CN103636391A - Water-saving method for planting millet hybrids in extreme arid area - Google Patents

Water-saving method for planting millet hybrids in extreme arid area Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103636391A
CN103636391A CN201310691573.9A CN201310691573A CN103636391A CN 103636391 A CN103636391 A CN 103636391A CN 201310691573 A CN201310691573 A CN 201310691573A CN 103636391 A CN103636391 A CN 103636391A
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China
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millet
water
saving
cave
carry
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CN201310691573.9A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
赵治海
史高雷
冯小磊
宋国亮
苏旭
范光宇
王晓明
杨天育
王峰
邱凤仓
张文英
王德权
张晓磊
赵芳
李欣儒
董孔军
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张家口市农业科学院
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Priority to CN201310691573.9A priority Critical patent/CN103636391A/en
Publication of CN103636391A publication Critical patent/CN103636391A/en

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Abstract

The invention relates to the technical field of water-saving plantation of millet hybrids, in particular to a water-saving method for planting millet hybrids in an extreme arid area. At present, a conventional millet cultivation technique used in the extreme arid area cannot guarantee stable yield and high water production efficiency, and the realization of water-saving plantation of the millet hybrids in the extreme arid area consists in key factors of cultivating a drought-enduring variety and formulating a scientific irrigation and cultivation technology. According to the method, the planting density is 2667 plants each mu, 50 cubic meters of water is used for irrigation for each mu before seven days of sowing, and 30 cubic meters of water is supplementally irrigated before ten days of head sprouting of millet; a land is heavily pressed for 2-3 times by rolling stone; a plastic film is mulched by a machine, and soil is covered and compacted; 20 ml of rooting water is poured into each hole before sowing; and only 80 cubic meters of water is irrigated for each mu during the whole crop growing period, and the maximum production yield of millet is larger than 400 kilograms each mu. 5 kilograms of millet can be produced when one cubic meter of water is used for irrigation, the water production efficiency is improved by 5 times than the national water production efficiency, and the yield is improved by more than one times than the world highest level of 2.32 kilograms.

Description

The method of a kind of Extreme drought area millet crossbreed water-saving planting

Technical field

The present invention relates to millet crossbreed high-efficiency water-saving planting technology field, specifically the method for a kind of Extreme drought area millet crossbreed water-saving planting.

Background technology

Millet, the title millet that shells, is one of China tradition crop, extensively plants in northern China arid and semi-arid area.Millet has drought resisting, impoverishment tolerant, adaptable feature, is adapted at planting in various soil.Grain is of high nutritive value, and containing rich in protein, fat, electrolytes and minerals etc., is deeply subject to liking of consumers in general.In addition, in millet straw, gross protein value is 3.16%, and containing digestible protein 0.7%-1.0%, feeding value approaches leguminous forage, can be used as the good forage grass of livestock breeding.

For a long time, conventional millet variety plantation mainly be take as main in China, and output is relatively low, and culture technique is relatively backward, and its cultivated area is replaced by corn gradually.Zhangjiakou City academy of agricultural sciences successfully utilizes millet photo-thermo-sensitive genetic male sterile line, selects first the temperature sensitive two-series hybrid of millet light.Compare with conventional millet, many, the heterosis, hybrid vigor of tillering obviously, output and drought resisting, resistance significantly improves.In addition, utilize the anti-Sethoxydin weed killer herbicide of crossbreed characteristic, avoided the removal of false hybrid strain, saved the amount of labour used of millet weeding in seedling stage, thinning, greatly improved its economic benefit.At present, the density ratio of millet planting is larger, and seedling 2.5 ten thousand-3.5 ten thousand strain is stayed in general every mu of spring sowing district, and seedling 50,000-70,000 strain is stayed in every mu, summer sowing district.When meeting arid situation, highdensity planting patterns must cause the competition to limited water resources, causes later stage lack of water to have a strong impact on millet output.Till now, about the research of arid area millet thin planting technology, do not report.

The essentialspecies of millet is implanted in the northern Dryland that annual rainfall is greater than 300 millimeters.The Extreme drought area that is less than 100 millimeters in annual rainfall, owing to being faced with for a long time the threat of continuous drought, and evaporation discharge is quite large, and rain is supported condition and is descended at all to plant millet.If only rely on grou1ndwater irrigation, whole millet need to be watered 3-4 time breeding time, has reduced widely water use efficiency.Because the long-term over-extraction of underground water is serious, subterranean water level declines serious, and arable area declines, and vegetation is withered, soil large area desert, desertization.Therefore, the irrigation of groundwater resources exhaustive exploitation is not the effective way of agricultural sustainable development.In addition, China's agricultural irrigation mode is relatively extensive, with " irrigation irrigates the fields, has water just to water, broad irrigation, bubble field, filling peace winter water " traditional habit, is still main, according to crop, does not specifically need water to carry out science pouring period, has caused great lot of water resources waste.In Extreme drought area, existing millet culture technique cannot guarantee stable yields and raising water production efficiency at all, how to cultivate drought-enduring variety, and formulation scientific application of irrigation, culture technique are the key factors of restriction Extreme drought area millet high-efficiency water-saving plantation.

