CN103731967A - Plasma back field strengthening rail - Google Patents

Plasma back field strengthening rail Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103731967A
CN103731967A CN201410028250.6A CN201410028250A CN103731967A CN 103731967 A CN103731967 A CN 103731967A CN 201410028250 A CN201410028250 A CN 201410028250A CN 103731967 A CN103731967 A CN 103731967A
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China
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gradient
plasma
outer rail
rail
track
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CN201410028250.6A
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Chinese (zh)
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王厚生
陈顺中
李献
李兰凯
庞占忠
戴银明
王秋良
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中国科学院电工研究所
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Publication of CN103731967A publication Critical patent/CN103731967A/en

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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E30/00Energy generation of nuclear origin
    • Y02E30/10Fusion reactors
    • Y02E30/12Magnetic plasma confinement [MPC]
    • Y02E30/126Other reactors with MPC

Abstract

A plasma back field strengthening rail is characterized by comprising main rails and gradient outer rails. The main rails are two parallel metal rails which are arranged horizontally, and the gradient outer rails are single-side gradient outer rails which are arranged in pairs symmetrically on the upper and lower sides of the main rails. The plasma back field strengthening rail generates a magnetic field with a gradient along the forward direction which compresses the plasma in the propulsion direction and offsets the divergence effect of the plasma in the high-temperature and high-pressure expansion state.

Description

一种等离子体背场增强轨道 A plasma BSF enhanced track

技术领域 FIELD

[0001 ] 本发明涉及一种等离子体电磁轨道装置。 [0001] The present invention relates to a plasma electromagnetic rail means.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 等离子轨道直线推进是利用强脉冲电流(几十kA甚至几MA级)形成磁场与电流相互的洛伦兹力,将两条导电轨道间的等离子体加速并推射出去的装置,等离子体可以由本地等离子体发生器产生,也可以通过其他方式预先注入到发射腔内,然后脉冲电源通过轨道与等离子构成的回路开始放电,将等离子加速前进。 [0002] Plasma orbit linear thrust is the use of intense pulsed currents (tens kA or even several MA stage) form a magnetic field with a current mutual Lorentz force, the plasma between the two conductive tracks to accelerate and apparatus tuishe out plasma body may be generated by the local plasma generator may be previously injected into the emission chamber by other means, and the pulse loop power constituted by a rail and plasma discharge is started, plasma accelerate progress. 等离子加速具有超高出口速度的特点,理论上能够把被推进物体加速到20-30km/s,两团小颗粒对撞,实现可控的核聚变反应。 Characteristics of the plasma accelerator with ultra-high outlet velocity, in theory, be able to be advanced object accelerated to 20-30km / s, two groups of small particles of the collision, to achieve controlled fusion reaction.

[0003] 传统的等离子体推进装置有两条互相平行的金属主轨道,由专门的等离子体发生或者注入装置在两根主轨道之间的一端产生或者注入一团等离子体,同时这一端也是电源接线端,电源对两条主轨道高压放电,等离子体与两条主轨道形成放电回路,等离子体受到安培力或者洛伦兹力被推射出去,安培力的大小F=BIL,这里B为主轨道间的磁感应强度,由回路中的电流产生,I为运行电流,L为等离子体的等效宽度。 [0003] The conventional plasma propulsion apparatus has two mutually parallel metallic main track, generated by special plasma or injection means generating or injecting a cloud of plasma at one end between the two main tracks, while the one end is the power terminals, power supply to the two main rail high-pressure discharge plasma and the two main tracks form a discharge circuit, the plasma by the ampere force or Lorentz force is Tui out, ampere force of magnitude F = BIL, where B-based magnetic induction between the tracks, produced by the circuit current, I is the operating current, L is equivalent to the width of the plasma. 为了提高等离子体受到的加速力F,可以在主轨道上下两侧增加背景磁场轨道(简称背场轨道),背场轨道与等离子体不接触,自身回路闭合,其中的运行电流产生的磁场与主轨道产生的磁场叠加,提高了磁感应强度B,在I和L不变的情况下,提高了等离子体受到的加速力F。 In order to improve the acceleration force F plasma subjected can be increased in the upper and lower sides of the main track background magnetic track (referred to as a back surface field tracks), BSF track and the plasma is not in contact, their circuit is closed, the magnetic field of the main of which the operating current generated magnetic field trajectory generator superposition increases the magnetic flux density B, in the case of I and L constant, improving the acceleration forces plasma subjected F. 这里背景磁场简称背场,添加背场轨道的方式简称背场增强,考虑到等离子体在与前进方向相垂直的其他方向上受力平衡,一般是相对主轨道对称地成对添加背场轨道。 Here background magnetic field referred back field, add back field track manner referred back surface field enhancement, consider the plasma force balance in the other direction perpendicular to the advance direction, is generally added respect to the main track symmetrically in pairs BSF track. 等离子轨道推进装置具有结构与控制简单,容易加工制造,出口速度高等优点,目前国际上最高能做到7km/s以上。 Plasma orbit propulsion apparatus having a simple structure and control, easy manufacturing, the exit speed advantages, currently the highest can be done 7km / s or more.

