CN103667824B - The production technique of low, the welding aluminium alloy of a kind of superstrength, quenching sensitive - Google Patents

The production technique of low, the welding aluminium alloy of a kind of superstrength, quenching sensitive Download PDF

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CN103667824B
CN103667824B CN201310645740.6A CN201310645740A CN103667824B CN 103667824 B CN103667824 B CN 103667824B CN 201310645740 A CN201310645740 A CN 201310645740A CN 103667824 B CN103667824 B CN 103667824B
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aluminium
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master alloy
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CN103667824A (en
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周国斌
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广东永利坚铝业有限公司
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Abstract

A kind of superstrength of the present invention, quenching sensitive is low, welding aluminium alloy and production technique and shape extrusion method, its various elemental weight percent is: Ce:0.15-0.22%, Mg:0.9-1.4%, Zn:2.5-3.0%, Cu:0.35-0.8%, Si:0.8-1.2%, Mn:0.15-0.30%, Zr:0.13-0.20%, Ti:0.08-0.12%, wherein Ti+Zr >=0.25%, Fe≤0.5%, all the other are Al, by introducing the effect of Ce rare earth element, make alloy from casting crystalline organization optimization, and make alloy crystallisation process cross cold refinement with the compound that Cu generates CeCu, and the strengthening effect of crystal boundary, prevent Cu in sosoloid, make the welding crack sensibility of aluminium increase.Due to containing Si, Cu element and multiple strengthening phase optimum combination, make alloy reach the tensile strength of more than 400MPa, owing to adopting low Cu, Mn content, and not containing Cr, make alloy quenching susceptibility low, thus after ensureing Extrusion-quenched, the distortion of section bar tolerance of dimension is little.

Description

The production technique of low, the welding aluminium alloy of a kind of superstrength, quenching sensitive
Technical field
The present invention relates to aluminum alloy materials technical field, specifically, relate to a kind of superstrength, low, the welding aluminium alloy of quenching sensitive and production technique and shape extrusion method.
Background technology
At present, both at home and abroad for structural element, the aluminium alloy extrusions as truck, trailer, container, mine car, skeleton, cross bar, corner post, lateral column and strap stiffener all requires to have high strength and higher fracture toughness property, and can weld.7 series mostly, Al-Mg-Zn alloy and Al-Mg-Zn-Cu alloy, and 6 6066 alloys etc. in series be main aluminum alloy materials, the former is represented as 7005 alloys, and it is low that it has quenching sensitive, and resistance to deformation is moderate, within the scope of extrusion coefficient, easy extruding, production efficiency high, but due to MgZn 2and Al 2mg 3zn 3as the limitation of strengthening phase, the Kang La Qiang Du≤370MPa of its T6 state, unit elongation δ≤10%, cannot as reaching automobile with containing the requirement of manganese steel crossbeam Kang La Qiang Du≤450MPa, Al-Mg-Zn-Cu alloy be represented as 7075 alloys, it is with MgZn 2, Al 2mg 3zn 3, Al 2cuMg is as strengthening phase, its Kang La Qiang Du≤568MPa, unit elongation δ≤14%, although alloy has high strength, high-elongation and high temperature resistant, but its welding crack sensibility is large, mechanical property and the tensile stress corrosion cracking performance of weld seam are poor, so it is widely used on aircraft industry and aircraft structure mainly with riveting method.And 7075 alloys, require high especially to quenching, its quenching shift time after solution heat treatment necessary≤15 seconds, otherwise saturated solid solution can be caused to decompose, so must process with special quenching furnance, cause production efficiency extremely low, use range is restricted.And 6066 alloys, because its Cu, Mn content is close to 1%, cause its quenching sensitive high, corrosion-resistant poor with welding property, be not easy to promote production and application.
Due to above reason, insider has the against corrosion of Kang La Qiang Du≤more than 400MPa in extensive one of exploring both at home and abroad now, can weld, the aluminum alloy materials of anti-extrusion, to replace iron and steel as many-sided structural parts such as automotive frames, thus reach energy-conservation, reduce discharging effect, this be due to automobile often reduce by 10% weight, just can reduce by the fuel oil consumption of 6%.