Summary of the invention

The method that the object of this invention is to provide a kind of Extreme drought area millet crossbreed water-saving planting.Extreme drought of the present invention area refers to: at >=10 ℃ of accumulated temperature more than 2500 ℃, annual rainfall is less than 100 millimeters, annual evaporation discharge more than 2000 millimeters, crops Extreme drought irrigation farming area short of rain in breeding time;

Its step is as follows:

A, week prior to seeding, the plot of choosing is once irrigated to 50 cubic metres/mu;

B, execute livestock breeding high-quality fertilizer 3000-5000 kg/acre, mix and add 40-50 kilogram of superphosphate and 30-40 kilogram of carbonic hydroammonium simultaneously, during fertilising, be sprinkling upon and go up en bloc equably;

C, utilize Rolling Stone to carry out weight 2-3 time, compacting top layer, slows down transpiration;

D, machine plastic film mulch, 0.15 meter of earthing compacting above overlaps between two films;

Point take root 20 milliliters, water in every cave before e, sowing, hestening rooting;

F, spacing in the rows, line-spacing are 0.45 meter, and planting density is 2667 plants/acre; Artificial hand hoe program request, the dark 1-2 centimetre in cave; Every cave seeding quantity is the Millet Seed that 4-6 grain is wrapped clothing;

G, at Gu Miao, grow to 4-5 centimetre of left and right, carry out thinning, every cave retains individual plant;

H, in millet, ear and within first about 10 days, carry out 30 cubic metres of supplementary irrigations;

J, whole millet only carry out twice weeding in seedling stage and shooting stage breeding time;

K, other stage manage according to conventional method, until results.

The present invention, by each stage of millet is needed to water signature analysis, carries out scientific quantitative analysis irrigation, reduces moisture invalid lost, improves photosynthetic efficiency.At whole crop growth, in the phase, only irrigate 80 cubic metres of/mu of limited water, be respectively first 30 cubic metres/mu of 50 cubic metres/mu of the front irrigations of sowing and heading.In conjunction with plastic film mulch and new root technology, carry out millet crossbreed Lower Density Cultivation Method.Plant/line spacing is 0.45 meter, and density is 2667 plants/acre, is conventional method 1/10 left and right.Weeds are few, and field management is convenient to be simplified.Adopt Lower Density Cultivation Method technology of the present invention, hybridization millet maximum output reaches more than 800 pounds/acre.

The invention has the beneficial effects as follows and improved Agricultural Moisture production efficiency, 1 cube of water of every irrigation just can be produced 5 kilograms of millets, than China water production efficiency, improves 5 times, than 2.32 kilograms of the higher national Israel of Agricultural Moisture availability, has improved more than 1 times.The in the situation that of current agricultural water resources shortage, the present invention is a kind of resource-conserving culture technique, is worth promoting in Extreme drought area.

Embodiment

Following examples of implementation are convenient to understand better the present invention, but do not limit the present invention.Test method in examples of implementation, if no special instructions, is conventional method below.

In following examples of implementation, material used, consumptive material etc., if no special instructions, all can obtain from commercial channels.

The Dunhuang hybridization millet Drought resistant experiment in 2013 of take is below example, sets forth Extreme drought of the present invention area millet crossbreed high-efficiency water-saving planting technology.

1. test material:

Conventional millet (Longgu 6), No. 3,18 new millet drought resisting hybrid combinations (numbering millet drought resisting hybrid combination 1-millet drought resisting hybrid combination 18) and a confused flour beetle.The conventional millet variety that conventional millet Longgu 6 Shi You Gansu Province academy of agricultural sciences crop is cultivated, is acknowledged as one of more intense millet variety of drought resistance.Open the drought resisting high yield millet crossbreed that No. 3 Shi You Hebei province Academy of Agriculture, Zhangjiakou City of confused flour beetle are bred as.Through national millet variety evaluation committee, identify and pass through in April, 2005.Identify numbering: state identifies 2005007.At present, at China's semiarid zone spread.18 new millet drought resisting hybrid combination Shi You Hebei province Academy of Agriculture, Zhangjiakou City millets the up-to-date millet hybrid combination selecting, it is characterized by tiller more, strong drought resistance, single plant yield is high, is applicable to Lower Density Cultivation Method.Up to the present, this millet hybrid combination is transplanted Dunhuang, Gansu Province and has been carried out 3 years Drought resistant experiments, and part combination is in the Chan Bi district examination stage.