[0004] 传统的等离子体推进装置中,由于等离子体自身的高温高压状态具有膨胀扩散特性,以及在前进过程中受稀薄气体的冲击,等离子体会出现发散现象,在前进方向上分布越拉越长,整体推力下降,甚至在主等离子体后面分裂成二次等离子体,彻底分流,造成出口速度和发射效率下降。 [0004] The conventional plasma propulsion apparatus, since the plasma itself a high-temperature high-pressure state having expanded diffusion properties, as well as by the impact of lean gas, the plasma will be blooming during advancement, the longer the distribution is pulled in the forward direction the overall thrust loss, and even split into secondary plasma behind the main plasma, completely split, resulting exit velocity and emission efficiency.

[0005]目前国内相关等离子体推射的装置均为单独主轨道模式,如图1所示。 [0005] It means domestic tuishe plasma are separate master track mode, as shown in FIG. 王莹,肖峰在《电炮原理》(国防工业出版社,pp339,pp58-63)中概念性地提到等离子体推进装置中添加背场增强轨道模式,背场轨道平行于主轨道上下设置,背场轨道产生的磁场在等离子体前进的方向上不具备梯度,那么背景磁场对等离子体只能提供推力,等离子体本身前进过程中会膨胀扩散,最终导致推力和整体效率下降。 Wang Ying, Xiao Feng in the "electric gun principle" (National Defense Industry Press, pp339, pp58-63) conceptually mentioned plasma propulsion device is added back field enhancement track mode, the back field track parallel to the main track up and down settings , magnetic BSF trajectory generator does not have a gradient in the direction of the plasma advancing, the background magnetic field on the plasma can only provide the thrust forward during expands diffusion plasma itself, eventually leading to thrust and overall efficiency. 图2所示为传统背场增强轨道与主轨道相互位置关系。 Figure 2 shows a conventional back surface field enhancement mutual positional relationship between the track and the main track.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0006] 本发明的目的是克服现有技术的等离子前进过程中膨胀扩散的缺点,提出一种新的等离子背场增强轨道。 [0006] The object of the present invention to overcome the disadvantages of the prior art plasma diffusion proceeds during the expansion, a new field enhanced plasma back track. 本发明在等离子体前进方向上除了形成背场基础磁场,还存在背场磁场的梯度分布,这样,等离子体在前进过程中除了受到推进力之外,还会在前进方向上被压缩,不会发散,分裂,而是密度越来越高,推力集中,等离子体推进的出口速度,即轨道末端速度,以及等离子体推进效率都大大提高。 The present invention is in the forward direction in addition to the plasma to form a back base magnetic field, there is a gradient magnetic field distribution of the back, so that, in addition to being a plasma propulsion, will be compressed in the forward direction during the advance, is not divergence, split, but higher density, thrust concentration, plasma thruster exit velocity, that end of the track speed, as well as plasma propulsion efficiency are greatly enhanced.