And existing registered both at home and abroad and easily the welding of extrusion molding, tensile strength only have two classes close to the alloy of 400MPa, a class: in the Al-Mg-Si alloy of 6 series, with 6066 for representative, its composition is (weight percentage) Si:09-1.8; Mg:08-1.4, Cu:0.7-1.2; Mn:0.6-1.1, its T6 state, the Kang La Qiang Du≤395MPa under room temperature, fracture toughness property δ≤12%, because it is high containing Cu amount, the welding of alloy and poor corrosion resistance.In order to improving SNR, a large amount of Mn elements is also added as grain refining and weave construction activator in alloy, but Mn adds, greatly improve the quenching sensitive of alloy, rapid quenching cooling makes alloy can only extrude simple, the symmetrical section bar in cross section, when extruding the section bar of asymmetrical shape, rapid quenching makes section bar cooling strain rapidly, and tolerance of dimension is difficult to ensure in required scope, causes production efficiency not high, production cost is high, promotes the use of difficulty.
And Equations of The Second Kind: Al-Mg-Zn alloy, represents 7005 alloys, and its composition is (weight percentage) Si :≤0.35; Mg:1-1.5; Zn:4.0-5.0; Cr:0.06-0.2; Ti:0.01-0.06; Zr:0.08-0.20, the easy extrusion molding of this alloy, quenching sensitive is not high yet, but the Kang La Qiang Du≤370MPa of T6 state, fracture toughness property δ≤10%, does not reach the intensity of more than 400Mpa.
To sum up analyze, this technology to find out a kind of aluminium alloy component of optimization.Comprehensive 6066 and 7005, and 7075 features of alloy, reach superstrength, namely Kang La Qiang Du≤400MPa, have again good fracture toughness property and resistance to corrosion, and welding property is good, the most important thing is to make alloy energy High-efficient Production, promote the use of, namely reduce quenching sensitive and the quenching cooling rate of alloy is required lower than 6066 alloys, thus ensure the geometric accuracy of non symmetry sections.
Summary of the invention
Instant invention overcomes shortcoming of the prior art, provide a kind of superstrength, low, the welding aluminium alloy of quenching sensitive and production technique and shape extrusion method, the mechanical property of existing Kang La Qiang Du≤400Pa, fracture toughness property δ >10%, corrosion-resistant, welding feature, have again in extruded section process, resistance to deformation is little, and quenching sensitive is low simultaneously, the quenching mode of water smoke and air cooling way can be realized, can produce by high efficiency extruding.
In order to solve the problems of the technologies described above, the present invention is achieved by the following technical solutions:
A kind of superstrength, low, the welding aluminium alloy of quenching sensitive, the weight fraction of various element is: Ce:0.15-0.22%, Mg:0.9-1.4%, Zn:2.5-3.0%, Cu:0.35-0.8%, Si:0.8-1.2%, Mn:0.15-0.30%, Zr:0.13-0.20%, Ti:0.08-0.12%, wherein Ti+Zr >=0.25%, Fe≤0.5%, all the other are Al.
Further, the weight percentage of described various element is Ce:0.2%, Mg:1%, Zn:2.8%, Cu:0.7%, Si:1.0%, Mn:0.28%, Zr:0.17%, Ti:0.1%, and all the other are Al.
A production technique for low, the welding aluminium alloy of super superstrength, quenching sensitive, comprises the steps:
(1) raw material is prepared: according to the weight percentage of various element be: Ce:0.15-0.22%, Mg:0.9-1.4%, Zn:2.5-3.0%, Cu:0.35-0.8%, Si:0.8-1.2%, Mn:0.15-0.30%, Zr:0.13-0.20%, Ti:0.08-0.12%, wherein Ti+Zr >=0.25%, Fe≤0.5%, all the other are Al, take aluminium silicon master alloy respectively, industry one-level aluminium ingot, industry one-level copper ingot, industry one-level magnesium ingot, industry one-level zinc ingot metal, aluminium zirconium hardener, aluminium titanium master alloy, aluminium manganese master alloy, aluminium cerium master alloy and aluminium titanium boron wire are as raw material,
(2) melting: drop in smelting furnace together with the aluminium ingot weighed up, copper ingot, zinc ingot metal, aluminium zirconium hardener, aluminium titanium master alloy, aluminium silicon master alloy, aluminium manganese master alloy and aluminium cerium master alloy etc., after melting completely in stove, add zinc ingot metal, magnesium ingot, when after zinc ingot metal and magnesium ingot fusing, then with the nitrogen in pressure bottle for power sprays into refining agent in stove, after first time refining slagging-off, composition analysis is carried out in sampling, after adjustment reaches requirement, leave standstill and adjust fluid temperature in stove;
(3) cast: the melting liquid obtained in step (2) is put into casting dish by stream grain, aluminium titanium boron wire is fused in melting liquid, in aluminum alloy melt, form TiAl 3and TiB 2the heterojunction crystal seed of primary crystal tissue carries out the outer grain refining of stove, is cast as the aluminium alloy cast rod of grain refining.
