CN103644850A  Soil slope surface displacement monitoring and safety early warning method  Google Patents
Soil slope surface displacement monitoring and safety early warning method Download PDFInfo
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 CN103644850A CN103644850A CN201310712637.9A CN201310712637A CN103644850A CN 103644850 A CN103644850 A CN 103644850A CN 201310712637 A CN201310712637 A CN 201310712637A CN 103644850 A CN103644850 A CN 103644850A
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 238000004458 analytical methods Methods 0.000 description 9
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Abstract
The invention provides a soil slope surface displacement monitoring and safety early warning method and belongs to the technical field of slope monitoring. The soil slope surface displacement monitoring and safety early warning method comprises the following steps of: 1) arranging laser displacement sensors on a slope to the measured and collecting the distance information between the laser displacement sensors and the fixed monitoring points of the surface of the slope; 2) transmitting the collected data to a remote monitoring center and calculating the displacement of monitoring points of the soil slope and a displacement rate; 3) judging the deformation stage of the soil slope according to calculated results in the step 2 and judging whether the deformation of the soil slope is in a steady deformation stage, or a timedependent deformation stage or an accelerated failure stage; 4) judging the displacement stability of the soil slope in the timedependent deformation stage and performing early warning according to judged results. The soil slope surface displacement monitoring and safety early warning method can relatively comprehensively describes nature and the change trend of the monitoring data of slope deformation and can reflect development processes of the slope deformation relatively truly, thereby providing objective basis for finding a deformation abnormal portion of the slope and for evaluating the safety and stability of the slope.
Description
Technical field
The invention belongs to slope monitoring technical field, relate to a kind of soilslope surface displacement monitoring and safe early warning method.
Background technology
At present, slope of highway is being carried out in the research of remote real time monitoring, it is to limit at present the neck bottle that slope of highway carries out remote real time monitoring technical development that the displacement data how monitoring being obtained is analyzed always.Stabilization is a stable importance of side slope safety, understands side slope and has great importance for the security and stability of evaluating side slope at the deformation state of different times.Safety monitoring, as the means of correct evaluation side slope safety state change process, is progressively widely used in Roadslope Project.Due to side slope the complex nature of the problem, carry out the research of and method theoretical to side slope security monitoring in a deep going way, systematically analyze the monitoring information obtaining and seem very important.
Security monitoring index can be divided into reason amount monitor control index and response amount monitor control index two classes.Owing to causing in slope project that the reason amount of distortion is difficult to accurate measurement, so more should use response amount (displacement, stress, underground water etc.) monitor control index.Different according to the criterion of controlling stability of slope, monitor control index can be divided into again deformation monitoring index and intensity monitor control index.Mostly traditional analytical approach is to propose based on criterion of strength, and stability is expressed as to the strong change deposit before slope failure, and explicit physical meaning is easy to use.But it is difficult to relate to distortion or the displacement of side slope, the bark evolutionary process of state of side slope cannot be described.Side slope, from starting to be deformed to destruction, generally will experience the longer time.In slope deformation destruction zhang journey, deflection is the most obvious changing factor, also the most easily observation.Therefore the distortion of having controlled side slope is also just being soaked the security and stability of having controlled side slope in large degree.
Slope project, due to the complicacy of self, makes drafting of Deformation control index very difficult.The normal Deformation control index adopting of engineering is mainly to consider from two angles: maximal value index and trend judgement.Wherein maximal value comprises the maximal value of the response amounts such as displacement, rate of displacement, carries out early warning when monitor value surpasses maximal value; Trend judgement is mainly to judge that by time dependent processes such as displacement, rates of displacement whether variation tendency is abnormal.Above method has been brought into play good effect on landslide on earlywarning and predicting, but on slope of highway, has a lot of problems being applied to: first peaked the drafting of response amount such as displacement mainly rule of thumb chosen, and relatively fixing after determining.But the distortion of rock slope is even without the value of reaching capacity in a lot of situations, and change has also occurred its safe condition, so single maximal value can only be carried out early warning to certain ultimate limit state of side slope, and cannot monitor the Process Character variation of side slope state.Rate of displacement, as the first order derivative of displacement, can reflect distortion increase trend more intuitively.But the displacement of rock slope is conventionally little, especially the displacement between twice observation is conventionally very little, adds instrument in observation and the impact of human factor, and the rate of displacement that makes to calculate often fluctuates larger, and regularity is not strong.So from the angle of Regularity Analysis, select accumulative displacement to carry out trend analysis more applicable.But to the trend analysis of displacement, mainly with qualitative analysis, be main at present, lack quantitative criterion.
