CN103629959B - S oot blowing method for automatically controlling waste heat utilization heat exchanger - Google Patents

S oot blowing method for automatically controlling waste heat utilization heat exchanger Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103629959B
CN103629959B CN201310661176.7A CN201310661176A CN103629959B CN 103629959 B CN103629959 B CN 103629959B CN 201310661176 A CN201310661176 A CN 201310661176A CN 103629959 B CN103629959 B CN 103629959B
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China
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heat
tube bundle
tail gas
heat exchanger
exchanging tube
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CN103629959A (en
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程林
杜文静
王乃华
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Shandong University
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Shandong University
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Priority to CN201410413056.XA priority patent/CN104165529B/en
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P10/00Technologies related to metal processing
    • Y02P10/25Process efficiency

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Abstract

The invention discloses a waste heat utilization heat exchanger, with a tube bundle arranged in a diamond way, of a rotary cement kiln and a soot blowing method of the waste heat utilization heat exchanger. The heat exchanger comprises a heat exchange tube bundle, a tail gas inlet, a tail gas outlet and a casing, wherein the heat exchange tube bundle is arranged in the casing; the heat exchange tube bundle is arranged in a diamond way; the casing adopts a diamond structure; a soot blowing opening is formed on the casing; the soot blowing opening is connected with a soot blowing pipeline; a fan is connected with the interior of the soot blowing pipeline; the fan is connected with a central control unit; the central control unit controls the frequency of the fan by computing the thermal-conduction resistance of the heat exchange tube bundle. Tail gas of the rotary cement kiln enters the heat exchanger from the tail gas inlet, firstly passes through the heat exchange tube bundle which is arranged on the vertex of a first included angle of the heat exchange tube bundle arranged in the diamond way, secondly breadthwise scours the heat exchange tube bundle, then passes through the heat exchange tube bundle on the vertex of a second included angle of the heat exchange tube bundle arranged in the diamond way, and finally is discharged from the tail gas outlet. The heat exchange tube bundle is arranged in the diamond way, so that the heat exchanger has the characteristics that the heat-transfer capability is high, soot is difficult to deposit, the convective heat transfer effect is good, and the like, so that the heat transfer efficiency is maximized.

Description

A kind of ash-blowing method of automatic control cement rotary kiln UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN heat exchanger
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of high-performance heat exchanger utilizing for cement rotary kiln tail gas, belong to technical field of heat exchangers.
Background technology
Along with China's rapid economic development, energy resource consumption increases day by day, and the problem that urban air quality goes from bad to worse is also outstanding all the more, and the problem of saving the energy and the discharge of minimizing environment harmful is extremely urgent.In common thermal power field, the exhaust gas temperature that high, the with serious pollution one of the main reasons of energy consumption is flue gas is too high, has wasted mass energy, has caused again environmental pollution.Cement industry is a highly energy-consuming, the industry of high pollution.In the tail gas that cement rotary kiln produces, dust content is high, poor quality.Cement rotary kiln can carry out recycling to using waste heat from tail gas with afterheat generating system, realizes the object of energy-saving and emission-reduction.But in relevant boiler of power generation by waste heat, the fouling phenomenon of heat transmission equipment is serious, heat-transfer capability is poor, deashing difficulty, these problems are urgently to be resolved hurrily.
In existing heat reclaim unit, the arrangement of heat-exchanging tube bundle has two kinds conventionally, and in-line arrangement and fork row, referring to Fig. 1 and Fig. 2.Flow field when fluid scouring in-line arrangement and staggered tubes bundle is different.When row fork fluid between pipe, alternately shrink and the bending channel of expansion in flow, during than in-line arrangement, between pipe, the flow disturbance of corridor is violent, therefore strong than in-line arrangement of fork row's exchange capability of heat.Meanwhile, the drag losses of staggered tubes bundle is greater than in-line arrangement, and for the tube bank that needs flush clean, in-line arrangement has easy cleaned advantage.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is directed to existing cement rotary kiln tail gas and utilize the serious and poor problem of convection heat transfer' heat-transfer by convection ability of the dust stratification that exists in heat transmission equipment, propose the cement rotary kiln UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN heat exchanger of the effective tube bank diamond array of a kind of unsuitable dust stratification, convection heat transfer' heat-transfer by convection, a kind of ash-blowing method of this heat exchanger is provided simultaneously.
The present invention restrains the cement rotary kiln UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN heat exchanger of diamond array, by the following technical solutions
This heat exchanger, comprise heat-exchanging tube bundle, tail gas import, tail gas outlet and housing, heat-exchanging tube bundle is arranged in housing, the heat-exchanging tube bundle arrangement that assumes diamond in shape, housing is the diamond structure matching with heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array, is called rhombus housing, and tail gas import is arranged on the first angle position of rhombus housing, tail gas outlet is arranged on the second angle position of rhombus housing, rhombus housing the first angle and the second angle be diagonal angle, heat-exchanging tube bundle on the first angle summit of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array is arranged on the bottom of tail gas import relative with tail gas import, heat-exchanging tube bundle on the second angle summit of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array is arranged on the top of tail gas outlet and exports relative with tail gas, the first angle of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array and the second angle of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array are diagonal angles, cement rotary kiln tail gas is entered by tail gas import, first pass through the heat-exchanging tube bundle on the first angle summit of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array, then transversal flow heat-exchanging tube bundle, pass through again the heat-exchanging tube bundle on the second angle summit of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array, finally from tail gas outlet, discharge, the first current meter that exports and be all provided for measuring tail gas flow velocity on the position between tail gas import and tail gas outlet at tail gas import, tail gas, the second current meter of rate of flow of fluid in heat-exchanging tube bundle import is provided for measuring heat-exchanging tube bundle, on described housing, ash blowing mouth is set, described ash blowing mouth connects blowing pipe road, and blowing pipe is connected with blower fan in road, and blower fan is connected with central controller, and central controller is controlled the frequency of blower fan by calculating the dust stratification thermal conduction resistance of heat exchanger tube.