2. test site:

Dunhuang experiment station, academy of agricultural sciences, Gansu Province.Dunhuang is located in the northwestward, Gansu Province, belongs to warm temperate climate, and annual rainfall only has 39.9 millimeters, and annual evaporation discharge is up to 2400 millimeters.Daylight is sufficient, and frost-free season is long.Till September 20 in 2013 gather in the crops, annual rainfall is 50 millimeter, is essentially invalid rainfall.

3. test method:

Before broadcasting, water 50 cubic metres/mu, the whole ground turned over, in conjunction with the disposable base fertilizer (do not topdress the time of infertility) that uses sufficient in whole ground, harrows a kind of farm tools suppression mulch film that tiles behind whole ground.Artificial hand hoe program request, puts 20 milliliters, the water of taking root, and stratification is taken root in the cave in.Seeding row spacing is 0.45m, and repeating 3 each repetition sizes is 10m 3, density of reserved seedlings 2667 strain/667 ㎡.Randomized arrangement in test material district group.In addition, be provided with not plastic film mulch and process, the concrete same plastic film mulch of test method.Finally, representational 5m is chosen in each community during results 2carry out determination of yield.In addition, sowing front and back and each growthdevelopmental stage carry out 1.2 meters of dark soil basis determinings.

4. test procedure:

1) on April 20th, 2012, in experiment station, Dunhuang experiment station, academy of agricultural sciences, Gansu, select 2 mu of more smooth arable lands as experimental field.It is carried out to irrigation before seeding, and irrigation volume is controlled at 50 cubic metres of/mu of left and right.

2) April 24, about 3000 kgs/acre of fertilising livestock breeding high-quality fertilizer, adds 50 kilograms of superphosphate and 40 kilograms of carbonic hydroammonium to mix simultaneously and uses, and is sprinkling upon and goes up en bloc equably.

3) April 24, after paving basal dressing, to deep plough, ploughing depth requires 20-30 centimetre of left and right, harrows subsequently a kind of farm tools.Utilize Rolling Stone to carry out weight 2-3 time, compacting earth's surface, pulverizes large clod, reduces the saturating property of soil, the moisture that slows down evaporation.

4)-27 days on the 25th April, adopt and carry out machine plastic film mulch with the common plastics film (blow moulded polyethyene, 0.008 millimeters thick) of 1.5 meters wide.0.15 meter of earthing compacting above overlaps between two films.Use nylon rope bracing wire, spacing is 0.45 meter, then artificial hand hoe program request on line, and cave distance is 0.45 meter, the dark 1-2 centimetre in cave.Final seeding row spacing is 0.45 meter, and planting density is 2667 plants/acre.

5) point take root 20 milliliters, water in every cave before sowing, after waiting water to permeate completely, 5 of every cave points are wrapped the millet crossbreed of clothing, and then blinding, suppresses gently.

6) at Gu Miao, grow to 4-5 centimetre of left and right, carry out thinning, every cave retains true crossbreed individual plant.

7) in millet, ear and carry out 30 cubic metres of supplementary irrigations in first about 10 days, account for 1/3 of total amount.

8) whole millet only carries out twice weeding in seedling stage and shooting stage breeding time, and other are as Routine Management method.

5. result of the test

Table one plant height (unit: centimetre)

From upper table one, find, the plant height of material millet drought resisting hybrid combination 3 is minimum, only have 126.87 centimetres, and the plant height of material millet drought resisting hybrid combination 10 is maximum, has reached 145.23 centimetres, and the plant height of all the other materials is all between 130-140, and amplitude of variation is less.

The average single fringe weight of table two (unit: gram)

From table two, be not difficult to find, single fringe of most of material focuses on 20 grams of left and right, and some material may be because tiller number be few, and final single fringe is larger, Longgu 6 for example, assorted No. 3 and millet drought resisting hybrid combination 9 etc.; Also some material may be because tiller number causes single fringe weight to decline more, and for example millet drought resisting hybrid combination 2 and millet drought resisting hybrid combination 3 tiller numbers remain on 8 left and right, but Dan Suichong only has 17 grams of left and right.

