CN103621386B - A kind of vegetable soilless culture matrix and application thereof - Google Patents

A kind of vegetable soilless culture matrix and application thereof Download PDF

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CN103621386B
CN103621386B CN201310545699.5A CN201310545699A CN103621386B CN 103621386 B CN103621386 B CN 103621386B CN 201310545699 A CN201310545699 A CN 201310545699A CN 103621386 B CN103621386 B CN 103621386B
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kilogram
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trace
beneficial microbe
culture medium
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CN103621386A (en
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梁清远
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随州中楚都市农业科技有限公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02EREDUCTION OF GREENHOUSE GAS [GHG] EMISSIONS, RELATED TO ENERGY GENERATION, TRANSMISSION OR DISTRIBUTION
    • Y02E50/00Technologies for the production of fuel of non-fossil origin
    • Y02E50/30Fuel from waste, e.g. synthetic alcohol or diesel
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/20Reduction of greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions in agriculture, e.g. CO2
    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The agricultural wastes such as the present invention utilizes straw, ight soil are hot fermentation together with beneficial microbe and trace element, is prepared into a kind of without native Vegetable culture medium.The raw materials used scientific matching of the present invention is reasonable, be applicable to very much the planting requirement of vegetables, especially organic substrate, beneficial microbe and trace element are fermented together, simplify the production process of soilless culture substrate, and a large amount of nutrition that trace element provides for microbial growth, can the production time be shortened.Instant invention overcomes the technical deficiency part of current hydroponics vegetables, be conducive to energy-conservation, protection of the environment, growing vegetables damage by disease and insect generating capacity is few, reduce Pesticide use, because do not use chemical fertilizer, thus ensure green vegetables product quality and output demand.

Description

A kind of vegetable soilless culture matrix and application thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of vegetable soilless culture matrix and application thereof, belong to technical field of agricultural cultivation.
Background technology
Soilless culture, refers to the method for carrying out irrigable culture without natural soil with organic substrate nutrient solution, is mainly used in gourd, fruit and vegetable or floriculture, is a water-saving, economizes the high yield and high quality advanced technology of fertile saving of labor again.Substrate culture is a kind of mode that in soilless culture, popularizing area is maximum.It is fixed in the matrix of organic or inorganic by the root system of crop, by the method for drip irrigation or trickle irrigation, and supply crop alimentary liquid.Current countries in the world great majority adopt gravel, sand, mud (grass) charcoal, vermiculite, perlite, rock wool, wood sawdust etc. as fixing matrix.
Along with land resources constantly reduces, the contradiction of shortage of resources, along with scientific and technological progress and development, plant cultivation does not rely on land resources, the development of cultivation technique without soil completely with plantation, the particularly cultivation of medical science vegetables, facilitate the development & application of soilless culture substrate, and existing soilless culture substrate exists production process complexity, production efficiency is low, sterilization is not thorough, easily produces the shortcomings such as damage by disease and insect.
Current domestic cultivation matrix production unit is mainly using vermiculite, perlite, peat and animal wastes, reed, Chinese medicine slag, mushroom slag etc. as base starting material, and all there is organic base starting material high-temperature sterilization in technique domestic at present and inorganic elements is that substep adds, the each output of soilless culture substrate is huge, such complex procedures, wastes a large amount of manpower and materials.
The present invention utilizes the agricultural production waste resource such as plant straw, chaff shell, vinasse slag, mushroom slag, pig manure, cow dung, chicken manure in a large number, various raw-material effective nutrition is taken full advantage of in substrate preparation process, and join various nutrient elements required in sufficient plant production process, then under the hot fermentation of microorganism fungus kind, carry out pyrolytic.Under the high temperature conditions, kill noxious bacteria on the one hand, microorganism fungus kind can produce the material being much of value to vegetable growth by katabolism on the other hand.
Sustainable and stable development for green vegetables industry is provided science and technology support strong in time by the present invention, also for new approach is opened up in the foundation of China's Recycling Economy System, will obtain considerable economic benefit, social benefit and ecological benefits.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention there are provided a kind of without native Vegetable culture medium, and this cultivation medium formula component contains: organic, beneficial microbe and trace element; Described organic matter fraction volume ratio is: straw 30%, chicken manure, pig manure 45%, fine sand or cinder 25%; Described beneficial microbe mass ratio is: every cube of organic interpolation compound probiotic 0.3-0.5 kilogram; The mass ratio of described micro-component is: nitrogen 0.1-1.2 kilogram, phosphorus 0.5-1.3 kilogram, potassium 0.8-1.6 kilogram, copper 0.01-0.04 kilogram, boron 0.03-0.07 kilogram, calcium 0.02-0.06 kilogram, magnesium 0.02-0.05 kilogram, sulphur 0.02-0.08 kilogram, manganese 0.06-1.4 kilogram, zinc 0.05-0.09 kilogram, iron 0.06-1.0 kilogram, chlorine 0.02-0.07 kilogram.
