CN103708672A - An efficient purification method of heavy-metal waste water by combining plants and enrichment by a composite filling material - Google Patents

An efficient purification method of heavy-metal waste water by combining plants and enrichment by a composite filling material Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103708672A
CN103708672A CN201210378948.1A CN201210378948A CN103708672A CN 103708672 A CN103708672 A CN 103708672A CN 201210378948 A CN201210378948 A CN 201210378948A CN 103708672 A CN103708672 A CN 103708672A
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heavy metal
plant
water
waste water
heavy
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颜昌宙
董小霞
王灶生
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Institute of Urban Environment of CAS
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Institute of Urban Environment of CAS
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/10Biofuels, e.g. bio-diesel

Abstract

The invention relates to an ecological management method for efficient purification of low-concentration heavy-metal waste water, wherein enrichment by a composite filling material is cooperated with combination of aquatic plants of different biotypes. Specifically, the compound filling material comprising gravel, natural zeolite and modified zeolite according to a ratio and emergent aquatic plants are adopted to construct constructed wetlands, the constructed wetlands, ecological floating beds and aquatic plant ponds are combined in series to purify the heavy-metal waste water efficiently, and the plants after purification treatment are collected and used for preparing charcoal.

Description

A kind of method of collaborative compounded mix enrichment and plant efficient purification of heavy metal waste water
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of method of collaborative compounded mix enrichment and different life-form waterplant combining and configuring high-efficient purification low concentration heavy metal waters, concrete compounded mix and the emergent structure artificial swamp that adopts gravel, natural zeolite and modified zeolite proportioning, and carrying out combined serial high-efficient purification heavy metal polluted waste water with biological floating bed and Aquatic-plant Pond, the plant after collection and purification are processed is used for making charcoal.Present method belongs to the technical field of water pollution control of environmental protection technology.
Background technology
Along with the continuous quickening of industrialization and urbanization process, China's heavy metal contamination is also the gesture growing in intensity.The heavy metal Environment Pollution Event of China frequently occurs (as Chinese Ministry of Environmental Protection in 2009 12 the heavy metal contamination events of being informed of a case altogether in recent years, these events cause that 4035 people's blood leads exceed standard, 182 people's cadmiums exceed standard, cause 32 Mass disturbances), particularly the pollution such as cadmium (Cd), plumbous (Pb), copper (Cu) highlights day by day, cause the severe contamination of zonal agricultural land soil and water ecosystem, this is serious threat resident's health not only, and caused severe social influence, have a strong impact on construction of harmonious society, become the important bottleneck of national the Implement of sustainable development strategy.Heavy Metal Pollution Control technology mainly comprises [1-4] such as chemical precipitation method, oxidation reduction process, ion exchange method, electrochemical process, membrane separation technique, evaporation and freezing method, solvent extration, reverse osmosis method and electroosmose processs at present.Yet for low concentration heavy metal water or micropollutant water, it is high that these methods have control expense, operation difficulty and inefficient shortcoming, cause secondary pollution [4-6] but also can produce a large amount of mud.Emerging phytoremediation technology is a kind of technology of utilizing self-sow or heredity to cultivate plants repairing heavy metal pollution water body or heavy metal wastewater thereby.Because of its economy, efficient and environmental protection, be subject to increasing attention, there is very high development prospect [7,8], at present existing relevant large quantity research.Scholars more both domestic and external to Herba Eichhorniae ( eichhornia crassipes), Canna generalis Bailey, water lettuce, cattail, water spinach, water peanut, potarnogeton lucens ( potamogeton lucens), black algae ( hydrilla verticillata), Haloragidaceae Myriophyllum spicatum ( myriophyllum spicatum), hornwort ( ceratophyllum demersum) etc. ability, characteristic parameter and the influence factor etc. of waterplant removal heavy metal carried out experimental study [9-15].In addition, some scholars have also further inquired into waterplant to the tolerance of heavy metal and physiological responses [16-18], and the mechanism of waterplant adsorption/absorption heavy metal and migration metabolic mechanism have been carried out to comparatively deep, systematic research [19-23].Aspect the applied research of recovery project, Artificial Wetland Techniques and biological pond engineering [24-28] have mainly been adopted.In sum, current correlative study is mainly for screening and the aspect such as tolerance, influence factor and purification mechanism of enriching plant, and the application of the technology of correlation engineering is only confined to single Artificial Wetland Techniques or biological pond engineering, lack the systematic study of carrying out assembled highly-effective purification for different life-form waterplant.The resource utilization and the prevention of secondary pollution technical study thereof that particularly for plant, absorb after enriching heavy metal are also very short of.