Biao San community is surveyed and is produced table (unit: thousand grams/acre)

From table three, can find, by applying high-efficiency water-saving technology of the present invention, make to hybridize millet output generally more than 600 jin, and to 300 jin of more solito millet Longgu 6 per mu yield less thaies.In all hybridization millet combinations, the output of millet drought resisting hybrid combination 2 reaches 814 jin, than conventional millet, exceeds nearly 2 times.Because before broadcasting, broadcast the rear 1.2 meters of moisture differences of results in very little, breeding time Dunhuang rainfall substantially invalid and local subterranean water level is deep, whole breeding time, millet water consumption be the water yield of 80 cubic metres/mu of irrigation substantially.The water production efficiency of all hybridization millet materials reaches more than 3.75 kilograms.Wherein millet drought resisting hybrid combination 2 combinations are up to more than 5, and 2 of Zhe Bi developed country exceeds more than one times.

Obviously, the above embodiment of the present invention is only for example of the present invention is clearly described, and is not the restriction to embodiments of the present invention.For those of ordinary skill in the field, can also make other changes in different forms on the basis of the above description.Here cannot give all embodiments exhaustive.Every still row in protection scope of the present invention of apparent variation that technical scheme of the present invention extends out or change that belong to.

Claims (1)

1. a method for Extreme drought area millet crossbreed water-saving planting, be applicable at >=10 ℃ of accumulated temperature more than 2500 ℃, annual rainfall is less than 100 millimeters, annual evaporation discharge more than 2000 millimeters, crops in breeding time Extreme drought irrigation farming short of rain regional; It is characterized in that its step is as follows:
A, 7 days prior to seeding, once irrigate 50 cubic metres/mu to the plot of choosing;
B, execute livestock breeding high-quality fertilizer 3000-5000 kg/acre, mix and add 40-50 kilogram of superphosphate and 30-40 kilogram of carbonic hydroammonium simultaneously, during fertilising, be sprinkling upon and go up en bloc equably;
C, utilize Rolling Stone to carry out weight 2-3 time, compacting top layer, slows down transpiration;
D, machine plastic film mulch, 0.15 meter of earthing compacting above overlaps between two films;
Point take root 20 milliliters, water in every cave before e, sowing, hestening rooting;
F, spacing in the rows, line-spacing are 0.45 meter, and planting density is 2667 plants/acre; Artificial hand hoe program request, the dark 1-2 centimetre in cave; Every cave seeding quantity is the Millet Seed that 4-6 grain is wrapped clothing;
G, at Gu Miao, grow to 4-5 centimetre of left and right, carry out thinning, every cave retains individual plant;
H, in millet, ear and within first 10 days, carry out 30 cubic metres of supplementary irrigations;
J, whole millet only carry out twice weeding in seedling stage and shooting stage breeding time;
K, other stage manage according to conventional method, until results.
CN201310691573.9A 2013-12-17 2013-12-17 Water-saving method for planting millet hybrids in extreme arid area CN103636391A (en)

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Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103858654A (en) * 2014-03-31 2014-06-18 张家口市农业科学院 Method for planting millet in sandy land
CN103875440A (en) * 2014-04-21 2014-06-25 张家口市农业科学院 Method for planting hybridized millet
CN105557272A (en) * 2015-12-23 2016-05-11 山西省农业科学院经济作物研究所 High-yielding cultivation method of millets

Families Citing this family (3)

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CN104365327B (en) * 2014-10-29 2017-01-11 山西省农业科学院小麦研究所 High-yield and cost-saving simple cultivation method for large-group small-entity summer sowing foxtail millet
CN105830618B (en) * 2016-03-09 2018-12-21 山西省农业科学院小麦研究所 A kind of millet mechanical harvesting exempts from the Band texture method of grain ear winding
CN108718959A (en) * 2018-06-03 2018-11-02 山西省农业科学院作物科学研究所 A kind of arid area millet cultural method

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CN100562244C (en) * 2005-07-11 2009-11-25 于学忠 Culturing method of millet wide-seeding and thin-planting in high-yield
CN1914982A (en) * 2006-09-05 2007-02-21 张家口市农业科学院 Method for planting millet cenospecies of anti weedicide
US8250807B2 (en) * 2009-08-11 2012-08-28 Pioneer Hi Bred International Inc Methods to increase yield of plants grown at high populations
CN103069997B (en) * 2013-01-30 2014-02-12 中国科学院遗传与发育生物学研究所 Water-saving irrigation method applicable to close-planting crop

Cited By (3)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103858654A (en) * 2014-03-31 2014-06-18 张家口市农业科学院 Method for planting millet in sandy land
CN103875440A (en) * 2014-04-21 2014-06-25 张家口市农业科学院 Method for planting hybridized millet
CN105557272A (en) * 2015-12-23 2016-05-11 山西省农业科学院经济作物研究所 High-yielding cultivation method of millets

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Application publication date: 20140319