CN103688819B - A kind of non-ploughing growing method for white suppressing banana blight spreading and propagation in banana plantation - Google Patents

A kind of non-ploughing growing method for white suppressing banana blight spreading and propagation in banana plantation Download PDF

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CN103688819B
CN103688819B CN201410016067.4A CN201410016067A CN103688819B CN 103688819 B CN103688819 B CN 103688819B CN 201410016067 A CN201410016067 A CN 201410016067A CN 103688819 B CN103688819 B CN 103688819B
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banana
soil
garden
plant
blight
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CN103688819A (en
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王卓
张建斌
徐碧玉
金志强
贾彩红
刘菊华
王安邦
苗红霞
王甲水
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Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences
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Abstract

The invention belongs to banana planting method field, be specifically related to a kind of non-ploughing growing method for white suppressing banana blight spreading and propagation in banana plantation, utilize the method can effectively suppress banana blight at the spreading and propagation of Jiao Yuan.The main contents of invention comprise the banana garden banana blight morbidity processing method of individual plant and the zero tillage step of follow-up employing, stir because the inventive method decreases soil in banana planting process to greatest extent, keep the stability of banana planting Orchard Soil, effectively decrease banana blight germ at banana garden because soil stirs with soil-borne approach, decrease the chance that banana blight is fallen ill at Jiao Yuan, effectively inhibit banana blight at any of several broadleaf plants garden spreading and propagation, no-tillage being conducive to maintains soil aggregate simultaneously, be conducive to improving soil fertility, it is artificial that zero tillage simultaneously obviously can save management, save production cost, increase planting benefit.

Description

A kind of non-ploughing growing method for white suppressing banana blight spreading and propagation in banana plantation
Technical field
The invention belongs to banana planting method field, be specifically related to a kind of non-ploughing growing method for white suppressing banana blight spreading and propagation in banana plantation.
Technical background
Banana belongs to Musaceae (Musaceae) Musa (Musa) plant, is one of fruit that world's fresh fruit volume of trade is maximum, area under cultivation is the widest.Have 125 countries and regions at present and produce banana, some countries and regions bananas wherein have huge substitution effect to grain, and food and agricultural organization of united state regards as the fourth-largest cereal crops be only second to after paddy rice, wheat, corn, it is the main food of nearly 500,000,000 populations.China's banana area under cultivation in 2011 about 340,000 hectares, gross yield about 9,000,000 tons is the fruit that south China output is maximum, and banana industry has become the pillar industry in China's hot-zone agricultural.
Banana blight (Fusariumoxyporumf.sp.cubenseSnyder & Hansen), also known as banana Panama disease, banana yellowtop, is the crushing soil-borne disease of banana planting.The banana blight germ reported in the world has 4 biological strains, wherein No. 1 microspecies infect what (GrosmichelAAA) of the large honey of cultivated species and the Musa AAB (MusaAAB) of banana, No. 2 microspecies only infect Triploid rib banana (BluggoeAAB) in Central America, No. 3 microspecies infect wild tail any of several broadleaf plants and belong to (Heliconia), No. 4 microspecies infect large honey what, the magnificent any of several broadleaf plants of short life, wild any of several broadleaf plants and rib and refer to any of several broadleaf plants, crushing maximum.
The cardinal symptom of banana blight diseased plant: banana plant lower blade is turned to be yellow, vine growth and development is bad, and blade is matt, false stem near-earth portion longitudinal cracking, false stem cross section and vertical section are dissected and are found the false cauline bundle jaundice of diseased plant, variable color, rot, and serious whole strain is withered.Due to germ infringement banana vascular bundles, there is no treatment good medicine to this disease at present, infected plant cannot rehabilitation.
After finding banana blight disease plant in banana plantation, prove that banana blight germ has infected banana planting Orchard Soil, if now banana plantation miscarriage, banana blight germ can be transmitted to full garden by rapid spread in 1-2, cause banana blight disease to break out in full garden, have a strong impact on the economic benefit of banana planting, even develop into and can not plant banana.