Described beneficial microbe is: bacillus subtilis, silicate bacterium, bacillus megaterium, lactobacillus acidophilus, the mixing of one or more of filamentous fungi and barms.
The optimization of C/C composites of described trace element is: every cube of organic interpolation 0.5 kilogram, nitrogen, 0.9 kilogram, phosphorus, 1.3 kilograms, potassium, copper 0.025 kilogram, boron 0.05 kilogram, calcium 0.05 kilogram, 0.035 kilogram, magnesium, sulphur 0.05 kilogram, 0.08 kilogram, manganese, 0.075 kilogram, zinc, iron 0.08 kilogram, chlorine 0.04 kilogram.
Technical problem to be solved by this invention there are provided a kind of preparation method without native Vegetable culture medium, and method comprises the steps:
1) straw, mushroom slag, sawmilling, methane slag, chaff shell, feces of livestock and poultry are mixed all, humidity 65-80%.
2) various trace element is added, beneficial microbe.
3) cinder or the fine sand of about 25% then within heap fermentation 30-45 days, is added again.
Technical problem to be solved by this invention there are provided a kind of without the application method of native Vegetable culture medium in growing vegetables.
The present invention utilizes the agricultural production such as plant straw, ight soil waste resource in a large number, and joins lot of trace nutritive element required in sufficient plant production process, because organic substance, trace element and bacterial classification add simultaneously, saves operation and production.Because trace element adds also for beneficial microorganism growth provides abundant medium simultaneously, make beneficial microbe can ramp, become dominant microflora.Make the organic material carrying out pyrolytic and become directly to be utilized by plant under the hot fermentation of microorganism fungus kind.Under hot fermentation condition, kill noxious bacteria on the one hand, microorganism fungus kind can produce the material being much of value to vegetable growth by katabolism on the other hand.Sustainable and stable development for green vegetables industry is provided science and technology support strong in time by the present invention, also for new approach is opened up in the foundation of China's Recycling Economy System, will obtain considerable economic benefit, social benefit and ecological benefits.
Embodiment
For at present can not be lasting without native vegetables culture matrix Middle nutrition composition, complex manufacturing process, the shortcomings such as inefficiency have invented this without native Vegetable culture medium, organic substrate, beneficial microbe and trace element ferment by the present invention together, simplify the production process of soilless culture substrate, and a large amount of nutrition that trace element provides for microbial growth, can shorten the production time reduces production cost.The present invention is set forth further below in conjunction with concrete embodiment.
Embodiment one, nothing soil plant vegetables training matrix and compound method thereof
Every cube with straw (maize straw or wheat stalk) 60kg, mushroom slag 90kg, sawmilling 85kg, methane slag 55kg, chaff shell 65kg, chicken manure 100kg, cow dung 150kg mixes all, and humid control is 70%., then add compound probiotic kg; Add various Trace Element Nitrogen 0.5 kilogram again, 0.9 kilogram, phosphorus, 1.3 kilograms, potassium, copper 0.025 kilogram, boron 0.05 kilogram, calcium 0.05 kilogram, 0.035 kilogram, magnesium, sulphur 0.05 kilogram, 0.08 kilogram, manganese, 0.075 kilogram, zinc, iron 0.08 kilogram, chlorine 0.04 kilogram stir then heap fermentation 30-45h.Add 350kg slag or 90kg fine sand again.
Embodiment two, application without native vegetable growing
One, vegetables simple high-efficient soilless culture facility
1, cultivating groove
Brick groove technical indicator: cultivating groove framework selects the standard brick of 24 × 12 × 5 centimetres, internal diameter is 48 centimetres, high 15 centimetres, length <40 rice, separation (brick olo) 72 centimetres.Thick 0.1 millimeter of the film of isolation soil, wide 80 centimetres, thin film is between ground floor brick and second layer brick, and length is according to the length of cultivating groove.
2, underground type groove technical indicator: dig dark 15 centimetres, the groove of wide 48 centimetres, separation 80 centimetres, length is according to cultivation flute length.Extending direction gradient is 0.3 ~ 0.5 ‰.Thick 0.1 millimeter of the film of isolation soil, wide 80 centimetres, length is according to the length of cultivating groove.
Establish gully or drain ditch at extending direction low side, moisture unnecessary in cultivating groove can be arranged in well or ditch.