Summary of the invention
In view of this, the object of the present invention is to provide a kind of soilslope surface displacement monitoring and safe early warning method, the method is according to the feature of side slope selfdeformation, adopt deformation tendency monitor control index, displacement and rate of displacement index to carry out quantitative test to observation data, can more comprehensively describe character and the variation tendency of Monitoring of Slope Deformation data.
For achieving the above object, the invention provides following technical scheme:
The monitoring of soilslope surface displacement and safe early warning method, comprise the following steps: 1) at side slope to be measured place, laser displacement sensor is set, gathers laser displacement sensor to the range information of side slope surface stationary monitoring point; 2) data that collect are sent to remote monitoring center, and calculate the displacement of soilslope monitoring point and rate of displacement according to these data; 3) according to the result of calculation in step 2, soilslope deformation stage is judged, the distortion of judgement soilslope is in steadystate deformation stage, secular distortion stage or the stage of accelerating the failure; 4) the displacement stability of the soilslope in the secular distortion stage is judged, and carry out early warning according to judged result.
Further, in step 2, by wireless communication module, data are sent to remote monitoring center, remote monitoring center is according to the elevation angle of the monitoring line between laser displacement sensor and monitoring point, side slope surface and the angle between side slope trend and tendency, converse the surface displacement on side slope surface, and calculate rate of displacement.
Further, in step 3, by calculating slope displacement seasonal effect in time series standard deviation S, higher limit when slope deforming is stablized:
there is the lower limit of obvious secular distortion in side slope:
Wherein: n is the measured value number in time series; σ is accuracy of observation, by instrument and observation procedure, is determined; D is the deformation values occurring in Measuring Time.
Further, in step 3, according to following principle, determine the slope deforming stage of living in: if S≤S
_{dl}, side slope is in the steadystate deformation stage, and oneself warp of distortion is stable, and displacement does not change substantially; If S
_{dl}<S≤S
_{d2}, side slope, in the secular distortion stage, also will be done further distortion judgement and analyze; If S>S
_{d2}, illustrating that side slope is in accelerating the failure the stage, secular distortion is still clearly.
Further, in step 4, by obtaining the statistic of each observation station displacement of side slope and the statistic of rate of displacement judges the displacement stability of the soilslope in the secular distortion stage.
Further, the statistic of described observation station displacement comprises: displacement stability factor γ
_{d}with displacement variation factor δ
_{d}; The statistic of described observation station rate of displacement comprises: rate of displacement stability factor γ
_{v}and variation factor δ
_{v}.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is: method of the present invention can more comprehensively be described character and the variation tendency of Monitoring of Slope Deformation data, can reflect more really the evolution of slope deforming, thereby, evaluate the safety and stability of side slope, provide objective foundation for finding the abnormal position of distortion of side slope.
Accompanying drawing explanation
In order to make object of the present invention, technical scheme and beneficial effect clearer, the invention provides following accompanying drawing and describe:
Fig. 1 is the process flow diagram of the method for the invention;
Fig. 2 is slope displacement instrumentation plan.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the preferred embodiments of the present invention are described in detail.