[0007] 本发明的具体结构如下: Specific structure [0007] of the present invention are as follows:

[0008] 传统的等离子体推进轨道一般为水平布置的两根金属主轨道,或者在主轨道外与之平行地添加背场轨道,传统的背场轨道为与主轨道平行上下对称布置的平行金属轨道。 [0008] The conventional plasma advancing two metal main rail track is generally horizontally disposed, or add back field rail parallel thereto outside the main track, parallel metal traditional back surface field tracks with the main track parallel vertically arranged symmetrically track. 本发明提出了几种不同的背场轨道模式,在主轨道之外,附加有梯度外轨。 The present invention provides several different back surface field track mode, in addition to the main track, additional graded outer rail. 所述的梯度外轨有渐开型梯度轨道、收缩型梯度外轨或者多层递减型梯度轨道等形式。 Outside said gradient rail has the form of an involute type gradient track, a shrink gradient outer rail or multilayer decreasing gradient-track or the like. 梯度外轨有两重功效,第一是产生与主轨道磁场叠加的增强助推磁场,第二是在等离子体的前进方向上,等离子体的受力密度从前向后梯度增加,也就是等离子体的加速度从前向后梯度增加,亦即沿等离子体的前进方向,等离子体的受力密度和加速度递减,背场增强轨道都能够在等离子体的前进方向上形成磁场梯度,梯度外轨的对等离子体在推进方向上产生压缩,抵消其高温高压膨胀状态下的发散作用。 Gradient outer rail has two effects, the first is to produce the reinforcing assist magnetic main track field superposed, and the second is in the forward direction of the plasma, the force density by plasma fore to aft gradient increases, i.e. plasma acceleration front to back gradient increases, i.e., the forward direction of the plasma, force density by the plasma and the acceleration down, back field enhancement track can form a magnetic field gradient in the advancing direction of the plasma, the gradient of the outer rail of the plasma body compressive in the thrust direction cancel divergent action at the high temperature high pressure expanded state.

[0009] 本发明等离子背场增强轨道包括主轨道和梯度外轨。 Ion BSF [0009] The present inventors reinforcing rail comprises a main rail and the gradient of the outer rail. 所述的主轨道为水平布置的两根平行的金属轨道。 Said main track is horizontally arranged two parallel metal tracks. 所述的梯度外轨由对称地成对布置于主轨道上下两侧的单边梯度外轨组成。 Outside the gradient of rail by a symmetrically arranged in pairs on unilateral gradient main track down the sides of the outer rail components. 为了产生梯度磁场,梯度外轨有如下几种结构模式: To generate the gradient magnetic field outside the gradient rails are the following structure model:

[0010] 1、渐开型:梯度外轨与主轨道不平行,在等离子前进方向上梯度外轨与主轨道之间的距离越来越大,距离的变化量为线性,即每条单边梯度外轨是直线; [0010] 1, involute type: gradient outside rail of the main track is not parallel to the plasma advancing direction of the gradient of the outer rail of the main track between the distance increases, the distance variation is linear, that each unilateral gradient outer rail is a straight line;

[0011] 2、渐开型的变形:与渐开型相同,沿等离子前进方向梯度外轨与主轨道间距离越来越大,但距离变化量非线性,即每条单边梯度外轨是向外弯曲的; [0011] 2. Modification involute type: ion traveling direction of the involute type same along isocratic between the outer rail and the main rail from increasing, but the distance variation nonlinear, i.e. each unilateral gradient outer rail is outwardly curved;

[0012] 3、收缩型:每条单边梯度外轨的两根金属轨道间不平行,在等离子体前进方向上越收越窄; [0012] 3, a shrink: not parallel between each unilateral gradient outer rail two metal tracks, the yield in the plasma advancing direction becomes narrower;

[0013] 4、多层递减型:由多层多对梯度轨道组成;梯度外轨的层数沿等离子前进方向递减;每层梯度外轨均与主轨道平行,每层梯度外轨的单边梯度外轨的长度等离子体前进方向递减,每层梯度外轨的单边梯度外轨与主轨道的距离沿等离子体前进方向递减。 [0013] 4, the multilayer decreasing type: a multilayer, multi-gradient orbitals; decreasing gradient of the outer rail layers along the plasma advancing direction; each gradient outer rails are parallel to the main track, each gradient outer rail unilateral decreasing the gradient of the outer rail longitudinal plasma advancing direction, each from the gradient of the outer rail unilateral gradient outer rail and the main rail along the plasma advancing direction decremented.

[0014] 5、复合型:以上几种梯度外轨复合使用,比如既是渐开又是收缩型,等等。 [0014] 5. The compound: several Gradient outer rail compound used above, such as both involute and contraction type, and the like.

