, after abundant mixing, cassava top and blade face are sprayed, the amount of spraying just has been dripped be as the criterion to be squirted blade, spray 1 time every 7-10 days, connect spray 2 times; It is the boron fertilizer of 13%-17% and zinc content is the micro-fertilizer obtained after zinc fertilizer two kinds of trace element fertilizers mixing of 23%-47% that described Hua Yousu refers to boron content;
(4) flower and regulation and control Proportion of male and female flowers is protected
1. chemical regulation: in may the first tenday period of a month in the first tenday period of a month to June early squaring, be the phosphate fertilizer solution of 5-20mg/L, chitin 500 times of liquid and organic fertilizer by concentration, carry out sprinkling 1 time to the bud of cassava and blade face after abundant mixing, the amount of spraying just has been dripped be as the criterion to be squirted blade;
2. artificial agronomic measures regulation and control: budding length 0.8-1cm time, pluck other 3 axillalry buds, only stay bud;
(5) Pollen Activity measures and test of pollination
Put the initial stage the flowers are in blossom, the decoration method of acetic red dyeing and iodine-potassium iodide is adopted to carry out Pollen Activity mensuration and test of pollination to female, the male flower that regulate and control method of blooming above obtains, can stained pollen be vigourous pollen, can inseminate solid, show female, male flower is vigourous;
(6) crossbreeding
By above vigourous female, male flower, carry out hybridization pollination, obtain the hybrid seed of the excellent Parent proterties of tool, as cassava select index material.
2. cassava according to claim 1 blooms regulate and control method, it is characterized in that: in the selection step of described test material or adopt the whole strain of perennial root Cassava stalk stem band potato to transplant to bloom as cassava the test material of regulation and control.
3. cassava according to claim 1 blooms regulate and control method, it is characterized in that: when described perennial root cassava refers to that cassava is ripe then, do not gather in the crops then, before winter temperature is lower than 12 DEG C or before December 25, cut off the bar stem on cassava top, it is the length of 10-30cm that bar stem is taken from from ground level, the test original material of regulation and control of blooming as cassava.
4. cassava according to claim 2 blooms regulate and control method, it is characterized in that: the whole strain of described perennial root Cassava stalk stem band potato is transplanted, refer to when cassava is ripe, do not gather in the crops then, before winter temperature is lower than 12 DEG C or before December 25, cut off the bar stem on cassava top, take from bar stem and tapioca root highly for 10-30cm from ground, the soil in other new selection is transplanted in the whole strain of Cassava stalk stem band potato.
5. cassava according to claim 1 blooms regulate and control method, it is characterized in that: seeding row spacing adopts 0.8 × 0.8m, 0.8-0.9 × 0.9m or 0.7-0.8 × 1.0m.
6. cassava according to claim 1 blooms regulate and control method, it is characterized in that: described chitin refers to that chitosan or shitosan content are the chitin liquid fertilizer of 30-60g/L.
7. cassava according to claim 1 and 2 blooms regulate and control method, it is characterized in that: described organic fertilizer refers to that silk reeling wastewater content is 80 ~ 60 parts, amino acid is 20 ~ 10 parts, N P and K total nutrient content is 10 ~ 5 parts.
8. cassava according to claim 7 blooms regulate and control method, it is characterized in that: described silk reeling wastewater is the silk reeling wastewater of discharging after adopting cassava cocoon or mulberry cocoon industry throwing, and through liquid that retting was fermented.
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