This method is the basic data by monitoring slope deforming use mathematical statistics method to obtain deformation tendency monitor control index first: slope deforming is stable, the higher limit S of measured value when substantially constant
_{d1}there is the lower limit S of obvious secular distortion with side slope
_{d2}, after obtaining the Monitoring Data of slope deforming, can judge in this time period slope displacement is in which kind of state according to the standard deviation S of displacement time series.If S≤S
_{dl}, side slope is in the steadystate deformation stage: distortion oneself through stable, displacement does not change substantially; If gas S
_{dl}<S≤S
_{d2}, side slope, in the secular distortion stage, also will be done further distortion judgement and analyze; If S>S
_{d2}, illustrating that side slope is in accelerating the failure the stage, secular distortion still clearly, cause concern.
Fig. 1 is the process flow diagram of the method for the invention, and as shown in Figure 1, this method comprises: step 1: in side slope to be measured, place arranges laser displacement sensor, gathers laser displacement sensor to the range information of side slope surface stationary monitoring point; Step 2: the data that collect are sent to remote monitoring center, and calculate the displacement of soilslope monitoring point and rate of displacement according to these data; Step 3: according to the result of calculation in step 2, soilslope deformation stage is judged, the distortion of judgement soilslope is in steadystate deformation stage, secular distortion stage or the stage of accelerating the failure; Step 4: the displacement stability to the soilslope in the secular distortion stage judges, and carries out early warning according to judged result.
Specifically, step 1: place arranges laser displacement sensor in side slope to be measured, gathers laser displacement sensor to the range information of side slope surface stationary monitoring point.Fig. 2 is slope displacement instrumentation plan, and as shown in the figure, establishing laser displacement sensor coordinate is (X
_{0},
_{y}0, Z
_{0}), the coordinate of distortion monitoring points P is (X
_{p}, Y
_{p}, Z
_{p}), the distance of automatically measuring distortion monitoring points by laser displacement sensor is L, and position angle is β, and inclination angle is α, and laser displacement sensor height is i, has:
When the cycle of carrying out is observed, establish the coordinate that downpayment observation P orders and be
the coordinate that i phase observation station P is ordered is
the displacement value that P is ordered is
The total deformation shift value that now P is ordered
when carrying out Automatic continuous observation, except the 1st time, can obtain 1 deformation displacement value at every turn, shift value and measuring intervals of TIME are divided by and can obtain translational speed, according to these basic datas, just can carry out the judgement of slope deforming stage and monitoring point displacement estimation of stability below, transfinite and report to the police, thereby complete slope stability, automatically monitor task.
Step 2: data are calculated.
The rheological characteristics of slope rock mass has determined that the displacement deformation of side slope increases in time gradually.Even when slope excavating finishes, when load does not change, still can there is the deformation of creep.When side slope is during in steady state (SS), the deformation of creep amount after the secular distortion after excavation finishes is substantially very little, and in the steady creep stage; And when side slope is during in unsteady state, secular distortion meeting continues development, thereby make side slope enter the tertiary creep stage, unstable failure finally occurs.Therefore the key that slope deforming is controlled is to control the generation of tertiary creep, side slope is carried out to estimation of stability and should first judge that whether side slope is in the steadystate deformation stage.
If slope displacement monitor value is comprised of three parts: initial deformation component, secular distortion component, measuring error component.Wherein initial deformation refers to the substantially timeindependent shift value of slope rock mass after a period of time; Secular distortion refers to that temporal evolution continues the displacement deformation developing on initial deformation; Measuring error refers to the error causing due to accuracy of instrument, measurement reason etc. in measurement, and it belongs to the category of stochastic variable.Be formulated as:
ε
_{i}＝ε
_{0}+d
_{i}+δ
_{i}
In formula, ε
_{i}for displacement observation value; ε
_{0}for initial deformation; d
_{i}for secular distortion component; δ
_{i}for measuring error component.When slope rock mass is out of shape not temporal evolution, secular distortion d
_{i}≈ 0; When side slope is in steady creep during the stage, d
_{i}in Ying Yi less scope.Therefore can by being out of shape at present in which kind of stage monitoring the analysis judgement of resulting displacement time series.