[0015] 本发明可应用于等离子体电磁推进领域。 [0015] The present invention is applicable to a plasma electromagnetic propulsion field.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0016] 图1、传统的只有主轨道的等离子体装置的轨道示意图,其中图1a为侧视图,图1b为俯视图; [0016] FIG. 1, a conventional only track plasma apparatus main track schematic, wherein Figure 1a is a side view, Figure 1b is a plan view;

[0017] 图2、传统背场增强轨道与主轨道相互位置关系,其中图2a为侧视图,图2b为俯视图; [0017] FIG. 2, the conventional back field enhancing mutual positional relationship between the track and the main track, wherein Figure 2a is a side view, Figure 2b is a plan view;

[0018] 图3、本发明渐开型梯度轨道与主轨道关系示意图,其中图3a为侧视图,图3b为俯视图; [0018] FIG. 3, the present invention involute type schematic gradient track and the main track relationship in which FIG. 3a a top side view, FIG. 3b is a graph;

[0019] 图4本发明变形的渐开型梯度外轨与主轨道关系示意图,其中图4a为侧视图,图4b为俯视图; [0019] FIG. 4 of the present invention modified involute type schematic gradient outer rail of the main track relationship in which FIG. 4a is a side view, FIG. 4b is a plan view;

[0020]图5本发明收缩型梯度轨道与主轨道关系示意图,其中图5a为侧视图,图5b为俯视图; [0020] Shrinkage invention Gradient track and the main track diagram 5 a schematic view, wherein Figure 5a is a side view, Figure 5b is a plan view;

[0021] 图6本发明多层递减型梯度外轨与主轨道关系示意图,其中图6a为侧视图,图6b为俯视图;[0022]图7本发明一种复合型梯度轨道与主轨道关系示意图,其中图7a为侧视图,图7b为俯视图; [0021] The gradient of the outer rail of the main track the relationship between a schematic view of six multi-layered invention decrement type, wherein FIG 6a is a side view, Figure 6b is a plan view; [0022] A complex gradient track and the main track the relationship between FIG. 7 of the present invention a schematic , wherein FIG. 7a is a side view, FIG. 7b is a plan view;

[0023] 图中:1主轨道,2梯度外轨,图中从左至右为等离子前进方向,左端为梯度外轨电源正负极引线端,简称引线端,右端为梯度外轨等离子体推进的出口端,简称出口端,3为传统背场增强的背场轨道。 [0023] FIG: main track 2 gradient outer rail, FIG forward direction from left to right the plasma, the left gradient outer rail power supply positive and negative electrode lead terminal, referred to as the lead end, the right end of the gradient outer rail plasma thruster the outlet end, referred to as the outlet end, 3 traditional back field enhancement BSF track.

具体实施方式 Detailed ways

[0024] 下面结合附图和具体实施方式对本发明作进一步说明。 [0024] The present invention will be further described in conjunction with the accompanying drawings and specific embodiments.

[0025] 设等离子体在前进方向上尺寸膨胀速度为Ve的精确值计算比较复杂,但可以通过零磁通线圈或者B-dot线圈等手段实际测量获取, [0025] The size of the expansion rate of the plasma is provided Ve exact value calculation is more complicated in the forward direction, but can be measured by means of obtaining the actual zero flux coil or coils B-dot,

[0026] [0026]

Figure CN103731967AD00051

[0027] 其中B为等离子体所在位置的磁通密度,L为其等效宽度,dq为等离子体微单元的电荷量,m为等离子体微单元的质量,dt为时间积分微元。 [0027] wherein B is a position of the plasma where the magnetic flux density, L its equivalent width, dq is the amount of charge in Plasma units, m is a mass of plasma microcells, dt is the time integral infinitesimal. 只要Vs>Ve,则前进方向上具备梯度的背场增强模式就对等离子体的扩散具备压缩作用。 Includes gradients as long as Vs> Ve, then the traveling direction of the back surface field enhancement mode includes a compression effect on the plasma dispersion.