reference:
[1] Keskinkan O, Goksu MZL, Basibuyuk M, Forster CF. Heavy metal adsorption properties of a submerged aquatic plant ( Ceratophyllum demersum) [J]. Bioresource Technology 2004, 92: 197-200.
[2] Yan CZ, Wang SR, Zeng AY, et al. Equilibrium and kinetics of copper (II) biosorption by Myriophyllum spicatum L [J]. Journal of Environmental Sciences 2005, 17: 1025-1029.
[3] Yang Zhengliang, Feng Guiying, exhales generation refined, etc. heavy metal pollution of water body present Research and improvement technology [J]. agricultural research in the arid areas 2005,23 (1): 219-222.
[4] Zhang Yongfeng, Xu Zhenliang. heavy metal containing wastewater treatment latest developments [J]. Treatment of Industrial Water 2003,23 (6): 1-5.
[5] Wang Wenhua, Feng Yongmei, Chang Xiulian, etc. the absorption research [J] of corn cob to Pb In Exhausted Water. water technology 2004,30 (2): 95-98.
[6] Wang Jianlong, Chen Can. the progress of biosorption process heavy-metal ion removal [J]. ACTA Scientiae Circumstantiae 2010,30 (4): 673-701.
[7] Weis JS, Weis P. Metal uptake, transport and release by wetland plants: implications for phytoremediation and restoration [J]. Environment International 2004, 30: 685-700.
[8] Zeng Ayan, Yan Changzhou, metallographic is bright, etc. the biological adsorption feature research of hornwort to copper. China Environmental Science 2005,25 (6): 691-694.
[9] Wang TC, Weissman JC, Ramesh G, et al. Parameters for removal of toxic heavy metals by water milfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum) [J]. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 1996, 57:779-786.
[10] Schneider IAH, Rubio J, Smith RW. Effect of some mining chemicals on biosorption of Cu (II) by the non-living biomass of the freshwater macrophyte Potamogeton lucens [J]. Mineral Engineering 1999, 12: 255-260.
[11] Schneider IAH, Rubio J. Sorption of heavy metal Ions by the nonliving biomass of freshwater macrophytes [J]. Environmental Science and Technology 1999, 33: 2213-2217.
[12] Cardwell AJ, Hawker DW, Greenway M. Metal accumulation in aquatic macrophytes from southeast Queensland, Australia. Chemosphere 2002, 48: 653-663.
[13] Robinson B, Kim N, Marchetti M, et al. Arsenic hyperaccumulation by aquatic macrophytes in the Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand [J]. Environmental and Experimental Botany 2006, 58: 206-215.
[14] Zhang Fawen. utilize waterplant to repair the experimental study [R] of heavy metal-containing waste water in large Orefield reservoir area. Nanchang: Institutes Of Technology Of Jiangxi's Master's thesis. 2006.
[15] Peng KJ, Luo CL, Lou LQ, et al. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by the aquatic plants Potamogeton pectinatus L. and Potarnogeton malaianus Miq. and their potential use for contamination indicators and in wastewater treatment [J]. Science of the Total Environment 2008, 392: 22-29.
[16] Yan Suzhu, Liang Dong, Peng Xiujuan. 8 kinds of waterplant are to heavy metal in sewage: the resistance of copper and the discussion of detergent power [J]. China Environmental Science 1990,10 (3): 166-170,104.
[17] Gu Wei, Shi Guoxin, Zhang Chaoying, etc. Hg 2+, Cd 2+and Cu 2+toxic action [J] to water caltrop photosynthetical system and protective enzyme system. Mol.Biol. 2002,28 (1): 69-74.
[18] Wang Zhongquan, Wen Yanmao, Huang Zhaoting, etc. several plant is processed the adaptability research [J] of heavy metal-containing waste water. ecotope 2005,14 (4): 540-544.
[19] Nurbas MN, Kilicarslan S, Ilhan S. Biosorption of Cr 6+, Pb 2+ and Cu 2+ ions in industrial wastewater on Bacillus sp.[J]. Chemical Engineering Journal 2002, 85: 351-355.
[20] Fritioff A, Greger M. Uptake and distribution of Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb in an aquatic plant Potamogeton natans. Chemosphere 2006, 63: 220-227.
[21] Yan CZ, Li GX, Xue PY, et al. Competitive effect of Cu(II) and Zn(II) on the biosorption of lead(II) by Myriophyllum spicatum. Journal of Hazardous Materials 2010, 179:721–728.
[22] Xue PY, Li GX, Liu WJ, et al. Copper uptake and translocationin a submerged aquatic plant Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle. Chemosphere, 2010, 81: 1098-1103.
[23] Xue Peiying, Li Qingzhao, Yan Changzhou, etc. black algae absorbing copper ion mechanism research [J]. environmental science 2011,32 (6): 1614-1619.
[24] Huang Ganquan, Yang Changfeng, Jin Lijun, etc. artificial swamp is processed the Exploration of Mechanism [J] of heavy metal Pb, Cd sewage. Chinese Journal of Applied Ecology 1993,4 (4): 456-459.