3, illustrate: in groove, barrier film can select common polythene canopy mould, and between groove, aisle available water adobe, common brick, woven cloth, plastic foil, sawdust, sand etc. are isolated with soil.
Two, cultivation matrix
Select the organic substance such as plant straw, chaff shell, vinasse slag, mushroom slag, pig manure, cow dung, chicken manure to prepare fermentation to form, take full advantage of various raw-material effective nutrition in substrate preparation process, and join various nutrient elements required in sufficient plant production process.
1, technical indicator: cultivation matrix organic substrate accounts for 40 ~ 60%, mixed matrix unit weight O.35 ~ 0.45 gram per centimeter., maximum water-holding capacity 240 ~ 320%, PH=5.8 ~ 6.4, cultivation matrix thickness lO ~ 15 centimetre; Thick matrix particle diameter 1 ~ 3 centimetre under cultivation matrix, thickness 5 centimetres.
2, illustrate: the selection of matrix is extensive, can suit measures to local conditions, gather materials on the spot, make full use of local abundance, cheap raw material: the raw material of organic substrate should note fermentation, thick matrix is mainly used as water storage draining, can select thick slag, chad etc., apply permeable braiding
Cloth and cultivation matrix are isolated.Cultivation matrix consumption is 25 ~ 30 meters of m 3/ 666.7 ㎡.Rough coal slag or coarse sand 15 cubic metres.
Three, water system
1, technical indicator: source pressure >=1.5 meter water column, drip irrigation pipe flow 12 ~ 22 ls/h, the 10 minutes outputs in every hole are 400 ~ 600 milliliters.
2, reference product: thin walled hose irrigation system.
3, illustrate: source of water supply can adopt the running water of convenient pressure, the water tank of high more than 1.5 meters, power be 1100 watts, the water pump of water yield >=5 ton/hour.
Four, the ecological soilless-cultivated seedling of simple and efficient
1, Fruit variety
Select disease-resistant, high-quality, high yield, commodity are good, be applicable to the kind of the market demand.Winter-Spring, early spring, spring do sth. in advance planting and selecting tolerance to low temperature and weak light, to the how anti-kind of disease: the kind that spring and summer, Xia Qiu, autumn and winter, delayed culture in autumn select high antiviral sick, heat-resisting; Long term cultivation selects high resistance, many disease resistances, good stress resistance, the kind that continuous bearing capacity is strong.
2, nursery
Seedling raising environment is good, through sterilization, desinsection process, and is isolated from the outside; The method of nursery adopts nutritive cube to carry out soilless-cultivated seedling, and seed should be sterile-processed; Autumn, stubble seedling raise period was from late August, and seedling age controls within 25 days; Spring, stubble seedling raise period was from early January, and seedling age controlled within 40 days.Seedling cotyledon is intact, stem foot thick, leaf look dark green, without damage by disease and insect.Winter-Spring nursery, plant height about 15cm, 5 ~ 6 leaves.The nursery of autumn in summer, 2 ~ 3 leaves, plant height degree about 15cm.
3, seedling medium preparation: prepare seedling medium with the peat composed of rotten mosses and vermiculite each 50%, and press rice 3matrix adds dry 30 kilograms, the chicken class excrement after fermenting, and loads nutritive cube for subsequent use.
4, seed treatment: adopt 55 DEG C of warm waters to soak seed 10 minutes, taking-up drains away the water, the liquor potassic permanganate putting into 1% soaks 10 ~ 15 minutes, cleans with clear water.Soak 6 ~ 8 hours in clear water.
5, vernalization: take out treated seed, is placed on vernalization under the environmental condition of 28 DEG C, and the temperature that kind difference requires is different, notes insulation and clean seed every day twice during vernalization.
6, sow: the nutritive cube that matrix is housed is irrigated clear water, is sown into the seed through vernalization, sowing depth is 1.5 cm.The degree of depth of different kind sowings is different, and autumn stubble after planting should be noted being strictly on guard against high temperature and drought, and matrix relative moisture maintains about 80%.Cooling measure can take sunshade net sunshade, double-deck wet newspaper covers the measures such as seedling dish; Spring stubble after planting should note insulation, and matrix relative moisture maintains less than 80%.Insulation can take thermal screen, multilayer cover, the measure such as hot line or warm air heating, covered rearing with plastic film seedling dish or nutritive cube.
7, seedling management: temperature, illumination and water management should be strengthened after emerging.Matrix relative moisture maintains 65% ~ 75%.Cooling measure is sunshade net sunshade, blade face water spray etc.; Insulation is with sowing.For the management of cucumber actual temp in seedling stage in Table.