[0028] 本发明等离子背场增强轨道包括主轨道和梯度外轨。 Ion BSF [0028] The present inventors reinforcing rail comprises a main rail and the gradient of the outer rail. 所述的主轨道为两根平行的金属轨道。 Said main track is two parallel metal tracks. 所述的梯度外轨由对称布置于主轨道上下两侧的单边梯度外轨组成。 The gradient of the outer rail arranged symmetrically on both sides of the main gradient unilateral external vertical rail track components. 所述的梯度外轨有如下几种结构模式: Gradient outer rail there are several structural model according to:

[0029] 1、渐开型,如图3所示,渐开型梯度轨道的单边梯度外轨与主轨道之间自引线端至出口端存在张开的倾斜角度,梯度外轨与主轨道不平行,在等离子体前进方向上梯度外轨与主轨道之间的距离越来越大,距离的变化量为线性,即每条单边梯度外轨是直线; [0029] 1, involute type shown in Figure 3, since the lead end between the outer rail and the main gradient unilateral orbital involute type gradient to track the presence of the inclination angle of the outlet end open, the outer rail of the main track gradient non-parallel, gradient of the distance between the outer rail and the main rail is growing in the plasma advancing direction, the amount of change in the distance is linear, i.e. each outside unilateral gradient rail is a straight line;

[0030] 2、渐开型的变形,如图4所示,这种结构其实是第一种渐开型的变形,单边梯度外轨自引线端至出口端沿等离子体前进方向与主轨道之间的距离非线性渐开,沿等离子体前进方向梯度外轨与主轨道间距离越来越大,但距离变化量非线性,即每条单边梯度外轨是向外弯曲的; [0030] 2, involute type modification, shown in Figure 4, this structure is actually a first involute type deformation, unilateral gradient outer rail from lead end to the outlet end along the plasma advancing direction of the main track from non-linearity between the involute, along the plasma advancing direction gradient between the outer rail and the main rail from increasing, but the distance variation nonlinear, i.e. each outside unilateral gradient rail is outwardly bent;

[0031] 3、收缩型,如图5所示,上下对称布置的梯度轨道与主轨道平行,但梯度外轨的两条单边轨道之间的距离自引线端至出口端逐渐收缩,在等离子体前进方向上越收越窄,收缩的方式可以线性收缩也可以以其他形式收缩; [0031] 3, a shrink, a gradient of the track and the main track parallel vertically symmetrical arrangement shown in Figure 5, but the distance between the gradient of the outer rail two sided track from the lead end to the outlet end tapers, in the plasma the advancing direction thereof less and less narrow, contracted ways linear shrinkage may be contracted in other forms;

[0032] 4、多层递减型,如图6所示,多层递减型的梯度外轨为多层轨道型,由多层梯度外轨组成。 [0032] 4, decreasing the multilayer type, as shown in FIG. 6, a multilayered decreasing gradient type multilayer rail track type, composed of an outer rail multilayer gradient. 每层梯度外轨均与主轨道平行,每层梯度轨道的单边梯度外轨的长度沿等离子体前进方向递减,每层梯度轨道与主轨道的距离沿等离子体前进方向递减,梯度外轨的层数沿等离子体前进方向递减; Outer each gradient rail are the main parallel to the rail, decreasing outer rail length unilateral gradient of each gradient track along the plasma advancing direction, from each gradient rail and the main rail along the plasma advancing decreasing direction, the gradient of the outer rail layers along the plasma advancing direction decreasing;

[0033] 5、复合型,为以上各种型式的复合使用,如渐开型与收缩型复合使用,如图7所 [0033] 5. The compound, the composite using the above various types, such as involute type and contraction of composite use, Figure 7

/Jn ο / Jn ο

[0034]以上几种模式的梯度轨道与主轨道电流方向相同,除了产生与主轨道磁场叠加的增强磁场,提高对等离子体的推力之外,几种增强轨道模式都能在等离子体的前进方向上形成磁场梯度,梯度外轨的梯度沿等离子体的前进方向为负值,沿等离子体的前进方向降低,也就是说,等离子体前进过程中,后部受到的推力总比前面的大,等离子体在前进方向被压缩,不会发散,受力密度增大,也就避免了出现等离子体分裂。 [0034] The gradient of the track and the main track the current in the same direction over several modes, in addition to the field strengthening, improving the thrust of the plasma generating main track field superimposed several enhanced traveling direction of track mode can be in the plasma formed magnetic field gradient, the forward direction of the gradient of the outer rail gradient along the plasma is negative, lowered in the forward direction of the plasma, i.e., the plasma during the advance, the front thrust than to the rear by a large, plasma is compressed in the forward direction, not diverge, the force density increases, thus avoiding the emergence of plasma division. [0035] 以上几种梯度轨道模式可以复合使用,如图7,就是渐开和收缩型组合应用形成的新模式,等等。 [0035] Several more gradient track mode can be complex to use, as shown, it is gradually open and contract type in combination to form a new model, and so on.