Further, in step (2), the amount spraying into refining agent is 0.2kg/ ton aluminium.
Further, in step (3), aluminium titanium boron wire is Ti 5b 1, and consumption is 15kg/ ton aluminium.
Further, in step (3), casting equipment is vertical round casting rod casting machine, and casting temp is 720 DEG C, and casting rod diameter is 250 millimeters, and casting speed is 100 millimeters of per minutes, coolant water temperature <60 DEG C.
The shape extrusion method of low, the welding aluminium alloy of a kind of superstrength, quenching sensitive, 540 DEG C of anneal are carried out to obtained aluminium alloy cast rod, be incubated air blast cooling in 5 hours, extrusion process: this aluminium alloy is heated to 490-520 DEG C, die temperature is 450 DEG C, extrusion machine ingot-containing tube temperature is 410 DEG C, and extrusion speed is 20 ms/min, adds air blast cooling with water mist sprinkling.
Further, correct, enter artificial aging after sawing according to the amount of tension of 0.3-0.5%, artificial aging technique is 110 DEG C of insulations 8 hours, 180 DEG C of insulations, 8 hours secondary time effects.
Further, utilize the extrusion machine of 30MN, the thickness of extruded product is 10mm, and width is 300mm, the flute profile material of high 80mm.
Compared with prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
1, the combination of 6066,7005 and 7075 alloys drawn by this alloy, makes to have multiple strengthening phase in alloy, makes alloy be provided with the superstrength of more than 400Mpa.
2, due to the effect of Ce rare earth, the defect containing the high corrosion resistance of aluminum alloy of Cu and welding property difference is overcome.
3, due to the low Cu of this alloy, low Mn, without Cr element, overcome the defect must being out of shape, cannot reaching by water logging mode dimensional precision because section bar quenching sensitive is high, this alloy can improve the variation in production section bar cross section and have more usage space.
4, fall low content of Cu, crimp drag is declined, high-speed extrusion is produced becomes possibility, is convenient to promote the use of.
Embodiment
Below the preferred embodiments of the present invention are described, should be appreciated that preferred embodiment described herein is only for instruction and explanation of the present invention, is not intended to limit the present invention.
Low, the welding aluminium alloy of a kind of superstrength of the present invention, quenching sensitive, the weight percentage of various element is: Ce:0.2%, Mg:1%, Zn:2.8%, Cu:0.7%, Si:1.1%, Mn:0.28%, Zr:0.17%, Ti:0.1%, Fe≤0.5%, all the other are Al.
7005 alloys are compared in this combination, are also to adopt MgZn 2and Al 2mg 3zn 3as strengthening phase, Zn content is 2.8%, has superfluous Mg and Si to form SiMg 2strengthening phase, also has the superfluous Si of part to make strengthening phase, compares Cu and the Al formation Al that 7075 alloys add 0.7% simultaneously 2the compounds such as CuMg make strengthening phase.
Technical essential of the present invention adds rare earth element ce, and the present invention has the following advantages:
1, can reduce surface tension during alloy crystallization, thus reduce the power formed needed for critical size, increase crystallization nuclei, the effect of grain refining improves weave construction, puies forward heavy alloyed intensity, and Ce and Al generates the Al of disperse 3ce, the rare-earth compounds such as CeCu are generated with Cu, they are mostly gathered between crystal boundary and crystal boundary, play a part to strengthen crystal boundary, and can also inhibition of impurities compound at the harmful act of crystal boundary, thus improve intensity, the present invention selects containing Ce mishmetal, it is the mishmetal with lanthanum, Ce≤60% , Lan≤30%.
2, Ce is high-melting-point element, and process of setting is gathered in the liquid phase in solid-liquid forward position, and aluminium alloy each composition crystallisation process was occurred, and cold refinement is fine and close, makes the alloy profile of extruding in solution hardening, after aging strengthening model, shows good mechanical property.