Disease spread mode: banana blight is soil-borne disease, the residual body of diseased plant, band soil bacteria, farming instrument, lesion irrigation water, rainwater, nematode etc. cause closely propagating; The suction bud of disease carrying germ, soil, secondary seedling become long-distance communications mode.
The shortcoming easily causing banana blight to propagate is there is in the step of current banana general planting, one is the plant finding banana blight illness in banana plantation, conventional operational processes is excavated diseased plant and destroys, process is buried to the disinfecting soil around diseased plant, there is the operating procedure stirring soil in this processing mode, adds plantation workman and instruments of labour and be infected with disease carrying germ soil and by the danger in banana blight pathogen transmission other anosis regions to plantation; Two is that when planting new talent after banana results, conventional step is ploughed deeply in soil, and dig field planting behind cave, this planting patterns too increases the danger that Sclerotium rolfsii is propagated at Jiao Yuan; Three is in banana general planting process, and part banana garden adopts artificial weeding measure, adds the danger that banana blight is propagated in garden; Four be part banana peasant in order to increase banana garden economic benefit, in banana garden, interplant other economic crops, intertillage stir soil, add banana blight propagate danger; Five be part banana peasant in order to increase banana garden economic benefit, banana garden inner sleeve supports economic animal, and animal adds the danger of propagating banana blight germ in the activity of banana plantation.
The invention solves existing banana general planting method and easily cause the problem that in banana plantation, fusarium wilt is propagated, provide a kind of non-ploughing growing method for white suppressing banana blight spreading and propagation in banana plantation.The present invention is directed to the shortcoming of the propagation banana blight germ existed in the principal character and current banana general planting step process that banana blight is soil-borne disease, invent and reduced the implantation methods that in banana planting process, soil stirs to greatest extent, keep the stability of banana planting Orchard Soil, effectively decrease banana blight germ at banana garden because soil stirs with soil-borne approach, reduce banana blight to fall ill chance at Jiao Yuan, effectively inhibit banana blight at any of several broadleaf plants garden spreading and propagation, no-tillage being conducive to maintains soil aggregate simultaneously, be conducive to improving soil fertility, no-tillage can obviously saving manages manually simultaneously, save production cost, increase planting benefit.
The present invention is only suitable for the plantation that the banana blight incidence of disease in Late Cambrian banana blight plant in the banana plantation of health or banana plantation or banana plantation is less than 10%, to the banana plantation of the incidence of disease more than 10%, do not advise adopting.
Summary of the invention
A kind of method of banana blight non-ploughing growing method for white of spreading and propagation in banana plantation that suppresses of the present invention is as follows:
1 banana garden fusarium wilt morbidity individual plant process
To around the banana blight morbidity individual plant occurred in banana garden within the scope of 2 meters soil execute quicklime 5 kilograms, kill part germ spore in soil, then cut down whole strain blade and cover soil under plant completely, shunting rainwater, prevent band soil bacteria from being washed away propagation Sclerotium rolfsii by rainwater.The false stem of diseased plant overhead 30 cm height place syringes to the false stem center injection of diseased plant 50 milliliters of glyphosates, after 2 weeks, diseased plant is dead, cut down the false stem of upright diseased plant on more than ground, be divided into 20 to 30 centimetres of segments, be deposited in former diseased plant any of several broadleaf plants head position, use 2 kilogram of raw lime simultaneously on the residual body heap of diseased plant.Around diseased plant, tightly cover the residual body of real diseased plant and any of several broadleaf plants head with Water-proof plastic film within the scope of 1.5 meters, allow it naturally rot, keep banana blight morbidity strain surrounding soil complete, do not take any measure stirring soil.
2 zero tillage steps
1 stays bud head to make after banana gathers, banana is made by leaving and taking to inhale under bud is planted, select newly to send out suction bud from the health of maternal plant bulb 30 cm distance, other not chosen suction bud reaping hook flush with ground cut off, more vertically insert until destroy its growing point from face with hard thing.
