CN103714239B  Method for computing lightning induced voltages of insulators of lowvoltage lines when earth is struck by lightning  Google Patents
Method for computing lightning induced voltages of insulators of lowvoltage lines when earth is struck by lightning Download PDFInfo
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 CN103714239B CN103714239B CN201310568019.1A CN201310568019A CN103714239B CN 103714239 B CN103714239 B CN 103714239B CN 201310568019 A CN201310568019 A CN 201310568019A CN 103714239 B CN103714239 B CN 103714239B
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 239000012212 insulator Substances 0.000 title claims abstract description 65
 206010042255 Struck by lightning Diseases 0.000 title abstract 2
 230000005672 electromagnetic field Effects 0.000 claims abstract description 18
 230000005540 biological transmission Effects 0.000 claims description 18
 239000004020 conductor Substances 0.000 claims description 8
 238000000034 method Methods 0.000 claims description 7
 230000005684 electric field Effects 0.000 claims description 6
 230000001939 inductive effect Effects 0.000 claims description 6
 238000009413 insulation Methods 0.000 claims description 5
 230000000694 effects Effects 0.000 claims description 4
 239000000758 substrate Substances 0.000 claims description 3
 239000002131 composite material Substances 0.000 abstract 1
 238000004364 calculation method Methods 0.000 description 5
 238000004458 analytical method Methods 0.000 description 3
 239000007769 metal material Substances 0.000 description 2
 241000272165 Charadriidae Species 0.000 description 1
 239000000470 constituent Substances 0.000 description 1
 230000001808 coupling Effects 0.000 description 1
 238000010168 coupling process Methods 0.000 description 1
 238000005859 coupling reaction Methods 0.000 description 1
 230000005611 electricity Effects 0.000 description 1
 238000005516 engineering process Methods 0.000 description 1
 239000002184 metal Substances 0.000 description 1
 239000002689 soil Substances 0.000 description 1
 230000001052 transient Effects 0.000 description 1
Abstract
The invention discloses a method for computing lightning induced voltages of insulators of lowvoltage lines when the earth is struck by lightning. The method for computing the voltages includes respectively computing lightning induced voltages of two ends of each insulator to acquire potential difference between two points of the insulator. The potential difference between the two points of each insulator is the lightning induced voltage born by the insulator. The potential difference between the two points of each insulator is computed by means of computing of surrounding space electromagnetic fields of lightning current channels, computing lightning induced voltages of overhead distribution lines, computing induced lightning voltages of towers and subtracting the computed induced lightning voltages of the towers from the computed lightning induced voltages of the overhead distribution lines so as to compute the lightning induced voltages and composite voltages of the insulators. The method has the advantages that the method is a complete theoretical method for computing the lightning induced voltages of the insulators of the lowvoltage lines when the earth is struck by the lightning, accordingly, an existing gap in theoretical research is filled, a reference basis can be provided for selecting models of insulators of lowvoltage distribution lines, and lightning protection levels of the lines can be improved.
Description
Technical field
The present invention relates to lowvoltage circuit insulator lightning induced voltage computational methods during a kind of thunderbolt the earth, belong to low pressure and join
The lightning Protection Design of electric line and Insulator Selection field.
Background technology
Insulator plays an important role in built on stilts electric line, be used to support and fixing live wire and
Make there is enough distances and insulation between live wire or wire and the earth.Insulator one termination runs phase conductor, other end
Extension bar tower.The total voltage that insulator bears under normal circumstances is substantially equal to the working voltage of phase conductor.Ground near thunderbolt shaft tower
During face, powerful thunder and lightning transient electromagnetic pulse (lemp) can produce induced voltage on electric line and metal shaft tower, thus
The voltage that impact insulator is born.For ultrahightension power transmission line, lightning induced voltage is compared little for the pressure voltage of insulator
A lot, insulator is not resulted in and significantly affect.But the lowvoltage distributing line for 35kv and level below, insulator resistance to
Voltage levels ratio is relatively low, and when lightning induced voltage and the opposite polarity of power frequency operation voltage, the voltage that insulator is born just has
Can exceed thatu _{50%}Impulse sparkover voltage, causes insulation flashover or causes tripping operation.Lightning induced voltage causes power failure or line
The major accident of road broken string, brings significant impact to the power supply reliability and safety of power system, brings pole to resident living
Inconvenience greatly.