(1) the stabilization stage
This stage means that secular distortion can ignore, and the fluctuation in displacement measurement is because measuring error causes.Error in measurement generally belongs to stochastic variable, Normal Distribution.If the measured value of n time step is ε
_{1}, ε
_{2}..., ε
_{n}, corresponding measuring error is δ
_{1}, δ
_{2}..., δ
_{n}, the separate and Normal Distribution N (μ, σ) of measuring error.When not there is not secular distortion, measured value can be thought displacement stationary value and measuring error sum, ε
_{i}=ε
_{0}+ δ
_{i}, i=(1,2 ..., n), wherein ε 0 is stabilization value.If ε
_{1}, ε
_{2}..., ε
_{n}mean value be
standard standard deviation is S
_{n}; The mean value of error is δ, by the formula of mathematical statistics, can be obtained:
The difference of each measured value and average square be:
...
Summation:
$\begin{array}{c}\underset{i=1}{\overset{n}{\mathrm{\Σ}}}{({\mathrm{\ϵ}}_{i}\stackrel{\‾}{\mathrm{\ϵ}})}^{2}={({\mathrm{\δ}}_{1}\stackrel{\‾}{\mathrm{\δ}})}^{2}+{({\mathrm{\δ}}_{2}\stackrel{\‾}{\mathrm{\δ}})}^{2}+\·\·\·+{({\mathrm{\δ}}_{n}\stackrel{\‾}{\mathrm{\δ}})}^{2}\\ =({{\mathrm{\δ}}_{1}}^{2}+{{\mathrm{\δ}}_{2}}^{2}+\·\·\·+{{\mathrm{\δ}}_{n}}^{2})2\stackrel{\‾}{\mathrm{\δ}}({\mathrm{\δ}}_{1}+{{\mathrm{\δ}}_{2}}^{2}+\·\·\·+{{\mathrm{\δ}}_{n}}^{2})n{\mathrm{\μ}}^{2}\\ =({{\mathrm{\δ}}_{1}}^{2}+{{\mathrm{\δ}}_{2}}^{2}+\·\·\·+{{\mathrm{\δ}}_{n}}^{2})n{\stackrel{\‾}{\mathrm{\δ}}}^{2}=({{\mathrm{\δ}}_{1}}^{2}+{{\mathrm{\δ}}_{2}}^{2}+\·\·\·+{{\mathrm{\δ}}_{n}}^{2})n{\mathrm{\μ}}^{2}\end{array}$
If
z
_{i}normal Distribution N (0,1).By δ
_{i}=Z
_{i}σ+μ substitution, obtains
Due to Z
_{i}normal Distribution N (0,1), so
and statistic x
^{2}=Z
_{1} ^{2}+ Z
_{2} ^{2}++ Z
_{n} ^{2}the x that obedience degree of freedom is n
^{2}distribute.From the character of this distribution, average E (x
^{2})=n, x
^{2}=Z
_{1} ^{2}+ Z
_{2} ^{2}++ Z
_{n} ^{2}=n
^{2}
δ
_{1} ^{2}+δ
_{2} ^{2}+···+δ
_{n} ^{2}＝n
^{2}σ
^{2}+nμ
^{2}
Back substitution can obtain,
$\underset{i=1}{\overset{n}{\mathrm{\Σ}}}{({\mathrm{\ϵ}}_{i}\stackrel{\‾}{\mathrm{\ϵ}})}^{2}={n}^{2}{\mathrm{\σ}}^{2}$
The sample variance of measured value is:
${S}_{n}^{2}=\frac{1}{n1}\underset{i=1}{\overset{n}{\mathrm{\Σ}}}{({\mathrm{\ϵ}}_{i}\stackrel{\‾}{\mathrm{\ϵ}})}^{2}=\frac{{n}^{2}{\mathrm{\σ}}^{2}}{n1}$
Standard deviation is:
${S}_{n}=\sqrt{\frac{{n}^{2}{\mathrm{\σ}}^{2}}{n1}}\≈\sqrt{n}\·\mathrm{\σ}$
Expression formula can be found out thus, and when there is random meausrement error in each measurement, after n time step, the standard deviation of measured value increases thereupon, and is power function relationship with time step number.Therefore should reduce the stochastic error in measuring as far as possible, improve measuring accuracy.