The first angle of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array consists of the first side of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array and the Second Edge of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array, heat exchanger tube spacing in first side direction (referring to the distance between the central axis of adjacent heat exchange tubes) is L1, heat exchanger tube spacing in Second Edge direction is L2, and L1 and L2 are unequal.Preferably, L1 is 1.3 times of L2.
The relation of the first included angle A of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array, the heat exchanger tube spacing L in heat-exchanging tube bundle and heat exchanger tube outer diameter D meets following formula:
3.7 * D>L>2.4 * D, wherein 20mm<D<50mm.
Sin (A/2)=b * (L/D) c, b wherein, c is parameter, and b is 1.65-1.8, and c is-0.8 to-0.9.
Preferably, L=3.2 * D, b is that 1.72, c is-0.815.
The ash-blowing method of the cement rotary kiln UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN heat exchanger of above-mentioned tube bank diamond array, comprises the following steps:
(1) in central controller, a part of data first prestore, these data comprise the heat exchanging inside pipe wall face convective heat-transfer coefficient of fluid at friction speed, temperature in heat-exchanging tube bundle, the convective heat-transfer coefficient of the heat exchanging tube outer surface of tail gas under friction speed and different temperatures;
(2) detect tail gas inlet temperature T w1, tail gas outlet exhaust temperature T w2, heat-exchanging tube bundle inlet fluid temperature T l1fluid temperature (F.T.) T with heat-exchanging tube bundle outlet l2, by measuring the current meter of fluid in heat-exchanging tube bundle, calculate fluid volume flow V in heat-exchanging tube bundle l, the mean value of the numerical value that the first flow velocity instrumentation of simultaneously measuring tail gas flow velocity by each obtains obtains the mean flow rate of tail gas; By Fluid Computation, pass in and out the temperature difference of heat-exchanging tube bundle and the caloric receptivity that flow obtains fluid, total heat exchange amount Q namely, Q=ρ V l* C p* (T l2-T l1), wherein, ρ is the density of fluid in tube bank, C pspecific heat at constant pressure for fluid in tube bank;
(3) then according to total heat exchange amount formula Q=K*A* △ T m,, draw total coefficient of heat transfer K, wherein △ T mthe logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) of heat transfer process, △ T m=((T w1-T l2)-(T w2-T l1))/ln ((T w1-T l2)/(T w2-T l1)), K is the overall heat-transfer coefficient of heat exchanger, A is heat exchange area, takes heat pipe external diameter and calculates;
(4) according to the flow velocity of the mean flow rate of tail gas and heat-exchanging tube bundle inner fluid, temperature, from pre-stored data central controller, draw the surface coefficient of heat transfer h of heat exchanger tube outer wall and inwall wand h l;
(5) central controller is according to the K, the h that calculate wand h l, according to heat transfer formula, calculate the dust stratification thermal conduction resistance R of heat exchanger tube outer wall di.
1 K = 1 h w + &delta; &lambda; d o d m + 1 h l d o d i + R do d o d i
In above-mentioned formula, K is total heat transfer coefficient; h wsurface coefficient of heat transfer for heat exchanger tube outer wall; h lsurface coefficient of heat transfer for heat exchanger tube inwall; d ofor heat exchanger tube overall diameter; d ifor heat exchanger tube interior diameter; d mfor heat exchanger tube average diameter, equal (d o+ d i)/2; δ is the wall thickness of heat exchanger tube, equals (d o-d i)/2; λ is the thermal conductivity factor of heat exchanger tube; R dodust stratification thermal conduction resistance for heat exchanger tube;
(6) blow grey in, central controller can be transferred the last ruuning situation, draws the dust stratification thermal conduction resistance of current heat exchanger tube, according to the size of dust stratification thermal conduction resistance, automatically chooses suitable blower fan frequency.
In step (6), when dust stratification thermal conduction resistance is greater than predetermined value, during lower than the first numerical value, blower fan moves with first frequency, when dust stratification thermal conduction resistance is greater than the first numerical value lower than second value, blower fan is to be greater than the second frequency operation of first frequency, when dust stratification thermal conduction resistance is greater than second value lower than third value, blower fan is to be greater than the 3rd frequency operation of second frequency, when dust stratification thermal conduction resistance is greater than third value lower than the 4th numerical value, blower fan is to be greater than the 4th frequency operation of the 3rd frequency, when dust stratification thermal conduction resistance is greater than the 5th numerical value, blower fan is to be greater than the 5th frequency operation of the 4th frequency.
The heat-exchanging tube bundle distribution that assumes diamond in shape in the present invention, is a kind of efficient, cleaning type heat reclaim unit, has the features such as strong, the unsuitable dust stratification of heat-transfer capability, convection heat transfer' heat-transfer by convection be effective, compared with prior art, has advantages of as follows:
1) the present invention is by the heat-exchanging tube bundle distribution that assumes diamond in shape, make heat exchanger have flow resistance little, be convenient to blow ash, long service life.
2) by heat-exchanging tube bundle the heat-exchanging tube bundle on both direction between the different setting of distance, make heat-exchanging tube bundle be in-line arrangement cross-current type heat exchanger, having good effect of heat exchange, be easy to the advantages such as cleaning, is a kind of heat exchange equipment that is applicable to reclaim cement rotary kiln exhaust gas heat.
3) housing has with tube bank the rhombus matching, and can reduce the dead band in heat exchange region, makes the flow velocity of the tail gas in heat transfer process keep relatively consistent simultaneously.
4) by constantly test, drawn the best relation formula of tube pitch and caliber, met the demand of heat exchange and minimizing dust stratification.