The existing more research of lightning induced voltage that prior art is formed on overhead transmission line for thunderbolt ground, but
It is to adopt frequency domain analysises conventional research more, thunder and lightning electromagnetic wave is considered as uniform plane wave and acts on circuit.In fact, only
Circuit apart from lightning channel quite remote apart from when, could will be solved using uniform plane wave.Obviously, occur on hand
Thunderbolt more strong to the coupling of circuit it is therefore desirable to innovatory algorithm, solve the space of the neighbouring non homogen field of lightning channel
Distribution.On the other hand, scholar is also had to carry out Theoretical Calculation to the lightning induced voltage of insulator during thunderbolt shaft tower.But from mesh
From the point of view of front literature search, the substantially analysis also without reference to insulator induced lightening voltage during thunderbolt ground and calculating.According to
From the point of view of the lowvoltage distributing line accident analysis statistical data of below 35kv, because thunder and lightning induction voltage causes line flashover
Account for sizable proportion with insulation damages, the therefore lightning Protection Design of lowvoltage distributing line and Insulator Selection is intuitively important, and
Its design is firstly the need of the problem solving with the foundation (computational methods) of type selecting.
Content of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is: the timedomain calculation of insulator induced lightening voltage when providing a kind of thunderbolt ground
Method, and it is superimposed with the power frequency operation voltage of wire, the total voltage that assessment insulator is born, thus be lowvoltage distributing line
Lightning Protection Design and Insulator Selection provide reference frame, can overcome the deficiencies in the prior art.
Lowvoltage circuit insulator lightning induced voltage computational methods when the technical scheme is that a kind of thunderbolt the earth,
During thunderbolt ground, Lightning Electromagnetic Fields are towercoupled with exposure overhead distribution line therein and metallic rod, on distribution line and shaft tower
Induced voltage, insulator one terminated wires, other end extension bar tower all can be produced, this voltage computational methods is to calculate insulation respectively
The lightning induced voltage at sub two ends, obtains 2 points of potential differences, the lightning induced voltage that as insulator is born；It obtains at 2 points
Potential difference need to be by following calculating: lightning current channel circumference spatial electromagnetic field computation, overhead distribution line lightning induced voltage calculate,
Shaft tower induced lightening voltage calculates, and deducts shaft tower induced lightening voltage by the calculating of overhead distribution line lightning induced voltage and calculates and can obtain
Insulator lightning induced voltage and conjunction voltage calculate.
During abovementioned thunderbolt the earth, lowvoltage circuit insulator lightning induced voltage computational methods are, lightning current channel circumference is empty
Between Electromagnetic Calculation propose using differential form maxwell governing equation, carry out numerical value in conjunction with Fdtd Method (fdtd)
The computational methods solving；
Calculating process is:
1) determine substrate thunder and lightning stream function, determine lightning current returnstroke model；
2) fight back the antenna that lightning current is considered as placing perpendicular to ground, there is cylindrosymmetry, using twodimentional cylindrical coordinate
Row write the maxwell governing equation of differential form:
3) stress and strain model is carried out to time and space, using centered difference approximate representation differential, obtain each electromagnetic field and divide
The fdtd iterative equation of amount:
According to Ampere circuit law, lightning current is fought back on passagee _{ z }Component format is as follows:
Active area:
Passive region:
4) improve mur absorbing boundary condition, derive the fdtd iterative equation of boundary:
EdgezDirection:
EdgerDirection:
In formula:For Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse air or underground spread speed.
During aforesaid thunderbolt the earth, lowvoltage circuit insulator lightning induced voltage computational methods are, overhead distribution line thunder and lightning sense
Answer voltage to calculate and be proposed for the agrawal fieldline coupled time domain models leading transmission line, using on fdtd Algorithm for Solving circuit more
Arbitrarily focus induced voltage at any time；
Calculating process is:
1) the equivalent electric parameter according to wire type, overhead transmission line geometry solution threephase circuit；
2) set up lead transmission line agrawal fieldline termination power model, wherein Lightning Electromagnetic Fields to the effect of circuit with
Spread voltage source form embodies；
3) set up and lead transmission line time domain telegraph equation containing distributed source more
4) setting distribution line top and end boundary condition are it is considered to electric field vertical component is on line end vertical conductor
Produced voltage
5) slidingmodel control is carried out to transmission line time domain telegraph equation, boundary condition using fdtd thought, derive iteration
Equation.
6) solve the lightning induced voltage on distribution wire
.
During aforesaid thunderbolt the earth, lowvoltage circuit insulator lightning induced voltage computational methods are, shaft tower lightning induced voltage
Calculate and thunder and lightning electric field vertical component is integrated to insulator position along shaft tower, shaft tower lightning induced voltage can be obtained；
.
During aforesaid thunderbolt the earth, lowvoltage circuit insulator lightning induced voltage computational methods are, insulator lightning induction
Voltage and total voltage calculate after the distribution wire lightning induced voltage trying to achieve insulator position and shaft tower lightning induced voltage,
Twoendpoint potential difference is taken to be achieved with insulator lightning induced voltage:
If the working voltage of phase conductor is, then the conjunction voltage that insulator instantaneously bears is:
.