3, rare earth element is oxidized in fusion process, and the oxide compound of this rare earth element can replace Mn element, promotes alloy recrystallization temperature, reduces alloy quenching susceptibility, prevents alloy because of the fast and issuable not recrystallize of quenching.
4, add Cu element in this alloy, produce CuAl 2compound, alloy has significantly improved the strengthening effect after aging strengthening model, but the erosion resistance of its alloy and welding property have counter productive, so Cu content controls below 0.8% by the present invention.
5, MgZn is formed with the Mg in alloy adding of Zn 2and Al 2mg 3zn 3strengthening phase, their content obvious rising from the content 0.5% of Zn, considering that the resistance to deformation of extrusion process of production also can rise, in order to improve extrusion coefficient, then being controlled below 3% by Zn content.
6, in order to reduce quenching sensitive, prevent water logging from cooling and cause section bar geometrical dimension to be out of shape, this alloy composition have employed lower Mn element, and it stops alloy recrystallization process together with rare earth element ce.
7, the adding of Rare-Earth Ce, except except crystal grain thinning, can also reducing secondary intergranular distance, decreasing the bubble in alloy and be mingled with, improve the quality of material, make this alloy material use field to become more wide.
The Cr in 7005 alloys is replaced with Ce mishmetal, Mn is as intergranular structure fining agent, Ti and Zr is as the modifying agent of grain structure, and reduce quenching sensitive, higher intensity is had again than 7005 alloys, the effect of Ce mishmetal simultaneously, improve and overcome adding because of Cu element, add intensity, but the defect of welding property and poor corrosion resistance, although the present invention does not reach the such superstrength of 7075 alloy, but the tensile strength of more than 400MPa can be reached, also overcome the difficulty in 7075 alloy profile extrusion processes simultaneously, do not need Special quenching stove, repeatedly multistage artificial aging, can high efficiency penetration and promotion application.
A production technique for low, the welding aluminium alloy of super superstrength, quenching sensitive, comprises the steps:
(1) raw material is prepared: according to the weight percentage of various element be: Ce:0.2%, Mg:1%, Zn:2.8%, Cu:0.7%, Si:1.1%, Mn:0.28%, Zr:0.17%, Ti:0.1%, Fe≤0.5%, all the other are Al, take aluminium silicon master alloy, industrial one-level aluminium ingot, industrial one-level copper ingot, industrial one-level magnesium ingot, industrial one-level zinc ingot metal, aluminium zirconium hardener, aluminium titanium master alloy, aluminium manganese master alloy, aluminium cerium master alloy and aluminium titanium boron wire respectively as raw material;
(2) melting: drop in smelting furnace together with the aluminium ingot weighed up, copper ingot, zinc ingot metal, aluminium zirconium hardener, aluminium titanium master alloy, aluminium silicon master alloy, aluminium manganese master alloy and aluminium cerium master alloy etc., after melting completely in stove, add zinc ingot metal, magnesium ingot, when after zinc ingot metal and magnesium ingot fusing, then with the nitrogen in pressure bottle for power sprays into refining agent in stove, after first time refining slagging-off, composition analysis is carried out in sampling, after adjustment reaches requirement, leave standstill and adjust fluid temperature in stove, the amount spraying into refining agent is 0.2kg/ ton aluminium.
The object of refining is except the inclusion in aluminium liquid and gas, plays the effect of purification aluminium liquid, and another object changes performance, and the morphology and distribution of optimization and refining eutectic silicon, refining temperature is 710-740 DEG C, and nitrogen pressure is 1.2-18Kg/cm 2, refining time is 25 minutes.
(3) cast: the melting liquid obtained in step (2) is put into casting dish by stream grain, aluminium titanium boron wire is fused in melting liquid, in aluminum alloy melt, form TiAl 3and TiB 2the heterojunction crystal seed of primary crystal tissue carries out the outer grain refining of stove, is cast as the aluminium alloy cast rod of grain refining.Aluminium titanium boron wire is Ti 5b 1, and consumption is 15kg/ ton aluminium.Casting equipment is vertical round casting rod casting machine, and casting temp is 720 DEG C, and casting rod diameter is 250 millimeters, and casting speed is 100 millimeters of per minutes, coolant water temperature <60 DEG C.