5) provide a kind of ash-blowing method that automatically regulates blower fan frequency according to thermal conduction resistance, saved the energy.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram that heat-exchanging tube bundle in-line arrangement of the prior art is arranged;
Fig. 2 is the schematic diagram that heat-exchanging tube bundle fork of the prior art is arranged and put;
Fig. 3 is the schematic diagram that heat-exchanging tube bundle rhombus of the present invention distributes;
Fig. 4 is the schematic diagram that amplify the part in Fig. 3;
Fig. 5 is along the profile of two angles up and down of diamond structure in Fig. 3;
Fig. 6 is the insert row of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array of the present invention and prior art, the coefficient of heat transfer effect comparison diagram of in-line arrangement;
Fig. 7 is blower fan FREQUENCY CONTROL flow chart;
Fig. 8 blows the whirlpool schematic diagram that ash forms;
Fig. 9 is another embodiment that blows ash.
In figure: 1, tail gas import, 2, tail gas outlet, 3, 1# ash blowing mouth, 4, 2# ash blowing mouth, 5, 3# ash blowing mouth, 6, 4# ash blowing mouth, 7, heat-exchanging tube bundle, 8, housing, 9, outlet header, 10, import header, 11, dividing plate, 12, inlet tube, 13, outlet, 14, inlet temperature sensor, 15, outlet temperature sensor, 16, valve, 17, the first angle summit heat exchanger tube, 18, the second angle summit heat exchanger tube, 19, the first side of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array, 20, the Second Edge of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array, 21, rhombus housing the first straight flange, 22, rhombus housing the second straight flange, 23, rhombus housing the 3rd straight flange, 24, rhombus housing the 4th straight flange, 25, the 3rd angle summit heat exchanger tube, 26, the 4th angle summit heat exchanger tube, 27,5# ash blowing mouth, 28,6# ash blowing mouth, 29,7# ash blowing mouth, 30,8# blows grey interface.
The specific embodiment
The diamond structure of the heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array described in following content (heat-exchanging tube bundle is comprised of some heat exchanger tubes) and housing is the shape from the tangent plane of the central axis perpendicular to heat-exchanging tube bundle; Heat exchanger tube spacing refers to the distance between the central axis of adjacent heat exchange tubes.
As shown in Figure 3, heat exchanger of the present invention comprises heat-exchanging tube bundle 7, tail gas import 1, tail gas outlet 2 and housing 8.Heat-exchanging tube bundle 7 is arranged in housing 8, the heat-exchanging tube bundle arrangement that assumes diamond in shape, the first side 19 of this heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array is adjacent with the Second Edge 20 of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array, as shown in Figure 4, first side 19 is that the heat exchanger tube of being arranged by outermost two forms with Second Edge 20, the angle that the cross section circle center line connecting of the heat exchanger tube on these two limits forms is first included angle A (being the angle of outermost two row's heat exchanger tubes formation of Fig. 3 middle and upper part) of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array, relative with the first angle is the second angle of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array, two other angle is respectively the 3rd angle of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array and the 4th angle of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array, place, four angle summits is respectively the first angle summit heat exchanger tube 17, the second angle summit heat exchanger tube 18, the 3rd angle summit heat exchanger tube 25 and the 4th angle summit heat exchanger tube 26.Housing 8 has with heat-exchanging tube bundle 7 arranges the diamond structure matching, be called rhombus housing, comprise rhombus housing the first straight flange 21, rhombus housing the second straight flange 22, rhombus housing the 3rd straight flange 23 and rhombus housing the 4th straight flange 24, the angle that rhombus housing the first straight flange 21 and rhombus housing the second straight flange 22 extension lines form is rhombus housing the first angle, and the angle that rhombus housing the 3rd straight flange 23 and rhombus housing the 4th straight flange 24 extension lines form is rhombus housing the second angle.Tail gas import 1 is arranged on rhombus housing the first angle position on housing 8, tail gas outlet 2 rhombus housing the second angle positions that are arranged on housing 8, and rhombus housing the first angle and rhombus housing the second angle are diagonal angle.The first angle summit heat exchanger tube 17 is arranged on the position of tail gas import 1, and the second angle summit heat exchanger tube 18 is arranged on tail gas and exports 2 positions.Cement rotary kiln tail gas enters from tail gas import 1, first through the first angle summit heat exchanger tube 17, then the heat exchanger tube of transversal flow between the first angle summit heat exchanger tube 17 and the second angle summit heat exchanger tube 18, then through the second angle summit heat exchanger tube 18, finally from tail gas outlet 2, discharge.
Because be diamond structure, so the first angle of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array is identical with the second angle, and in like manner, the first angle of rhombus housing is identical with the second angle.
Preferably, the first angle of rhombus housing is greater than the first angle of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array, such setting can be so that the flow area of tail gas in housing be that first to increase the amplitude reducing afterwards larger, can guarantee constantly increases in the tail gas speed of bottom, take away more dust stratification, reduce because of the minimizing of flow velocity and cause dust stratification as far as possible.
Above-mentioned UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN heat exchanger can be applied to cement rotary kiln tail gas UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN field, certainly for a person skilled in the art, be not limited to cement rotary kiln tail gas UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN field, can also comprise that other utilize flue gas to carry out the field of UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN, for example, in boiler exhaust gas.
The heat-exchanging tube bundle of the above-mentioned UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN heat exchanger of the present invention assume diamond in shape arrange that heat-exchanging tube bundle in the prior art that in the prior art providing with Fig. 1, heat-exchanging tube bundle in-line arrangement is arranged and Fig. 2 provides is pitched the contrast of the coefficient of heat transfer put of arranging can be referring to Fig. 6.As can be seen from Figure 6, three kinds of tube banks arrange that the shell-side average surface heat transfer coefficient producing all increases with the increase of flow velocity, and the average surface heat transfer coefficient that diamond structure is arranged is maximum, far away higher than the heat exchanger of other two kinds of structures, be approximately 2-3 times of other two kinds of structures.