Compared with the prior art, invention proposes lowvoltage circuit when complete theoretical method calculates thunderbolt the earth
Insulator lightning induced voltage, compensate for the blank of existing theoretical research, can provide for the Insulator Selection of lowvoltage distributing line
Reference frame, improves the lightning protection level of circuit.There is important academic research and engineering application value.
Proposed the numerical solution algorithm based on fdtd, arbitrary target points mesh on distribution line can be calculated in office one instantaneous
Lightning induced voltage, have that computational accuracy is high, speed is fast, quantifiable feature.
Brief description
Fig. 1 is the calculation flow chart of the present invention；
Fig. 2 is to set up to lead transmission line agrawal fieldline termination power illustraton of model more.
Specific embodiment
Embodiment, the present invention proposes lowvoltage circuit insulator lightning induction when complete theoretical method calculates thunderbolt the earth
Voltage, compensate for the blank of existing theoretical research.
During thunderbolt ground, Lightning Electromagnetic Fields are towercoupled with exposure overhead distribution line therein and metallic rod, in distribution line
With induced voltage all can be produced on shaft tower.Insulator one terminated wires, other end extension bar tower.Calculate insulator two ends respectively
Lightning induced voltage, obtains 2 points of potential differences, the lightning induced voltage that as insulator is born, calculation process is as shown in Figure 1.
Wherein, theoretical modeling and numerical computations mainly comprise four parts: lightning current channel circumference spatial electromagnetic field computation, frame
Empty distribution wire lightning induced voltage calculating, shaft tower induced lightening voltage, insulator lightning induced voltage and conjunction voltage calculate.
1. lightning current channel circumference spatial electromagnetic field computation
In view of analysis is to liking the insulator hanging at shaft tower, need to obtain the thunder and lightning electromagnetism of shaft tower place adhoc location
Field intensity, and it also requires considering its timevarying characteristics, it is proposed that using differential form maxwell governing equation, in conjunction with when
Domain finite difference (fdtd) carries out the computational methods of numerical solution.
Concrete calculating process is:
1) determine substrate thunder and lightning stream function, determine lightning current returnstroke model
2) fight back lightning current and can be considered the antenna placed perpendicular to ground, there is cylindrosymmetry, can be sat using twodimensional columns
The serial maxwell governing equation writing differential form of mark:
3) stress and strain model is carried out to time and space, using centered difference approximate representation differential, obtain each electromagnetic field and divide
The fdtd iterative equation of amount:
According to Ampere circuit law, lightning current is fought back on passagee _{ z }Component format is as follows:
Active area:
Passive region:
4) improve mur absorbing boundary condition, derive the fdtd iterative equation of boundary:
EdgezDirection:
EdgerDirection:
In formula:For Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse air or underground spread speed.
Main technological improvement is to consider the impact to electromagnetic propagation for the actual the earth, improves boundary condition setting, to sky
The parameter such as the electrical conductivity of gas and the earth interface and dielectric constant is weighted average treatment.
The feature of this computational methods is can to consider lightning current, lightning channel characteristic parameter, the situation of earth electricity parameter
Under, a direct solution impact point instantaneous Lightning Electromagnetic Fields component in office in time domain.
2. overhead distribution line lightning induced voltage calculates
It is exposed to the overhead distribution line in Lightning Electromagnetic Fields, receive the energy of thunder and lightning by electromagnetic coupled, be converted into circuit
On overvoltage.Additionally, for many guiding systems, also there is between wire the effect of intercoupling.In order to accurately calculate threephase alternating current
Lightning induced voltage on circuit, is proposed for the agrawal fieldline coupled time domain models leading transmission line more, then adopts
Any focus induced voltage at any time on fdtd Algorithm for Solving circuit.
Concrete calculating process is:
1) the equivalent electric parameter according to wire type, overhead transmission line geometry solution threephase circuit
2) set up and lead transmission line agrawal fieldline termination power model (shown in Fig. 2) more, wherein Lightning Electromagnetic Fields are to line
The effect on road is embodied with spread voltage source form
3) set up and lead transmission line time domain telegraph equation containing distributed source more
4) setting distribution line top and end boundary condition are it is considered to electric field vertical component is on line end vertical conductor
Produced voltage
5) slidingmodel control is carried out to transmission line time domain telegraph equation, boundary condition using fdtd thought, derive iteration
Equation.
6) solve the lightning induced voltage on distribution wire
The feature of this computational methods be can on direct solution distribution line in time domain arbitrary target points in office one instantaneous
Lightning induced voltage, and the factors such as wire type, circuit geometry, soil constituent of can analyzing are to circuit lightning induction
The impact of voltage.