[25] sun holds victory, Lan Chongyu, Shu Wensheng. distribution and the accumulation [J] of heavy metal in man-made wetland with Typha latifolia. and water technology 2002,28 (2): 101-114.
[26] Shen Qing, Xie Qinglin, Wang Dunqiu. three kinds of biological methods [J] of processing heavy metal wastewater thereby. Guangxi Academy Of Sciences journal 2005,21 (2): 122-126.
[27] Domingos S, Dallas S, Germain M, et al. Heavy metals in a constructed wetland treating industrial wastewater: distribution in the sediment and rhizome tissue [J]. Water Science and Technology 2009, 60 (6):1425-1432.
[28] Arroyo P, Ansola G, De Luis E. Effectiveness of a full-scale constructed wetland for the removal of metals from domestic wastewater [J]. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 2010, 210 (1-4): 473-481.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of method of collaborative compounded mix enrichment and different life-form waterplant combining and configuring high-efficient purification low concentration heavy metal waters, the waterplant after recycling purifying treatment is also slowed down its potential secondary pollution problem simultaneously.
Adopt compounded mix and the emergent of gravel, natural zeolite and modified zeolite proportioning to build artificial swamp, and carry out combined serial high-efficient purification heavy metal polluted waste water with biological floating bed (humidogene or terrestrial plant) and Aquatic-plant Pond (floating leaf and submerged plant), plant after collection and purification are processed is used for making charcoal, and concrete steps are as follows:
This treatment system can be divided into artificial swamp, biological floating bed and three processing units of Aquatic-plant Pond.In artificial swamp, the proportioning of gravel, natural zeolite, modified zeolite is 3 ﹕ 1 ﹕ 1, and bottom 5 cm fill particle diameter 10-20 mm gravel, and particle diameter 5-8 mm natural zeolite and particle diameter 2-4mm modified zeolite are filled in top, and the mean porosities of packing layer is about 35%.
Waterplant screening and configuration: in artificial swamp, cultivate 3 kinds of emergents, respectively: Canna generalis Bailey, Rhizome of Grass leaf Sweelflag and cattail, plantation ratio is Mei Ren Jiao ﹕ Shi Chang Pu ﹕ cattail=3 ﹕ 2 ﹕ 1; Two kinds of hygrophyte parasol grass of biological floating bed plantation and calamus, plantation ratio is parasol Cao ﹕ calamus=1 ﹕ 1.In Aquatic-plant Pond, main plantation has the floatingleaved plants such as Herba Eichhorniae, great Piao, black algae and watermifoil and submerged plant etc., phoenix eyes Lian ﹕ great Piao ﹕ Hei Zao ﹕ watermifoil=2 ﹕ 1 ﹕ 2 ﹕ 1.
Zeolite modifying method: salt (NaCl) modification, take every 30 g zeolites as a mass unit, is in the NaCl of 1.0 mol/L in 500 mL concentration under room temperature, 60 ℃ of water-bath 120rpm vibration treatment 24 h, with distilled water, be washed till neutrality, after cleaning, at 105 ℃, be dried 2h.Zeolite particle diameter is all 2-4mm.
Wetland plant biological carbon preparation method: after purifying treatment, plant materials cleans up with tap water, at room temperature natural air drying, is cut into small pieces, and at 70-80 ℃ for dried overnight in case, be stored in moisture eliminator, standby.The preparation employing limit oxygen intensification charring of charcoal (Cheng C, Lehmann J. Ageing of black carbon along a temperature gradient [J]. Chemosphere 2009,75 (8): 1021-1027.).Be specially: take plant sample that 50 g handle well in alundum tube, be placed in vacuum tube furnace charing 1.0 h of approximately 500 ℃, after being cooled to room temperature, take out.In whole process, remain nitrogen atmosphere.
Embodiment
By heavy metal wastewater thereby or be subject to the water body of heavy metal contamination to introduce this treatment system, by controlling flow velocity, make it at artificial swamp, hydraulic detention time biological floating bed, 3 processing units of Aquatic-plant Pond, be respectively 4 d, 3 d and 3 d.The collection of waterplant and management: emergent and wetland plant are collected cleaning season by growth; Floatingleaved plant 10~20 d salvage once; Submerged plant 6-8 d salvages once.Plant after collection is used for making charcoal.Water body (Cu≤10 mg/L for low concentration heavy metal water and heavy metal contamination, Pb≤0.5 mg/L, Cd≤0.1mg/L) effect is, Cu clearance can reach more than 95%, Pb, Cd clearance can reach more than 97%, the requirement that water quality is reached stipulate in water environment quality standard, can be used as agricultural water and landscape water.Present method cost is low, and treatment system plant used is easy to get, and operational process does not consume energy, simple to operate, manageability.
Utilize charcoal prepared by wetland plant to there is high-specific surface area, porosity and ion-exchange capacity, can be used as soil improvement agent.Interpolation charcoal can improve the pH value of soil to some extent, reduces the Acid extractable content of the heavy metals such as Cu, Pb, Cd, thereby reduces the biological effectiveness of heavy metal, and counterweight metal watch reveals good fixed effect.Compared with the control, add after charcoal, in soil, the toxicity leaching amount of Cu, Pb, Cd obviously reduces, and the range of decrease is 20% ~ 45%.