Adopt the heat-exchanging tube bundle heat exchanger of structural configuration that assumes diamond in shape, because be applied to the UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN field of tail gas, therefore easily produce fouling phenomenon.Therefore in order to reduce the generation of dust stratification, need the size of the first included angle A of reasonably combined heat exchanger tube spacing (distance between the central axis of adjacent heat exchange tubes) and diamond array.In the situation that heat exchanger tube diameter is certain, reduce heat exchanger tube spacing, can in the volume of unit, distribute more heat exchanger tube, this can increase heat exchange area, strengthen the utilization of waste heat, but when heat exchanger tube spacing reduces, because the reducing of exhaust gas flow space, easily cause dust stratification, when serious, even block the heat exchanger channels of shell side.For the size of the first included angle A of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array, be also to need rational scopes.If the first included angle A is too little, be equivalent to more and more level off to a line along the distribution of exhaust gas flow direction heat exchanger tube, make heat exchange route long, easily cause dust stratification, simultaneously because the heat exchanger tube quantity that unit volume distributes obviously reduces, also cause the decline of heat transfer effect, in like manner, if the first included angle A is too large, the distribution that is equivalent to vertical exhaust gas flow direction heat exchanger tube more and more levels off to a line, circulation path is long in the horizontal to make tail gas needs, and the camber that need to turn is excessive, easily cause dust stratification, simultaneously because the heat exchanger tube quantity that unit volume distributes obviously reduces, also cause the decline of heat transfer effect, therefore need to there is a rational scope to the first included angle A.
By test of many times, in the mediation meeting in two kinds of situations of heat exchange and resistance, the relational expression of the outer diameter D of the rational heat exchanger tube obtaining and heat exchanger tube spacing L is:
3.7 * D>L>2.4 * D, wherein 20mm<D<50mm;
Preferably, the relation of L and D meets as follows: L=a * D, a is parameter, wherein a=3.2.
Change the first included angle A of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array and the relation of L and D meets following formula:
Sin (A/2)=b * (L/D) c, b wherein, c is parameter, and b is 1.65-1.8, and c is-0.8 to-0.9.Preferably, b is that 1.72, c is-0.815.
The first included angle A of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array is 70-110 °, most preferably 87 °.
As a preferred embodiment, the four edges of the rhombus of formation heat-exchanging tube bundle is parallel to each other with the four edges of the rhombus of formation housing.
As shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4, direction along the first side 19 of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array has many row's heat exchanger tubes, direction along the Second Edge 20 of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array has many row's heat exchanger tubes, heat exchanger tube spacing in first side 19 directions is L1, and the heat exchanger tube spacing in Second Edge 20 directions is L2, as a preferred embodiment, L1 and L2 are unequal, because if L1 and L2 are unequal, the arrangement mode of heat-exchanging tube bundle is exactly to stagger mutually, so further augmentation of heat transfer.As a preferred embodiment, L1 is 1.3 times of L2.Under this kind of multiple, the more heat exchanger tube that can distribute, makes whole heat exchanger have the very high coefficient of heat transfer, and resistance increases not quite substantially simultaneously.Certainly, as a preferred embodiment, L1 and L2 also can be identical.
For example, if if the heat exchanger tube (heat exchanger tube of the first side in Fig. 3 19 and Second Edge 20) in heat-exchanging tube bundle on limit is too near apart from the distance of housing 8 straight flanges, can cause tail gas too little to fluid space, easy dust stratification, if but too far away, easily cause a large amount of tail gas not pass through heat-exchanging tube bundle, cause the expansion in heat exchange dead band, worsen heat exchange.Therefore for the heat exchanger tube of first side 19 and the minimum distance of housing 8 straight flanges, also need to meet some requirements.The central axis that draws by experiment the heat exchanger tube on limit need to meet 3.8D>S>4.6D apart from the distance S of housing 8 straight flanges, 20mm<D<50mm wherein, can meet heat exchange simultaneously and avoid the demand of dust stratification.
The preferred composition quality percentage of material for heat exchanger tube is as follows:
Ni30%; Cr20%; Al6%; C0.03%; B0.016%; Co2%; Ti3%; Nb0.1%; La0.2%; Ce0.2%; Surplus is Fe.
The manufacture method of alloy is: by the composition smelting and pouring according to alloy in vaccum sensitive stove, become ingot, then at 1200 ℃-900 ℃, alloy pig forge hot is become to bar, at 1200 ℃-900 ℃, be rolled into dish material, then by external diameter specification requirement cold-drawn, become different silk materials in room temperature.
After tested, above-mentioned alloy has very high thermal conductivity, has higher heat resistance simultaneously, has met the many-sided requirement in cement rotary kiln tail gas UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN heat exchanger.
As a preferred embodiment, along the direction of exhaust gas flow, heat exchanger tube spacing first reduces rear increase.Main cause is because flowing along with tail gas, simultaneously along with the circulation area of tail gas is first to become after large to diminish, thereby the speed that causes tail gas is first to diminish to become afterwards large, the easy dust stratification of part that in the middle of causing, tail gas speed diminishes, therefore can substantially remain unchanged by the speed that is arranged so that tail gas of heat exchanger tube spacing, can reduce the dust stratification causing along with the reducing of speed of tail gas at heat exchanger middle part as far as possible, thereby guarantee the minimizing of dust stratification.
Because the pipe at the place of the line between two other angle of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array (the 4th jiao of trigonometric sum) row's (row's heat exchanger tube) position is the place of tail gas circulation area maximum, therefore by tail gas import, to the heat exchanger tube spacing the 4th jiao of line of trigonometric sum, being ever-reduced, is constantly to become large from the heat exchanger tube spacing being wired between tail gas outlet of the 4th jiao of trigonometric sum.Along the upper and lower of the line symmetry between the 4th jiao of trigonometric sum, the heat exchanger tube spacing of bottom is less than the heat exchanger tube spacing on top.