3. shaft tower lightning induced voltage calculates
If shaft tower is to be made up of metal material or contain metal material, it is exposed in Lightning Electromagnetic Fields and can produce faradism
Pressure.Thunder and lightning electric field vertical component is integrated to insulator position along shaft tower, shaft tower lightning induced voltage can be obtained.
4. insulator lightning induced voltage and total voltage calculate
After the distribution wire lightning induced voltage trying to achieve insulator position and shaft tower lightning induced voltage, take twoendpoint
Potential difference is achieved with insulator lightning induced voltage:
If the working voltage of phase conductor is, then the conjunction voltage that insulator instantaneously bears is:
Claims (4)
1. lowvoltage circuit insulator lightning induced voltage computational methods during a kind of thunderbolt the earth, during thunderbolt ground, Lightning Electromagnetic Fields
Towercoupled with exposure overhead distribution line therein and metallic rod, induced voltage all can be produced on distribution line and shaft tower, insulation
Sub terminated wires, other end extension bar tower it is characterised in that: this voltage computational methods is to calculate the thunder at insulator two ends respectively
Electric induction voltage, obtains 2 points of potential differences, the lightning induced voltage that as insulator is born；It obtains 2 points of potential differences and need to lead to
Cross following calculating: lightning current channel circumference spatial electromagnetic field computation, overhead distribution line lightning induced voltage calculate, shaft tower induced lightening
Voltage calculates, and deducts the calculating of shaft tower induced lightening voltage by the calculating of overhead distribution line lightning induced voltage and can obtain insulator thunder and lightning
Induced voltage and conjunction voltage calculate；Lightning current channel circumference spatial electromagnetic field computation proposes the maxwell control using differential form
Equation processed, carries out the computational methods of numerical solution in conjunction with Fdtd Method (fdtd)；
Calculating process is:
1) determine substrate thunder and lightning stream function, determine lightning current returnstroke model；
2) fight back the antenna that lightning current is considered as placing perpendicular to ground, there is cylindrosymmetry, write using twodimentional cylindrical coordinate row
The maxwell governing equation of differential form:
3) stress and strain model is carried out to time and space, using centered difference approximate representation differential, obtain each electromagnetic field component
Fdtd iterative equation:
According to Ampere circuit law, lightning current is fought back on passagee _{ z }Component format is as follows:
Active area:
Passive region:
4) improve mur absorbing boundary condition, derive the fdtd iterative equation of boundary:
EdgezDirection:
EdgerDirection:
In formula:For Lightning Electromagnetic Pulse air or underground spread speed.
2. lowvoltage circuit insulator lightning induced voltage computational methods, its feature during thunderbolt the earth according to claim 1
It is: overhead distribution line lightning induced voltage calculates and is proposed for the agrawal fieldline coupled time domain models leading transmission line more,
Using focus induced voltage at any time any on fdtd Algorithm for Solving circuit；
Calculating process is:
1) the equivalent electric parameter according to wire type, overhead transmission line geometry solution threephase circuit；
2) set up lead transmission line agrawal fieldline termination power model, wherein Lightning Electromagnetic Fields to the effect of circuit to be distributed
Voltage source form embodies；
3) set up and lead transmission line time domain telegraph equation containing distributed source more
4) setting distribution line top and end boundary condition are it is considered to electric field vertical component is produced on line end vertical conductor
Raw voltage
5) slidingmodel control is carried out to transmission line time domain telegraph equation, boundary condition using fdtd thought, derive iterative equation；
6) solve the lightning induced voltage on distribution wire
.
3. lowvoltage circuit insulator lightning induced voltage computational methods, its feature during thunderbolt the earth according to claim 1
It is: shaft tower lightning induced voltage calculates and integrates to insulator position thunder and lightning electric field vertical component along shaft tower, can obtain shaft tower thunder
Electric induction voltage；
.
4. lowvoltage circuit insulator lightning induced voltage computational methods, its feature during thunderbolt the earth according to claim 1
It is: insulator lightning induced voltage and total voltage calculate and try to achieve the distribution wire lightning induced voltage of insulator position
After shaft tower lightning induced voltage, twoendpoint potential difference is taken to be achieved with insulator lightning induced voltage:
If the working voltage of phase conductor is, then the conjunction voltage that insulator instantaneously bears is:
.
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Address after: 550001 Jiefang Road, Nanming, Guizhou, No. 32, Patentee after: ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF GUIZHOU POWER GRID CO., LTD. Address before: 550002 Jiefang Road, Guizhou, No. 251, Patentee before: Guizhou Power Test Institute 

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