2 clear gardens are after reserved suction bud enters vegetative growth phase, by the complete sliding trackle of old for banana garden any of several broadleaf plants bar, rear suction bud flush with ground of sending out cuts off and vertically inserts until destroy its growing point with hard thing from face, the old any of several broadleaf plants bar rooted out and suction bud concentrate stacking to allow it rot to decompose in the ranks, become fertilizer and go back to field, reduce damage by disease and insect to occur, behind clear garden, every mu is spread fertilizer over the fields the 150 full garden sterilization of kilogram of raw lime and sweetening of the soil acidity.
3 water and fertilizer managements and the extermination of disease and insect pest: full garden is carried out sprinkling irrigation hose mode and watered, the method that fertilising adopts full garden liquid manure to execute altogether, be dissolved in by fertilizer and join Fei Chizhong, carry out liquid manure execute altogether by sprinkling irrigation hose system, banana disease pest control routinely way to manage is carried out.
4 heavy dressing fertilizers, suction bud enters every strain vegetative growth phase and uses the farm organic fertilizer 10 kilograms that becomes thoroughly decomposed, and well-rotted farmyard manure 25 kilograms is used in flower bud differentiation every strain in early stage, the annular tiling of false 30 centimetres, the stem of distance plant.
Do not dig in the 5 full gardens of cultivation management, not between plant, do not interplant, do not overlap foster, adopt and spray chemical herbicide mode and kill weeds.
Embodiment
The example combined below is further described by the present invention
Example one
Banana variety: Brazilian any of several broadleaf plants and wide powder No. 1 any of several broadleaf plants
Experiment place: Fushan town, Dengmai County, Haikou City, Hainan Province
Cultivated area: the gross area 4.5 hectares, wherein Brazilian any of several broadleaf plants 2.5 hectares, No. 1 2.0 hectares, wide powder.
The plantation of banana: in mid-April, 2004 newly plants, and per hectare plants 2400 strains, plant Late Cambrian banana blight generation in October then, the incidence of disease is 5.5%.To around the banana blight morbidity individual plant occurred in any of several broadleaf plants garden within the scope of 2 meters soil execute quicklime 5 kilograms, kill part germ spore in soil, then cut down whole strain blade and cover soil under plant completely, shunting rainwater, prevent band soil bacteria from being washed away propagation Sclerotium rolfsii by rainwater.The false stem of diseased plant overhead 30 cm height place syringes to the false stem center injection of diseased plant 50 milliliters of glyphosates, after 2 weeks, diseased plant is dead, cut down the false stem of upright diseased plant on more than ground, be divided into 20 centimetres of segments, be deposited in former diseased plant any of several broadleaf plants head position, use 2 kilogram of raw lime simultaneously on the residual body heap of diseased plant.Around diseased plant, tightly cover the residual body of real diseased plant and any of several broadleaf plants head with Water-proof plastic film within the scope of 1.5 meters, allow it naturally rot, keep banana blight morbidity strain surrounding soil complete, do not take any measure stirring soil.In March, 2005 all gathers in the crops complete, adopts and stays the continuous work of bud non-ploughing growing method for white.After banana is gathered, making banana, selecting the health from maternal plant bulb 30 cm distance newly to send out suction bud by leaving and taking to inhale under bud is planted, other not chosen suction bud reaping hook flush with ground cut off, more vertically insert until destroy its growing point from face with hard thing.After reserved suction bud enters vegetative growth phase, by the complete sliding trackle of old for banana garden any of several broadleaf plants bar, rear suction bud flush with ground of sending out cuts off and destroys growing point, the old any of several broadleaf plants bar rooted out and suction bud are concentrated and are stacked disintegrate in the ranks, become fertilizer and go back to field, reduce damage by disease and insect to occur, behind clear garden, every mu is spread fertilizer over the fields the 150 full garden sterilization of kilogram of raw lime and sweetening of the soil acidity, full garden is carried out sprinkling irrigation hose mode and is watered, the method that fertilising adopts full garden liquid manure to execute altogether, fertilizer is dissolved in and joins Fei Chizhong, carry out liquid manure by sprinkling irrigation hose system to execute altogether, suction bud enters every strain vegetative growth phase and uses the farm organic fertilizer 10 kilograms that becomes thoroughly decomposed, well-rotted farmyard manure 25 kilograms is used in flower bud differentiation every strain in early stage, the tiling of distance plant false 30 centimetres, stem annular, banana disease pest control routinely way to manage is carried out.Do not dig in full garden, not between plant, do not interplant, do not overlap foster, adopt chemical agent weeding.By above method process morbidity individual plant and non-ploughing growing method for white, within 2005, stay bud zero tillage First Year, the banana blight incidence of disease is 6.8%, within 2006, stay bud zero tillage Second Year, the banana blight incidence of disease 3.3%, 2007-2011 stays that bud is continuous makes the banana blight incidence of disease all lower than 2%, zero tillage 7 years altogether, the 8th year because of banana inhale bud stay bud irregular and banana any of several broadleaf plants head bassets higher abandoning continues to stay bud zero tillage.