Certainly, flow process along with tail gas, because wash away heat-exchanging tube bundle, its kinetic energy is constantly reduced, thereby cause in upper and lower, the i.e. top of the 4th jiao of line of trigonometric sum, the position with same circulation area, if it is identical that heat exchanger tube spacing distributes, the tail gas speed on top will significantly be greater than the tail gas speed of bottom, therefore, and in identical circulation area situation, the heat exchanger tube spacing of bottom is less than the heat exchanger tube spacing on top, thereby makes the maintenance of tail gas speed and the top of bottom basic identical in the position of identical circulation area.
Preferably, same circulation area, the heat exchanger tube spacing on top be bottom heat exchanger tube spacing 1.05-1.1 doubly.
As a preferred embodiment, in the direction of exhaust gas flow, the maximum spacing of heat exchanger tube is 1.3-1.5 times of minimum spacing.
But even heat exchanger tube spacing constantly increases, the relation between heat exchanger tube spacing and heat exchanger tube external diameter also meets formula above.
As a preferred embodiment, on the outer wall of heat exchanger tube, projection is set, along with the increase of the distance apart from tail gas import 1, the height of heat exchanger tube projection is more and more higher.Main cause is along with on the flow direction along tail gas, exhaust temperature is in continuous decline, cause the caloric receptivity of the fluid in heat-exchanging tube bundle also constantly to decline, thereby cause the increase along with the distance apart from tail gas import 1, in heat exchanger tube, the temperature increase speed of fluid is also come slower, therefore by the increase along with the distance apart from tail gas import, the height of heat exchanger tube projection is more and more higher, can strengthen the caloric receptivity of heat exchanger tube, guarantee that the fluid well-distributing in each heat exchanger tube is heated, the uniformity of the temperature of the fluid of assurance heating and the uniformity of being heated, also avoid part heat exchanger tube overheated or excessively cold.
As a preferred embodiment, the maximum height of projection on heat exchanger tube outer wall be minimum height of projection 1.5-1.6 doubly.
As preferably, the height of projection on same heat exchanger tube is difference along with the difference of the distance apart from tail gas import, can guarantee so evenly heat absorption on same heat exchanger tube.
As preferably, the height of projection on same heat exchanger tube can be identical, but the height of projection on various heat exchange pipe can be different.
As embodiment that can be alternative, along with the increase of the distance apart from tail gas import 1, the distribution density of heat exchanger tube projection is increasing.By the increase of distribution density, can so that expansion heat exchange area along with increasing apart from the distance of tail gas import, guarantee that the fluid well-distributing in each heat exchanger tube is heated, the uniformity of the temperature of the fluid of assurance heating and the uniformity of being heated, also avoid part heat exchanger tube overheated or excessively cold.
The housing 8 of heat exchanger of the present invention also comprises ash blowing mouth.As shown in Figure 3, on rhombus housing the first straight flange 21 being connected with tail gas import 1 and rhombus housing the second straight flange 22,1# ash blowing mouth 3 and 2# ash blowing mouth 4 are set respectively, export on the 2 rhombus housing being connected the 3rd straight flanges 23 and rhombus housing the 4th straight flange 24 3# ash blowing mouth 5 and 4# ash blowing mouth 6 are set respectively with tail gas; Wherein 1# ash blowing mouth 3 is positioned at the bottom of place rhombus housing the first straight flange 21,2# ash blowing mouth 4 is positioned at the top of place rhombus housing the second straight flange 22,3# ash blowing mouth 5 is positioned at the top of place rhombus housing the 3rd straight flange 23,4# ash blowing mouth 6 is positioned at the bottom of place rhombus housing the 4th straight flange 24, thereby make 1# ash blowing mouth 3 be greater than 2# ash blowing mouth 4 apart from the distance of tail gas import 1 apart from the distance of tail gas import 1,3# ash blowing mouth 5 is greater than 4# ash blowing mouth 6 apart from the distance of tail gas outlet 1 apart from the distance of tail gas outlet 1.
Above-mentioned ash blowing mouth can be opened 2-4, and the setting of the position by above-mentioned ash blowing mouth can form whirlpool so that blow grey wind, as shown in Figure 8 in heat exchanger shell.In each ash blowing mouth, be connected with blower fan.
If open 2 ash blowing mouthes, need to open two relative ash blowing mouthes of opposite side, for example 1# ash blowing mouth 3 and 3# ash blowing mouth 5, or 2# ash blowing mouth 4 and 4# ash blowing mouth 6.
By a plurality of ash blowing mouthes of above-mentioned setting, can be so that when one or 2 ash blowing mouthes can not be worked, other ash blowing mouth still can keep normal work.
As another, preferably blow grey embodiment, as shown in Figure 9, on four straight flanges of housing 8, two ash blowing mouthes are all set, wherein 5# ash blowing mouth 27 and No. 1 ash blowing mouth 3 are located on the first straight flange 21, but the top at the first straight flange 21,6# ash blowing mouth 28 and 2# ash blowing mouth 4 are located on the second straight flange 22, but the bottom at the second straight flange 22,7# ash blowing mouth 29 and 3# ash blowing mouth 5 are located on the 3rd straight flange 23, but the bottom at the 3rd straight flange 23,8# ash blowing mouth 30 and 4# ash blowing mouth 6 are located on the 4th straight flange 24, but on the top of the 4th straight flange 24.Thereby make 5# ash blowing mouth 27 be less than 6# ash blowing mouth 28 apart from tail gas import distance apart from the distance of tail gas import 1,7# ash blowing mouth 29 is less than 8# ash blowing mouth 30 apart from the distance of tail gas outlet apart from the distance of tail gas outlet.
By above-mentioned setting, can be so that blow in grey process, air, along moving clockwise and counterclockwise, increases the grey dynamics of blowing.Fig. 7 has provided blower fan FREQUENCY CONTROL flow process.