(2) the secular distortion stage
If rock mass still in the secular distortion stage, is located at the secular distortion occurring on n time step and is respectively w
_{1}, w
_{2}..., w
_{n}, total secular distortion amount in this time period
if the measured value of n time step is ε
_{1}, ε
_{2}..., ε
_{n}, stabilization value is ε
_{0},
.If ε
_{1}, ε
_{2}..., ε
_{n}mean value be
sample variance is
The difference side of each measured value and average is:
...
Summation:
When rock mass is in the secular distortion stabilization sub stage, can be similar to and think that the deflection occurring in each time period equates,
w
_{1}＝w
_{2}＝...＝w
_{n}＝d，D＝nd。Substitution above formula can obtain
Now sample variance is:
${S}_{n}^{2}=\frac{1}{n1}\underset{i=1}{\overset{n}{\mathrm{\Σ}}}{({\mathrm{\ϵ}}_{i}\stackrel{\‾}{\mathrm{\ϵ}})}^{2}=\frac{n(n+1){d}^{2}}{12}$
Standard deviation is:
${S}_{n}=\sqrt{\frac{n(n+1){d}^{2}}{12}}=\sqrt{\frac{n(n+1)}{12}}d\≈\sqrt{\frac{n+1}{12}}\·D$
Above sample variance is the sample variance while only considering secular distortion.In actual observation, also there is the measuring error being caused by reasons such as accuracy of instrument, measuring error.According to summation principle, Displacement Ageing distortion and measuring error should be considered, be about to the two addition.According to derivation above, the sample variance after can being considered is:
Standard deviation is:
$S=\sqrt{\frac{{n}^{2}{\mathrm{\σ}}^{2}}{n1}+\frac{n(n+1){d}^{2}}{12}}\≈\sqrt{n{\mathrm{\σ}}^{2}+\frac{n+1}{12}{D}^{2}}$
(3) deformation tendency monitor control index
According to above analysis, provide deformation tendency monitor control index S
_{d}:
1) higher limit when stable, the measured value of slope deforming is substantially constant:
2) there is the lower limit of obvious secular distortion in side slope:
Wherein: n is the measured value number in time series; σ is accuracy of observation, by instrument and observation procedure, is determined; D is the deformation values occurring in Measuring Time.
Step 3: according to the result of calculation in step 2, soilslope deformation stage is judged, the distortion of judgement soilslope is in steadystate deformation stage, secular distortion stage or the stage of accelerating the failure.
After obtaining the Monitoring Data of slope deforming, can judge in this time period slope displacement is in which kind of state according to the standard deviation S of displacement time series.If S≤S
_{dl}, side slope is in the steadystate deformation stage: distortion oneself through stable, displacement does not change substantially; If gas S
_{dl}<S≤S
_{d2}, side slope, in the secular distortion stage, also will be done further distortion judgement and analyze; If S>S
_{d2}, illustrating that side slope is in accelerating the failure the stage, secular distortion still clearly, cause concern.
Step 4: the displacement stability to the soilslope in the secular distortion stage judges, and carries out early warning.
After roughly judging the deformation stage of side slope, also need the side slope in deformation stage further to analyze.Side slope displacement and stress etc. in deformation process are in the middle of continuous variation, these physical quantitys whether stablize the safety and stability that direct relation side slope.In the situation that having arranged monitoring system, by judging the stability state of observed physical quantity to the analysis of resulting field observation value.Traditional analytical approach is mainly to carry out qualitative analysis by drawing process line, and analysis result is accurate not.In order to describe more accurately the situation of change of observed reading, also need observation data structure statistic to carry out quantitative test.