Claims (3)

1. the method for a collaborative compounded mix enrichment and different life-form waterplant combining and configuring high-efficient purification low concentration heavy metal waters, it is characterized in that adopting gravel, compounded mix and the emergent (Canna generalis Bailey of natural zeolite and modified zeolite (3 ﹕ 1 ﹕ 1) proportioning, Rhizome of Grass leaf Sweelflag and cattail) structure artificial swamp, and with biological floating bed (parasol grass and calamus) and Aquatic-plant Pond (Herba Eichhorniae, great Piao, black algae and watermifoil) carry out combined serial high-efficient purification heavy metal polluted waste water, the hydraulic detention time of each processing unit is respectively 4 d, 3 d and 3 d, plant after collection and purification are processed is used for making charcoal.
2. Zeolite modifying method be take every 30 g zeolites as a mass unit, under room temperature, in 500 mL concentration, is in the NaCl of 1.0 mol/L, and 60 ℃ of water-bath 120rpm vibration treatment 24 h, are washed till neutrality with distilled water, is dried 2h after cleaning at 105 ℃.
3. biological carbon preparation adopts limit oxygen intensification charring, takes plant sample that 50 g handle well in alundum tube, is placed in vacuum tube furnace charing 1.0 h of approximately 500 ℃, after being cooled to room temperature, takes out, and in whole process, remains nitrogen atmosphere.
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