Cement rotary kiln tail gas UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN heat exchanger specifically to blow grey process as follows:
1) close 1# ash blowing mouth 3,2# ash blowing mouth 4,3# ash blowing mouth 5 and 4# ash blowing mouth 6, open 5# ash blowing mouth 27,6# ash blowing mouth 28,7# ash blowing mouth 29 and 8# ash blowing mouth 30, make air along counterclockwise operation, realize and counterclockwise blow ash, remove the anticlockwise dust stratification of heat-exchanging tube bundle outer surface;
2) close 5# ash blowing mouth 27,6# ash blowing mouth 28,7# ash blowing mouth 29 and 8# ash blowing mouth 30, open 1# ash blowing mouth 3,2# ash blowing mouth 4,3# ash blowing mouth 5 and 4# ash blowing mouth 6, make air along operation clockwise, realize and blow clockwise ash, remove the clockwise dust stratification of heat-exchanging tube bundle outer surface.
Through a plurality of, blow grey cyclic processes, can be comprehensive, high-efficient cleaning is except the dust stratification on heat-exchanging tube bundle 7 surfaces.Ash blowing mouth place flange is used for connecting blowing pipe road, and described blowing pipe connecting fan blows ash and realizes by blower fan with the adjusting of wind and air quantity.The dust stratification blowing off enters the ash bucket storage that tail gas exports 2 belows.
As preferential choosing, the blower fan connecting in each ash blowing mouth and central controller communication link, central controller regulates the frequency of blower fan automatically according to dust stratification situation.
Central controller is according to the size of thermal conduction resistance, to control the frequency of blower fan.If thermal conduction resistance is excessive, show that dust stratification is serious, need to strengthen the air quantity of blower fan, otherwise, need to adopt the blower fan frequency of using lower, save the energy.
In central controller, a part of data first prestore, these data comprise the heat exchanging tube bank internal face convective heat-transfer coefficient of fluid at friction speed, temperature in heat-exchanging tube bundle, the convective heat-transfer coefficient of the heat exchanging tube bank outer surface of tail gas under friction speed and different temperatures.The influence factor of considering temperature effects on surface heat transfer coefficient becomes large, also can only consider the convection transfer rate situation under a storage speed variation.
For obtaining of the above-mentioned coefficient of heat transfer, can or obtain by inquiring about existing convection transfer rate table by test.
As shown in Figure 5, same one end of all heat-exchanging tube bundles is all connected with import header 10, the other end is connected with outlet header 9, in import header 10, be provided with inlet tube 12, be used for to the intrafascicular delivery heat transfer fluid of replace tubes heat, on outlet header 9, be provided with outlet 13, for the heat exchanging fluid after heat exchange is discharged from heat-exchanging tube bundle.On inlet tube 12, be provided with valve 16, for controlling the flow of the heat exchanging fluid that enters heat exchanger bundle.In inlet tube 12, be provided with inlet temperature sensor 14, for measuring the temperature of inlet tube 12 heat exchanging fluids.In outlet 13, be provided with outlet temperature sensor 15, for measuring the temperature of outlet 13 heat exchanging fluids.Valve 16 adopts electrically operated valve, valve 16, inlet temperature sensor 14 and outlet temperature sensor 15 all with central controller (not shown in FIG.) communication link, in the outlet 13 that central controller is measured according to outlet temperature sensor 15, the temperature of fluid is carried out the aperture of by-pass valve control 16, if fluid temperature (F.T.) is higher than setting value in outlet 13, the aperture of central controller controls valve, improve and enter the fluid flow in import header 10, by increasing flow, reduce the lifting of fluid temperature (F.T.); If the fluid temperature (F.T.) of outlet 13 is lower than setting value, central controller controls valve reduces aperture, reduces and enters the fluid flow in import header 10, makes lifting higher of fluid temperature (F.T.) by reducing flow.
As preferably, as shown in Figure 5, can be set to a plurality of tube sides by the whole heat exchanger of dividing plate 11 is set in import header 10 and outlet header 9.
In tail gas import, 1 place is provided with import exhaust gas temperature sensor, exports 2 places be provided with outlet exhaust gas temperature sensor at tail gas, detects respectively the exhaust temperature T at tail gas import 1 place w1export the exhaust temperature T at 2 places with tail gas w2.Inlet temperature sensor 14 and outlet temperature sensor 15 detect respectively heat-exchanging tube bundle inlet fluid temperature T l1with heat-exchanging tube bundle outlet fluid temperature (F.T.) T l2.A plurality of positions in tail gas import 1, tail gas outlet 2 and housing 8 between tail gas import 1 and tail gas outlet 2 are provided with the first current meter of measuring tail gas flow velocity, are provided with the second current meter of measuring heat exchanging fluid flow velocity in heat exchanger tube import department.By measuring numerical computations, go out to enter fluid volume flow V in heat-exchanging tube bundle l, the mean value of the numerical value that the current meter by a plurality of measurement tail gas flow velocitys records simultaneously obtains the mean flow rate of tail gas; By calculating the flow through temperature difference of fluid of heat-exchanging tube bundle and the caloric receptivity that flow can obtain fluid, total heat exchange amount Q namely, Q=ρ V l* C p* (T l2-T l1), wherein, ρ is the density of fluid in heat-exchanging tube bundle, C pspecific heat at constant pressure for fluid in heat-exchanging tube bundle; Then according to total heat exchange amount Q=K*A* △ T m, △ T wherein mthe logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) of heat transfer process, △ T m=((T w1-T l2)-(T w2-T l1))/ln ((T w1-T l2)/(T w2-T l1)), K is the total heat transfer coefficient of heat exchanger, A is heat exchange area, takes heat pipe external diameter and calculates, and draws total coefficient of heat transfer K.According to the flow velocity of the mean flow rate of tail gas and heat exchanger tube inner fluid, temperature, from pre-stored data, draw the surface coefficient of heat transfer h of heat exchanger tube outer wall and inwall wand h l.Central controller is according to the K calculating, h wand h l,according to heat transfer formula, calculate the dust stratification thermal conduction resistance R in heat exchanger tube outside do.