[0036] 以上几种梯度增强背场轨道模式中主轨道可以和梯度轨道共用一个电源,也可以分别使用不同的电源。 Several [0036] more gradient enhanced BSF track mode main track may share one power source and a gradient of the track may use a different power source, respectively.

[0037] 本发明提出的等离子背场增强,轨道除了能够加强主轨道间的推进磁场强度,又能产生前进方向的磁场梯度,既可以增大推力,又可以在推进的同时抑制等离子体的膨胀发散。 [0037] The present invention is proposed to enhance the plasma back field, in addition to reinforcing the track advancing magnetic field strength between the main track, but also the gradient magnetic field is generated in the forward direction, the thrust may be increased, and can suppress expansion of the plasma while advancing divergence.

Claims (2)

1.一种等离子体背场增强轨道,其特征在于,所述的等离子体背场增强轨道包括主轨道和梯度外轨;所述的主轨道为水平布置的两根平行的金属轨道;所述的梯度外轨由对称地成对布置于主轨道上下两侧的单边梯度外轨组成;所述的梯度外轨的梯度沿前进方向为负值,背场增强轨道产生沿前进方向的磁场梯度。 A plasma back surface field enhancement track, wherein the plasma back field enhancement track comprises a main track and a gradient of an outer rail; and said primary rail is horizontally arranged two parallel metal tracks; the extragradient rail consisting arranged symmetrically in pairs unilateral gradient main track down the sides of the outer rail composition; gradient outer rail gradient along the advancing direction is negative, the back field enhancement trajectory generator in the forward direction of the magnetic field gradient .
2.根据权利要求1所述的等离子体背场增强轨道,其特征在于,所述的梯度轨道有以下几种结构模式: 1)渐开型:梯度外轨与主轨道不平行,在等离子前进方向上梯度外轨与主轨道之间的距离越来越大,距离的变化量为线性,即梯度外轨相对于轨道倾斜,每条单边梯度外轨是直线.2)渐开型的变形:沿等离子前进方向,梯度外轨与主轨道间距离越来越大,距离变化量非线性,即梯度外轨相对于主轨道倾斜,每条单边梯度外轨向外弯曲; 3)收缩型:每条单边梯度外轨的两根金属轨道间不平行,在等离子体前进方向上越收越窄; 4)多层递减型:由多层多对梯度外轨组成,每层梯度外轨均与主轨道平行,每层梯度外轨的单边梯度外轨的长度沿等离子体前进方向递减,每层梯度外轨与主轨道的距离沿等离子体前进方向递减,梯度外轨的层数由沿等离子体前进方向递减 According to claim 1 plasma back surface field enhancement track, characterized in that the gradient of the track has the following structural model claims: 1) the involute type: Gradient outer rail of the main track is not parallel advances in plasma gradient between the outer rail and the main rail from the direction of increasing the amount of change in the distance is linear, i.e. gradient outer rail relative to the track is inclined, each unilateral gradient outer rail is straight .2) involute type modification : along the plasma advancing direction, between the gradient of the outer rail of the main track distance increases, the distance change amount nonlinear, i.e. gradient outer rail with respect to the primary rail is inclined, each unilateral gradient outer rail outwardly curved; 3) shrinkage : between each unilateral gradient outer rail two metal tracks are not parallel, in the plasma advancing direction of the yield becomes narrower; 4) the multilayer decreasing type: a multilayer, multi-gradient outer rails composition, each gradient outer rail are main track parallel, each in the forward direction of the plasma gradient outer rail unilateral gradient outer rail length decreasing, each gradient decreasing along the plasma advancing direction from the outer rail and the main rail, the gradient of the outer rail layers made along decreasing plasma advancing direction 5)复合型:所述I)至4)几种梯度外轨复合使用。 5) Compound: The I) to 4) of several gradient outer rail in combination.
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