Table 1 temperature in seedling stage reconciliation statement DEG C
Different kinds requires different temperature.
Five, the cultivation management of simple high-efficient soilless culture
1, the preparation before field planting and technical requirement: before field planting, cultivating groove, main irrigation system etc. are installed for subsequent use in advance, and cultivation matrix is Homogeneous phase mixing in proportion, and insert in cultivating groove; Plastic greenhouse keeps neat and tidy, sterile-processed, without harmful insect and green plants, substantially isolates with the external world.
2, operational procedure:
Disinfect: two weeks gets out cultivation system in advance, and the matrix reused in this way, summer needs disinfection.Sterilization adopts sight sterilization, irrigates cultivation matrix, make water content of substrate more than 80%, cover plastic film with water; Cleaning greenhouse, and sprays frame material with the potassium permanganate of l%, and sealing greenhouse passes through intense light irradiation and high-temperature sterilization more than 20 days in summer.
3, prepare before field planting: setting date shifts to an earlier date 2 days and opens greenhouse or booth, then matrix is watered permeable for subsequent use.
4, autumn stubble setting date is selected within after planting 25 days, namely by the end of July to early and middle ten days in August; Spring stubble setting date is selected within after planting 40 days, i.e. the first tenday period of a month in February to March.Field planting should select anosis worm seedling and the field planting together of the even seedling of size as far as possible, so that management.Mode of planting adopts duplicate rows dislocation field planting method, and plant base portion should be kept apart from cultivating groove 8 ~ 10 centimetres.Field planting water is watered immediately after field planting.
Six, manage after field planting
1, the installation of irrigation hose: carefully put in the middle of cultivating groove by drip irrigation hose, and make apopore upward, is connected to supervisor's delivery port and fixes, blocking soft
The pipe other end.Open water source valve, check breakage and the water outlet situation of flexible pipe.Determine wide 22 cm with the common canopy film of 0.1 millimeter, length equals the film of cultivating groove length, covers on flexible pipe.
2, water management
3, technical requirement: the needs according to vine growth and development supply moisture, after field planting, early stage notes control water, in case autumn stubble is hot and humid cause plant excessive growth, rotten dead seedling occurs spring stubble low temperature and high relative humidity, blooms before bearing fruit and maintains soil humidity 60% ~ 65%; To bloom after bearing fruit to urge, keep its soil humidity about 70% ~ 80%, require that water temperature is more than 10 DEG C winter.
3, operational procedure: after field planting 3 ~ 5 days start to water.By the end of August or early September, after starting to bloom and bearing fruit, vine growth and development is vigorous, and based on short seedling, as long as fine day, the conditions such as temperature are suitable, suitably add big yield, within every 3 days, checks a water supply in media situation, as excess moisture, optionally feeds water after stopping 1 ~ 2 day.Enter mid or late October, temperature declines, and illumination weakens, and greenhouse is not suitable for, and when plant strain growth is slow, note the yardstick that moisture supplies.Cloudy day does not generally water, but after connecting cloudy a couple of days, optionally feed water in a small amount.Temperature bottom out after spring stubble field planting, greenhouse improves with the improvement of external condition, and plant enters vigorous growth after date, and water consumption amount starts to rise gradually, and way of supplying water will be determined by needed for plant growth, to meet the needs that it grows.
To illustrate: water management is that can simple high-efficient soilless culture one of the key technology obtaining high yield, but with certain empirical, will grasp flexibly depending on the change of the temp. and humidity of Plant status, matrix, weather, season and weather.
4, technical requirement: according to Medium Culture Nutrient change situation, for ensureing that vegetable melon and fruit is in best fertilizer environment within whole breeding time, strengthening plant resistance, if desired, can adopt the trace element needed for foliage spray plant growth.
Seven, Plant adjustment
1, technical requirement: different kinds adopts different training, sick leaf, Lao Ye bottom timely removal, lopsided melon will be destroyed in time, in time around seedling, gather in time, keep plant good ventilation light transmission condition, adequate nutrition growth and reproductive growth ratio, neat appearance effect.
2, operational procedure: when hanging seedling with lifting rope after plant fixing, prevents lodging.When hanging seedling, one end is tied up on iron wire, and the other end ties up the base portion plant gently, and lower end is not tied up extremely, is shifted in order to when putting seedling.When plant grows to certain altitude: the rope tied up at base portion is decontroled, makes stem lower wall, when dropping down onto the height of needs, then tying up on stem with rope, making plant remain certain altitude.