1 K = 1 h w + &delta; &lambda; d o d m + 1 h l d o d i + R do d o d i
In above-mentioned formula, K is total heat transfer coefficient; h wfor the right surface coefficient of heat transfer of heat exchanger tube outer wall tail gas; h lsurface coefficient of heat transfer for heat exchanger tube inner fluid; d ofor heat exchanger tube overall diameter; d ifor heat exchanger tube interior diameter; d mfor heat exchanger tube average diameter, equal (d o+ d i)/2; δ is the wall thickness of heat exchanger tube, equals (d o-d i)/2; λ is the thermal conductivity factor of heat exchanger tube; R dodust stratification thermal conduction resistance for heat exchanger tube.
Blow grey in, central controller can be transferred the last ruuning situation, draws the dust stratification thermal conduction resistance of current heat exchanger tube, according to the size of dust stratification thermal conduction resistance, automatically chooses suitable blower fan frequency.
The present invention also provides a kind of another kind of method of measuring dust stratification thermal conduction resistance.The method is as follows:
1) detect respectively tail gas inlet temperature T w1, tail gas outlet exhaust temperature T w2, heat-exchanging tube bundle inlet fluid temperature T l1with heat-exchanging tube bundle outlet fluid temperature (F.T.) T l2; Be arranged on the second current meter of rate of flow of fluid in the measurement heat-exchanging tube bundle of heat-exchanging tube bundle import, by measuring numerical computations, go out fluid volume flow V in heat-exchanging tube bundle l;
2) by calculating the temperature difference of fluid of heat-exchanging tube bundle and the caloric receptivity that flow can obtain fluid, total heat exchange amount Q namely, Q=ρ V l* C p* (T l2-T l1), wherein, ρ is the density of fluid in heat-exchanging tube bundle, C pspecific heat at constant pressure for fluid in heat-exchanging tube bundle;
3) then according to total heat exchange amount Q=K*A* △ T m, △ T wherein mthe logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) of heat transfer process, △ T m=((T w1-T l2)-(T w2-T l1))/ln ((T w1-T l2)/(T w2-T l1)), K is the total heat transfer coefficient of heat exchanger, A is heat exchange area, takes heat pipe external diameter and calculates, and draws total coefficient of heat transfer K;
4) by heat convection formula, Q=h w* A w* (T w1-T w2)=h l* A l* (T l2-T l1) calculate the surface coefficient of heat transfer h of heat exchanger tube outer wall and inwall wand h l, A wherein w, A lit is respectively the area of heat exchanger tube outer wall and inwall;
5) central controller is according to the K calculating, h wand h l, according to heat transfer formula, calculate the dust stratification thermal conduction resistance R outside pipe do.
1 K = 1 h w + &delta; &lambda; d o d m + 1 h l d o d i + R do d o d i
In above-mentioned formula, K is total heat transfer coefficient; h wfor managing the right surface coefficient of heat transfer of outer tail gas; h lsurface coefficient of heat transfer for heat exchanger tube inner fluid; d ofor heat exchanger tube overall diameter; d ifor heat exchanger tube interior diameter; d mfor heat exchanger tube average diameter, equal (d o+ d i)/2; δ is the wall thickness of heat exchanger tube, equals (d o-d i)/2; λ is the thermal conductivity factor of heat exchanger tube; R dodust stratification thermal conduction resistance for heat exchanger tube.
Blow grey in, central controller can be transferred the last ruuning situation, draws the dust stratification thermal conduction resistance of current heat-exchanging tube bundle, according to the size of dust stratification thermal conduction resistance, automatically chooses suitable blower fan frequency.
Fluid in described heat-exchanging tube bundle is preferably water.
Preferably, when dust stratification thermal conduction resistance is greater than predetermined value, during lower than the first numerical value, blower fan moves with first frequency, when dust stratification thermal conduction resistance is greater than the first numerical value lower than second value, blower fan is to be greater than the second frequency operation of first frequency, when dust stratification thermal conduction resistance is greater than second value lower than third value, blower fan is to be greater than the 3rd frequency operation of second frequency, when dust stratification thermal conduction resistance is greater than third value lower than the 4th numerical value, blower fan is to be greater than the 4th frequency operation of the 3rd frequency, when dust stratification thermal conduction resistance is greater than the 5th numerical value, blower fan is to be greater than the 5th frequency operation of the 4th frequency.
Preferably, an information can be set, when the dust stratification thermal conduction resistance of heat exchanger tube is greater than certain numerical value, the information that automatically gives a warning, prompting need to be carried out scale removal.
Certainly, because the composition of tail gas and speed are relatively stable, the flow velocity of heat exchanging fluid is relative with inlet temperature also stable simultaneously, now can take relatively simple mode to detect.Which is exactly that the temperature of the heat exchanging fluid that exports by detection determines whether heat exchange worsens.
If outlet fluid temperature (F.T.), lower than the first temperature, can judge that heat exchange worsens, now need to carry out deashing, now blower fan moves according to the first power; If outlet fluid temperature (F.T.) is lower than second temperature lower than the first temperature, blower fan moves according to the second power that is greater than the first power; If outlet fluid temperature (F.T.) is lower than three temperature lower than the second temperature, blower fan moves according to the 3rd power that is greater than the second power; If outlet fluid temperature (F.T.) is lower than four temperature lower than the 3rd temperature, blower fan moves according to the 4th power that is greater than the 3rd power.
Although the present invention discloses as above with preferred embodiment, the present invention is not defined in this.Any those skilled in the art, without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, all can make various changes or modifications, so protection scope of the present invention should be as the criterion with claim limited range.