(1) observed reading stability distinguishing method
Judge the basic deformation of side slope after the stage, also need side slope further to analyze and research in the observed reading of deformation stage, to being out of shape abnormal position, identify.At check slope rock mass, whether occur in secular distortion, can carry out stability test by forming statistic.Wherein desirable stability test method is the poor method of inspection of equal Fang Lian, and it is check a kind of method that whether Parent Mean moves gradually in observation process.
If extract increment x from certain parent
_{1}, x
_{2},, x
_{n},
be called equal Fang Lian poor, with it, can make the statistic needing.If there is no secular distortion, only there is measuring error, x in parent
_{i}obey N (μ, σ) and distribute, d
_{i}=x
_{i+1}x
_{i}for
for N (0,1), and
for χ
^{2}(1), so
$E\left(\frac{{{d}_{i}}^{2}}{2{\mathrm{\σ}}^{2}}\right)=1,$ E(d
_{i} ^{2})=2 σ
^{2},
$E\left({q}^{2}\right)=\frac{1}{2(n1)}\underset{i=1}{\overset{n1}{\mathrm{\Σ}}}E\left({d}_{i}^{2}\right)={\mathrm{\σ}}^{2},$ Therefore q
^{2}for σ
^{2}unbiased estimator.
Due to sample variance
also be σ
^{2}unbiased estimator.The existing amount of taking statistics
r＝q
^{2}/S
^{2}
R can be called to stability factor.For accumulative total secular distortion amount, if certain section of time deformation is highly stable, r=1.If in observation process, due to the impact of secular distortion, Parent Mean moves gradually and keeps its variances sigma
^{2}constant, sample variance S
^{2}can be subject to this impact of moving and become excessive.But q
^{2}only comprise the poor of continuous two observed readings of priority, the impact of abovementioned movement obtains part and eliminates, q
^{2}the impact being subject to is compared with S
^{2}for little.While testing, can utilize observation sequence value to calculate r, as too small in r value, think that the movement gradually of Parent Mean is significant, i.e. the rising tendency of secular distortion is obvious, and it is stable that rock mass does not also reach.
When observed reading fluctuation is larger, while using statistic r to carry out stability test, can there is equal Fang Lian difference and the q of sequence
^{2}also larger, thus make r=q
^{2}/ S
^{2}value larger on the contrary, the situation close to 1.Now single from the judgement of r value size, observed reading should be more stable; But in fact the fluctuation of measured value illustrates that greatly displacement deformation is unstable, or even more abnormal, only according to r value, judges and likely produces erroneous judgement in this case, therefore also needs the discreteness of measured value to differentiate.
The common counter of judgement sample series of discrete is standard deviation,
but in monitoring system, the displacement deformation that different instruments obtain quantitatively has larger difference, for example the distortion of outer viewpoint is generally large than interior viewpoint.And standard deviation reflection is " definitely " dispersion degree.For the capable reasonable analysis of contraposition shiftin and be convenient to comparison, should adopt the index of " relatively " dispersion degree of reflection displacement to analyze.
According to mathematical statistics, the standard deviation of stochastic variable X (mean square deviation)
become the coefficient of variation of X with the ratio of its mathematical expectation E (X), be designated as δ
_{x},
δ
_{x}be a nondimensional numerical value, reflection be that X is for " relative scatter " of mean value.δ
_{x}the relative dispersion degree of the less explanation of numerical value less.When obtaining sample (X1, X2, an X
_{n})) time, its sample average
sample standard deviation
after the sample average of trying to achieve and standard deviation, the coefficient of variation that can must sample according to formula.
Therefore in conjunction with the advantage of two statistic stability factor r and variation factor δ, can differentiate preferably the stability of displacement observation sequence, find secular distortion.Because two statistics are all dimensionless units, be also convenient to the measured value of different monitoring instruments mutually to compare.