The shape extrusion method of low, the welding aluminium alloy of a kind of superstrength, quenching sensitive, 540 DEG C of anneal are carried out at obtained aluminium alloy cast rod, be incubated 5 hours, air blast cooling, extrusion process: aluminium alloy cast rod is heated to 490-520 DEG C, die temperature is 450 DEG C, and extrusion machine ingot-containing tube temperature is 410 DEG C, extrusion speed is 20 ms/min, adds air blast cooling with water mist sprinkling.
Correct according to the amount of tension of 0.3-0.5%, enter artificial aging after sawing, artificial aging technique is 110 DEG C of insulations 8 hours, 180 DEG C of insulations, 8 hours secondary time effects.
Utilize the extrusion machine of 30MN, the thickness of extruded product is 10mm, and width is 300mm, the flute profile material of high 80mm.Detected by the WDW3100 type 100MN universal tensile testing machine of this section bar through the new production of Changchun section, tensile strength is 415MPa, and unit elongation is 10%.The aluminum products of this alloy extrusion reach 9 grades through salt fog CASS test.
Last it is noted that these are only the preferred embodiments of the present invention; be not limited to the present invention; although with reference to embodiment to invention has been detailed description; for a person skilled in the art; it still can be modified to the technical scheme described in foregoing embodiments; or equivalent replacement is carried out to wherein portion of techniques feature; but it is within the spirit and principles in the present invention all; any amendment of doing, equivalent replacement, improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (2)

1. a production technique for superstrength, low, the welding aluminium alloy of quenching sensitive, is characterized in that, comprise the steps:
(1) raw material is prepared: according to the weight percentage of various element be: Ce:0.15-0.22%, Mg:0.9-1.4%, Zn:2.5-3.0%, Cu:0.35-0.8%, Si:0.8-1.2%, Mn:0.15-0.30%, Zr:0.13-0.20%, Ti:0.08-0.12%, wherein Ti+Zr >=0.25%, Fe≤0.5%, all the other are Al, take aluminium silicon master alloy respectively, industry one-level aluminium ingot, industry one-level copper ingot, industry one-level magnesium ingot, industry one-level zinc ingot metal, aluminium zirconium hardener, aluminium titanium master alloy, aluminium manganese master alloy, aluminium cerium master alloy and aluminium titanium boron wire are as raw material,
(2) melting: the aluminium ingot weighed up, copper ingot, zinc ingot metal, aluminium zirconium hardener, aluminium titanium master alloy, aluminium silicon master alloy, aluminium manganese master alloy are dropped in smelting furnace together with aluminium cerium master alloy, after melting completely in stove, add zinc ingot metal, magnesium ingot, when after zinc ingot metal and magnesium ingot fusing, then with the nitrogen in pressure bottle for power sprays into refining agent in stove, after first time refining slagging-off, composition analysis is carried out in sampling, after adjustment reaches requirement, leave standstill and adjust fluid temperature in stove;
(3) cast: the melting liquid obtained in step (2) is put into casting dish by stream grain, aluminium titanium boron wire is fused in melting liquid, in aluminum alloy melt, form TiAl 3and TiB 2the heterojunction crystal seed of primary crystal tissue carries out the outer grain refining of stove, is cast as the aluminium alloy cast rod of grain refining;
In step (2), the amount spraying into refining agent is 0.2kg/ ton aluminium;
In step (3), aluminium titanium boron wire is Ti 5b 1, and consumption is 15kg/ ton aluminium;
In step (3), casting equipment is vertical round casting rod casting machine, and casting temp is 720 DEG C, and casting rod diameter is 250 millimeters, and casting speed is 100 millimeters of per minutes, coolant water temperature <60 DEG C;
Homogeneous annealing is carried out to obtained aluminium alloy cast rod, temperature 540 DEG C, be incubated 5 hours, air blast cooling, extrusion process: this aluminium alloy is heated to 490-520 DEG C, die temperature is 450 DEG C, and extrusion machine ingot-containing tube temperature is 410 DEG C, extrusion speed is 20 ms/min, adds pressure air blast quenching with water mist sprinkling.
2. the production technique of a kind of superstrength, low, the welding aluminium alloy of quenching sensitive according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, correct according to the amount of tension of 0.3-0.5%, artificial aging is entered after sawing, artificial aging technique is 110 DEG C of insulations 8 hours, 180 DEG C of insulations, 8 hours secondary time effects.
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