Claims (2)

1. an ash-blowing method of automatically controlling cement rotary kiln UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN heat exchanger, described heat exchanger comprises heat-exchanging tube bundle, tail gas import, tail gas outlet and housing, heat-exchanging tube bundle is arranged in housing, the heat-exchanging tube bundle arrangement that assumes diamond in shape, housing is the diamond structure matching with heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array, be called rhombus housing, tail gas import is arranged on the first angle position of rhombus housing, tail gas outlet is arranged on the second angle position of rhombus housing, and the first angle and second angle of rhombus housing are diagonal angles, heat-exchanging tube bundle on the first angle summit of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array is arranged on the bottom of tail gas import relative with tail gas import, heat-exchanging tube bundle on the second angle summit of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array is arranged on the top of tail gas outlet and exports relative with tail gas, the first angle of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array and the second angle of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array are diagonal angles, cement rotary kiln tail gas is entered by tail gas import, first pass through the heat-exchanging tube bundle on the first angle summit of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array, then transversal flow heat-exchanging tube bundle, pass through again the heat-exchanging tube bundle on the second angle summit of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array, finally from tail gas outlet, discharge, the first current meter that exports and be all provided for measuring tail gas flow velocity on the position between tail gas import and tail gas outlet at tail gas import, tail gas, the second current meter of rate of flow of fluid in heat-exchanging tube bundle import is provided for measuring heat-exchanging tube bundle, on described housing, ash blowing mouth is set, described ash blowing mouth connects blowing pipe road, and blowing pipe is connected with blower fan in road, and blower fan is connected with central controller, and central controller is controlled the frequency of blower fan by calculating the dust stratification thermal conduction resistance of heat exchanger tube,
The relation of the first included angle A of heat-exchanging tube bundle diamond array, the heat exchanger tube spacing L in heat-exchanging tube bundle and heat exchanger tube outer diameter D meets following formula:
3.7 * D>L>2.4 * D, wherein 20mm<D<50mm;
Sin (A/2)=b * (L/D) c, b wherein, c is parameter, and b is 1.65-1.8, and c is-0.8 to-0.9;
It is characterized in that: described ash-blowing method comprises the following steps:
(1) in central controller, a part of data first prestore, these data comprise the heat exchanging inside pipe wall face convective heat-transfer coefficient of fluid at friction speed, temperature in heat-exchanging tube bundle, the convective heat-transfer coefficient of the heat exchanging tube outer surface of tail gas under friction speed and different temperatures;
(2) detect tail gas inlet temperature T w1, tail gas outlet exhaust temperature T w2, heat-exchanging tube bundle inlet fluid temperature T l1fluid temperature (F.T.) T with heat-exchanging tube bundle outlet l2, by measuring the current meter of fluid in heat-exchanging tube bundle, calculate fluid volume flow V in heat-exchanging tube bundle l, the mean value of the numerical value that the first flow velocity instrumentation of simultaneously measuring tail gas flow velocity by each obtains obtains the mean flow rate of tail gas;
By Fluid Computation, pass in and out the temperature difference of heat-exchanging tube bundle and the caloric receptivity that flow obtains fluid, total heat exchange amount Q namely, Q=ρ
V l* C p* (T l2-T l1), wherein, ρ is the density of fluid in tube bank, C pspecific heat at constant pressure for fluid in tube bank;
(3) then according to total heat exchange amount formula Q=K*A* △ T m, draw total coefficient of heat transfer K, wherein △ T mit is heat exchange
The logarithmic mean temperature difference (LMTD) of journey, △ T m=((T w1-T l2)-(T w2-T l1))/ln ((T w1-T l2)/(T w2-T l1)), K is that total heat transfer of heat exchanger is
Number, A is heat exchange area, takes heat pipe external diameter and calculates;
(4) according to the flow velocity of the mean flow rate of tail gas and heat-exchanging tube bundle inner fluid, temperature, from pre-stored data central controller, draw the surface coefficient of heat transfer h of heat exchanger tube outer wall and inwall wand h l;
(5) central controller is according to the K, the h that calculate wand h l, according to heat transfer formula, calculate the dust stratification thermal conduction resistance R of heat exchanger tube outer wall di;
In above-mentioned formula, K is total heat transfer coefficient; h wsurface coefficient of heat transfer for heat exchanger tube outer wall; h lsurface coefficient of heat transfer for heat exchanger tube inwall; d ofor heat exchanger tube overall diameter; d ifor heat exchanger tube interior diameter; d mfor heat exchanger tube average diameter, equal (d o+ d i)/2; δ is the wall thickness of heat exchanger tube, equals (d o-d i)/2; λ is the thermal conductivity factor of heat exchanger tube; R dodust stratification thermal conduction resistance for heat exchanger tube;
(6) blow grey in, central controller can be transferred the last ruuning situation, draws the dust stratification thermal conduction resistance of current heat exchanger tube, according to the size of dust stratification thermal conduction resistance, automatically chooses suitable blower fan frequency.
2. according to the ash-blowing method of the automatic control cement rotary kiln UTILIZATION OF VESIDUAL HEAT IN heat exchanger described in claim 1, it is characterized in that: in described step (6), when dust stratification thermal conduction resistance is greater than predetermined value, during lower than the first numerical value, blower fan moves with first frequency, when dust stratification thermal conduction resistance is greater than the first numerical value lower than second value, blower fan is to be greater than the second frequency operation of first frequency, when dust stratification thermal conduction resistance is greater than second value lower than third value, blower fan is to be greater than the 3rd frequency operation of second frequency, when dust stratification thermal conduction resistance is greater than third value lower than the 4th numerical value, blower fan is to be greater than the 4th frequency operation of the 3rd frequency, when dust stratification thermal conduction resistance is greater than the 5th numerical value, blower fan is to be greater than the 5th frequency operation of the 4th frequency.
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CN1038153A (en) * 1988-04-24 1989-12-20 哈尔滨锅炉厂锅炉研究所 Wall-attached jet pulverized coal flame antihunt means and burner
CN1268649A (en) * 1999-03-24 2000-10-04 Lg电子株式会社 Method and device for controlling cold air flow from air conditioner
CN202420247U (en) * 2011-12-31 2012-09-05 上海市凌桥环保设备厂有限公司 Shell-and-tube heat exchanger with polytetrafluoroethylene corrugated tube

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