Eight, greenhouse management
1, temperature
Technical requirement: the feature according to growth and development of plants: by heating system, cooling system and leak informaton and carry out temperature treatment, seedling-slowing stage daytime 28 DEG C ~ 30 DEG C, is not less than 18 DEG C evening, adopts four sections of alternating temperatures management after slow seedling: when 8 ~
When 14,25 DEG C ~ 30 DEG C, when 14 ~ 17 time, 25 DEG C ~ 20, when 17 ~ 24 time, 15 DEG C ~ 20, when 24 ~ sunrise, 15 DEG C ~ 10 DEG C, the temperature that different plants requires is also different, and substrate temperature keeps 15 DEG C ~ 25 DEG C.
2, illumination
Technical requirement: the illumination condition of different plants is different, to the light transmittance requirement more than 60% of green house.
3, method of operating: can sunshade net be enabled when seedling stage or Later growth high temperature high light intensity, the Plant adjustment means such as old, weak, diseased plant, in time training priming leaf of can generally eliminating under autumn and winter low light condition improve global illumination; Light transmittance is increased by periodic cleaning film or glass dust; Intensity of illumination is improved by hanging up, laying the means such as Reflecting curtain.
4, temperature
Technical requirement: the air humidity that as far as possible should reduce greenhouse autumn and winter, maintaining relative air humidity is 60% ~ 70%.
5, method of operating: autumn and winter season by taking to reduce irrigation times, improve temperature, extend aggregate measures such as time of leaking informaton and reduce warm indoor air humidity.
It should be noted last that: above embodiment is only in order to explanation, and unrestricted technical scheme of the present invention, although with reference to above-described embodiment to invention has been detailed description, those of ordinary skill in the art is to be understood that: still can modify to the present invention or equivalent replacement, and not departing from any modification or partial replacement of the spirit and scope of the present invention, it all should be encompassed in the middle of right of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. without a native Vegetable culture medium, it is characterized in that the component of this cultivation matrix contains: organic, beneficial microbe and trace element; Described organic matter fraction volume ratio is: straw, mushroom slag, methane slag, sawmilling or chaff shell organic matter 30%, chicken manure 20%, pig manure 25%, fine sand or thin cinder 25%; Described beneficial microbe quality is: every cube of organic interpolation compound probiotic 1-1.5 kilogram; The quality of described micro-component is: nitrogen 0.1-1.2 kilogram, phosphorus 0.5-1.3 kilogram, potassium 0.8-1.6 kilogram, copper 0.01-0.04 kilogram, boron 0.03-0.07 kilogram, calcium 0.02-0.06 kilogram, magnesium 0.02-0.05 kilogram, sulphur 0.02-0.08 kilogram, manganese 0.06-1.4 kilogram, zinc 0.05-0.09 kilogram, iron 0.06-1.0 kilogram, chlorine 0.02-0.07 kilogram; Described beneficial microbe is: bacillus subtilis, silicate bacterium, bacillus megaterium, lactobacillus acidophilus, the mixing of one or more of filamentous fungi and barms.
2. a kind of without native Vegetable culture medium according to claim 1, it is characterized in that the optimization of C/C composites of described trace element is: 0.5 kilogram, nitrogen, 0.9 kilogram, phosphorus, 1.3 kilograms, potassium, copper 0.025 kilogram, boron 0.05 kilogram, calcium 0.05 kilogram, 0.035 kilogram, magnesium, sulphur 0.05 kilogram, 0.08 kilogram, manganese, 0.075 kilogram, zinc, iron 0.08 kilogram, chlorine 0.04 kilogram.
3., without a production method for native Vegetable culture medium, its feature is comprising the steps:
1) every cube of straw 60 kilograms, mushroom slag 90 kilograms, sawmilling 85 kilograms, methane slag 55 kilograms, 65 kilograms, chaff shell, chicken manure double centner, cow dung 150 kilograms are mixed all, humidity 65-80%;
2) various trace element is added, beneficial microbe;
3) then heap fermentation 30-45 days, then add thin ashes or the fine sand of about 25%.
4. a kind of without native Vegetable culture medium production method according to claim 3, it is characterized in that described trace element comprises 0.5 kilogram, nitrogen, 0.9 kilogram, phosphorus, 1.3 kilograms, potassium, copper 0.025 kilogram, boron 0.05 kilogram, calcium 0.05 kilogram, 0.035 kilogram, magnesium, sulphur 0.05 kilogram, 0.08 kilogram, manganese, 0.075 kilogram, zinc, iron 0.08 kilogram, chlorine 0.04 kilogram.
CN201310545699.5A 2013-11-06 2013-11-06 A kind of vegetable soilless culture matrix and application thereof CN103621386B (en)

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