Example two
Banana variety: Brazilian any of several broadleaf plants and Williams any of several broadleaf plants
Experiment place: end of the bridge town, Dengmai County, Haikou City, Hainan Province
Cultivated area: 2.5 hectares, wherein Brazilian any of several broadleaf plants 1.5 hectares, Williams any of several broadleaf plants 1.0 hectares.
Banana planting and management: in June, 2005 plants, and per hectare plants 2700 strains, and in October, 2005, the banana blight incidence of disease was 7.1%.To around the banana blight morbidity individual plant occurred in any of several broadleaf plants garden within the scope of 2 meters soil execute quicklime 5 kilograms, kill part germ spore in soil, then cut down whole strain blade and cover soil under plant completely, shunting rainwater, prevent band soil bacteria from being washed away propagation Sclerotium rolfsii by rainwater.The false stem of diseased plant overhead 30 cm height place syringes to the false stem center injection of diseased plant 50 milliliters of glyphosates, after 2 weeks, diseased plant is dead, cut down the false stem of upright diseased plant on more than ground, be divided into 30 centimetres of segments, be deposited in former diseased plant any of several broadleaf plants head position, use 2 kilogram of raw lime simultaneously on the residual body heap of diseased plant.Around diseased plant, tightly cover the residual body of real diseased plant and any of several broadleaf plants head with Water-proof plastic film within the scope of 1.5 meters, allow it naturally rot, keep banana blight morbidity strain surrounding soil complete, do not take any measure stirring soil.In May, 2006 all gathers in the crops complete, adopts and stays the continuous work of bud non-ploughing growing method for white.After banana is gathered, making banana, selecting the health from maternal plant bulb 30 cm distance newly to send out suction bud by leaving and taking to inhale under bud is planted, other not chosen suction bud reaping hook flush with ground cut off, more vertically insert until destroy its growing point from face with hard thing.After reserved suction bud enters vegetative growth phase, by the complete sliding trackle of old for banana garden any of several broadleaf plants bar, rear suction bud flush with ground of sending out cuts off and destroys growing point, the old any of several broadleaf plants bar rooted out and suction bud are concentrated to stack and are in the ranks rotted to decompose, become fertilizer and go back to field, reduce damage by disease and insect to occur, behind clear garden, every mu is spread fertilizer over the fields the 150 full garden sterilization of kilogram of raw lime and sweetening of the soil acidity, full garden is carried out sprinkling irrigation hose mode and is watered, the method that fertilising adopts full garden liquid manure to execute altogether, fertilizer is dissolved in and joins Fei Chizhong, carry out liquid manure by sprinkling irrigation hose system to execute altogether, suction bud enters every strain vegetative growth phase and uses the farm organic fertilizer 10 kilograms that becomes thoroughly decomposed, well-rotted farmyard manure 25 kilograms is used in flower bud differentiation every strain in early stage, the tiling of distance plant false 30 centimetres, stem annular, banana disease pest control routinely way to manage is carried out.Do not dig in full garden, not between plant, do not interplant, do not overlap foster, adopt chemical agent weeding.By above method process morbidity individual plant and non-ploughing growing method for white, within 2006, stay bud zero tillage First Year, the banana blight incidence of disease is 5.3%, within 2007, stay bud zero tillage Second Year, the banana blight incidence of disease 3.4%, within 2008, stay bud zero tillage the 3rd year, the banana blight incidence of disease 3.7%, within 2009, stay bud zero tillage the 4th year, the banana blight incidence of disease 2.8%, within 2010, stay bud zero tillage the 5th year, the banana blight incidence of disease 3.3%, within 2011, stay bud zero tillage the 6th year, the banana blight incidence of disease 4.3%, within 2012, stay bud zero tillage the 7th year, the banana blight incidence of disease 3.5%, stay bud zero tillage the 8th year in September, 2013, to in December, the 2013 banana blight incidence of disease 0.9%, stay bud zero tillage continuously 8 years, keep the low incidence of disease of banana blight.