(2) displacement and rate of displacement monitor control index
In stability study of slope, how drafting monitor control index, to carry out early warning be a key issue.This method utilizes the stability factor r of slope displacement, deformation velocity to consider together with combining with variation factor δ, and the stability state of data is carried out to objective analysis.With formula, respectively displacement and rate of displacement are analyzed, drawn each measuring point γ
_{d}, δ
_{d}, γ
_{v}, δ
_{v}two groups of indexs.If the mean value of the stability series γ of respective amount is
the mean value of variation factor δ is
Displacement stability factor γ
_{d}and variation factor δ
_{d}judgement have following several result:
(1) J
_{d}1: the shift value of measuring point changes greatly
If
$\left\{\begin{array}{c}{r}_{D}<<\stackrel{\‾}{{r}_{D}}\\ {\mathrm{\δ}}_{D}>>\stackrel{\‾}{{\mathrm{\δ}}_{D}}\end{array}\right.,$ Think that the shift value of measuring point changes greatly;
(2) JD2: the shift value of measuring point is more stable
If
$\left\{\begin{array}{c}{r}_{D}>>\stackrel{\‾}{{r}_{D}}\\ {\mathrm{\δ}}_{D}<<\stackrel{\‾}{{\mathrm{\δ}}_{D}}\end{array}\right.,$ Think that the shift value of measuring point is more stable
(3) JD3: the shift value of measuring point is abnormal
If
$\left\{\begin{array}{c}{r}_{D}>>\stackrel{\‾}{{r}_{D}}\\ {\mathrm{\δ}}_{D}>>\stackrel{\‾}{{\mathrm{\δ}}_{D}}\end{array}\right.$ Or
$\left\{\begin{array}{c}{r}_{D}<<\stackrel{\‾}{{r}_{D}}\\ {\mathrm{\δ}}_{D}<<\stackrel{\‾}{{\mathrm{\δ}}_{D}}\end{array}\right.,$ Thinking the shift value of measuring point, some is abnormal
Use the same method and can make evaluation to rate of displacement, rate of displacement stability factor γ
_{v}and variation factor δ
_{v}judgement have following several result:
(1) Jv1: the shift value rate variation of measuring point is larger
If
$\left\{\begin{array}{c}{r}_{V}<<\stackrel{\‾}{{r}_{V}}\\ {\mathrm{\δ}}_{V}>>\stackrel{\‾}{{\mathrm{\δ}}_{V}}\end{array}\right.,$ Think that the rate of displacement value of measuring point changes greatly;
(2) Jv2: the rate of displacement of measuring point is more stable
If
$\left\{\begin{array}{c}{r}_{V}>>\stackrel{\‾}{{r}_{V}}\\ {\mathrm{\δ}}_{V}<<\stackrel{\‾}{{\mathrm{\δ}}_{V}}\end{array}\right.,$ Think that the rate of displacement value of measuring point is more stable
(3) Jv3: the rate of displacement of measuring point is abnormal
If
$\left\{\begin{array}{c}{r}_{V}>>\stackrel{\‾}{{r}_{V}}\\ {\mathrm{\δ}}_{V}>>\stackrel{\‾}{{\mathrm{\δ}}_{V}}\end{array}\right.$ Or
$\left\{\begin{array}{c}{r}_{V}<<\stackrel{\‾}{{r}_{V}}\\ {\mathrm{\δ}}_{V}<<\stackrel{\‾}{{\mathrm{\δ}}_{V}}\end{array}\right.,$ Thinking the rate of displacement value of measuring point, some is abnormal
Judged result to displacement and rate of displacement considers, and according to deformation, is divided into Pyatyi:
I level (steadystate deformation): J
_{d}2 and Jv2
II level (more unstable distortion): J
_{d}2 and Jv1
III level (compared with abnormal deformation): J
_{d}2 with Jv3, J
_{d}1 with Jv2, J
_{d}3 and Jv2
IV level (abnormal deformation): J
_{d}3 with Jv1, J
_{d}3 and Jv3
V level (unstable distortion): J
_{d}1 with Jv1, J
_{d}1 and Jv3.