Claims (1)

1. suppress a non-ploughing growing method for white for banana blight spreading and propagation in banana plantation, its feature comprises the following steps:
1) banana garden fusarium wilt morbidity individual plant process
To around the banana blight morbidity individual plant occurred in banana garden within the scope of 2 meters soil execute quicklime 5 kilograms, kill part germ spore in soil, then cut down whole strain blade and cover soil under plant completely, shunting rainwater, prevent band soil bacteria from being washed away propagation Sclerotium rolfsii by rainwater, the false stem of diseased plant overhead 30 cm height place syringes to the false stem center injection of diseased plant 50 milliliters of glyphosates, the false stem of upright diseased plant on more than ground is cut down after 2 weeks, be divided into 20 to 30 centimetres of segments, be deposited in former diseased plant any of several broadleaf plants head position, use 2 kilogram of raw lime on the residual body heap of diseased plant simultaneously, the residual body of real diseased plant and any of several broadleaf plants head is tightly covered with Water-proof plastic film within the scope of 1.5 meters around diseased plant, it is allowed naturally to rot, keep banana blight morbidity strain surrounding soil complete, do not take any measure stirring soil,
2) zero tillage step
1. head is made after banana gathers, by leave and take inhale bud plantation under make banana, select the health from maternal plant bulb 30 cm distance newly to send out suction bud, chosen other are not inhaled bud reaping hook flush with ground and are cut off, more vertically insert until destroy its growing point with hard thing from face;
2. after reserved suction bud enters vegetative growth phase, by the complete sliding trackle of old for banana garden any of several broadleaf plants bar, rear suction bud flush with ground of sending out cuts off and vertically inserts until destroy its growing point with hard thing from face, the old any of several broadleaf plants bar rooted out and suction bud concentrate stacking to allow it rot to decompose in the ranks, become fertilizer and go back to field, reduce damage by disease and insect to occur, behind clear garden, every mu is spread fertilizer over the fields the 150 full garden sterilization of kilogram of raw lime and sweetening of the soil acidity;
③Quan garden is carried out sprinkling irrigation hose mode and is watered, the method that fertilising adopts full garden liquid manure to execute altogether, and be dissolved in by fertilizer and join Fei Chizhong, carry out liquid manure execute altogether by sprinkling irrigation hose system, banana disease pest control routinely way to manage is carried out;
4. heavy dressing fertilizer, suction bud enters every strain vegetative growth phase and uses the farm organic fertilizer 10 kilograms that becomes thoroughly decomposed, and well-rotted farmyard manure 25 kilograms is used in flower bud differentiation every strain in early stage, the annular tiling of false 30 centimetres, the stem of distance plant;
⑤Quan does not dig in garden, plants, do not interplant, do not overlap foster not, adopts sprinkling chemical herbicide mode to kill weeds.
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CN106718530A (en) * 2016-11-29 2017-05-31 广西岩星农业有限公司 It is a kind of to suppress the interplanting method that banana yellowtop is propagated
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