Finally explanation is, above preferred embodiment is only unrestricted in order to technical scheme of the present invention to be described, although the present invention is described in detail by above preferred embodiment, but those skilled in the art are to be understood that, can to it, make various changes in the form and details, and not depart from the claims in the present invention book limited range.
Claims (6)
1. soilslope surface displacement is monitored and safe early warning method, it is characterized in that: comprise the following steps:
Step 1: place arranges laser displacement sensor in side slope to be measured, gathers laser displacement sensor to the range information of side slope surface stationary monitoring point;
Step 2: the data that collect are sent to remote monitoring center, and calculate the displacement of soilslope monitoring point and rate of displacement according to these data;
Step 3: according to the result of calculation in step 2, soilslope deformation stage is judged, the distortion of judgement soilslope is in steadystate deformation stage, secular distortion stage or the stage of accelerating the failure;
Step 4: the displacement stability to the soilslope in the secular distortion stage judges, and carries out early warning according to judged result.
2. soilslope surface displacement according to claim 1 is monitored and safe early warning method, it is characterized in that: in step 2, by wireless communication module, data are sent to remote monitoring center, remote monitoring center is according to the elevation angle of the monitoring line between laser displacement sensor and monitoring point, side slope surface and the angle between side slope trend and tendency, converse the surface displacement on side slope surface, and calculate rate of displacement.
3. soilslope surface displacement according to claim 1 is monitored and safe early warning method, it is characterized in that: in step 3, by calculating slope displacement seasonal effect in time series standard deviation S, higher limit when slope deforming is stablized:
there is the lower limit of obvious secular distortion in side slope:
Wherein: n is the measured value number in time series; σ is accuracy of observation, by instrument and observation procedure, is determined; D is the deformation values occurring in Measuring Time.
4. soilslope surface displacement monitoring according to claim 3 and safe early warning method, is characterized in that: in step 3, determine the slope deforming stage of living in: if S≤S according to following principle
_{dl}, side slope is in the steadystate deformation stage, and oneself warp of distortion is stable, and displacement does not change substantially; If S
_{dl}<S≤S
_{d2}, side slope, in the secular distortion stage, also will be done further distortion judgement and analyze; If S>S
_{d2}, illustrating that side slope is in accelerating the failure the stage, secular distortion is still clearly.
5. soilslope surface displacement according to claim 4 is monitored and safe early warning method, it is characterized in that: in step 4, by obtaining the statistic of each observation station displacement of side slope and the statistic of rate of displacement judges the displacement stability of the soilslope in the secular distortion stage.
6. soilslope surface displacement monitoring according to claim 5 and safe early warning method, is characterized in that: the statistic of described observation station displacement comprises: displacement stability factor γ
_{d}with displacement variation factor δ
_{d}; The statistic of described observation station rate of displacement comprises: rate of displacement stability factor γ
_{v}and variation factor δ
_{v}.
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CN106524939B (en) *  20161101  20171013  中国地质大学（武汉）  A kind of crack threedimensional state variation monitoring method and monitoring system 
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CN107121675A (en) *  20170504  20170901  成都猫道科技有限公司  Longrange displacement measuring device, system and method with clutter recognition function 
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CN107220467A (en) *  20170707  20170929  中国水利水电科学研究院  The Forecasting Methodology of retaining phase storehouse bank rock side slope deformation 
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CN108413920A (en) *  20180201  20180817  武汉大学  A kind of tiny displacement deforming monitoring system and method based on tension sensor 
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CN110132218A (en) *  20190417  20190816  青岛理工大学  Multigrade early warning measuring method based on slope stability monitoring 
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