CN103559561A  Supershortterm prediction method of photovoltaic power station irradiance  Google Patents
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Abstract
Description
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of ultrashort term Forecasting Methodology of photovoltaic plant irradiance.
Background technology
It is the effective means of utilizing sun power that largescale photovoltaic generates electricity by way of merging two or more grid systems, but sun power is a kind of intermittence, the undulatory property energy, and largescale access meeting is to the safety of electric system, stable operation and guarantee that the quality of power supply brings severe challenge.If can make prediction more accurately to photovoltaic power station power generation power, can contribute to dispatching of power netwoks department formulate in time the rational method of operation and adjust exactly operation plan, can effectively alleviate the impact of photovoltaic electric station grid connection on whole electrical network, thereby guarantee the security and stability of electric system.
Affect photovoltaic power station power generation power meteorologic factor have multiple, as irradiation intensity, environment temperature and humidity etc.Wherein, irradiance has the greatest impact.And due to earth's surface irradiance, be subject to the impact of the multiple meteorologic factors such as cloud cover, temperature, air pressure, and there is very strong randomness, realize accurate prediction difficulty very large.For the ultrashort term prediction of ground irradiance, the method conventionally adopting has: (1) autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model.The method is utilized the historical time sequence data of irradiance, through Model Identification, parameter estimation, model testing, determine that can be described an irradiance seasonal effect in time series mathematical model, and then reach prediction object, but because ARMA is linear model, so precision of prediction is limited; (2) utilize the predicted method of sky cloud atlas image.The method conventionally need to be at the onthespot sky imager of installing of photovoltaic plant, and cost is expensive, and prediction algorithm is complicated, therefore implements comparatively difficulty.Therefore, how to realize the ultrashort term prediction of highprecision photovoltaic plant irradiance, become applicant and be devoted to the problem solving.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of ultrashort term Forecasting Methodology of photovoltaic plant irradiance, only need the ultrashort term prediction that utilizes historical irradiance time series to realize irradiance, precision of prediction is good, and easy to implement, for realizing the ultrashort term prediction of photovoltaic power station power generation power, lays the foundation.
The technical scheme that realizes abovementioned purpose is:
A ultrashort term Forecasting Methodology for irradiance, comprises the following steps:
Step S1, from historical data base, extract the onsite actual irradiance data of section photovoltaic plant preset time, and weed out the invalid irradiation data of time period at night, according to the theoretically external irradiation degree of same time with area, the actual irradiance data of extracting is carried out to abnormal test, the irradiance data completing after abnormal test is normalized;
Step S2, determines training sample set by the input and output dimension of forecast model;
Step S3, adopts ANFIS to carry out modeling to irradiance time series, and model is 5 dimension input 1 dimension outputs, adopts subtractive clustering to determine regular number and the initial parameter of ANFIS model, and adopts backpropagation algorithm and least square method Optimization of Fuzzy model parameter;
Step S4, input prediction sample, calculates predicted value;
Step S5, judges that whether multistep prediction completes, and if so, enters step S7; If not, enter step S6;
Step S6, adds predicted value to form new sample set, and returns to step S2;
Step S7, carries out renormalization processing by predicted value.
The ultrashort term Forecasting Methodology of abovementioned a kind of photovoltaic plant irradiance, wherein, described step S1 comprises:
Step S11 extracts the onsite irradiance time sequential value of the photovoltaic plant v (t) of to be predicted day h days before as original sample collection from historical data base, and h is positive integer;
Step S12, calculates with the theoretically external irradiation degree of time with area;
Whether step S13, check each irradiance time sequential value v (t) normal according to formula: 0≤v (t)≤E (t), and E (t) is the t degree of external irradiation theoretically of this area constantly; If note abnormalities irradiance data, enter step S14; If not, enter step S15;
Step S14, rejects all irradiance data containing the data day of abnormal exposure degrees of data;
Step S15, according to formula:
Be normalized, x (t) is the data after normalization, 0≤x (t)≤1.
The ultrashort term Forecasting Methodology of abovementioned a kind of photovoltaic plant irradiance, wherein, described step S12 utilizes following formula to calculate with the theoretically external irradiation degree of time with area:
Wherein, E is extraterrestrial irradiance value; E _{sc}it is solar constant; (r _{0}/ r) ^{2}it is solar distance correction factor; δ is declination angle; E _{t}it is the time difference; θ is a day angle; N is day of year; △ N is the value of correcting of day of year; Y refers to the time; INT refers to get the integral part of bracket inner digital; τ puts the solar hour angle in the required moment for this; S _{d}it is the local time of this point; geographic latitude for this point; γ is the geographic longitude of this point; S is the hourage of this local meam time, and F is the number of minutes of this local meam time.
The ultrashort term Forecasting Methodology of abovementioned a kind of photovoltaic plant irradiance, wherein, described step S2 refers to:
By the N+5 after normalization continuous irradiance time series { x _{1}, x _{2}, x _{3}..., x _{n+5}resolve into the vector { V of N+1 5 dimensions _{1}..., V _{n+1}, N is positive integer:
(x _{1},x _{2},x _{3},x _{4},x _{5})=V _{1}
(x _{2},x _{3},x _{4},x _{5},x _{6})=V _{2}
......
(x _{N},x _{N+1},x _{N+2},x _{N+3},x _{N+4})=V _{N}
(x _{N+1},x _{N+2},x _{N+3},x _{N+4},x _{N+5})=V _{N+1}
And then irradiance value and this vector in next moment of last dimension data of top n vector are matched, form N training sample pair: { (V _{1}, x _{6}), (V _{2}, x _{7}) ..., (V _{n}, x _{n+5}).
The ultrashort term Forecasting Methodology of abovementioned a kind of photovoltaic plant irradiance, wherein, described step S3 comprises:
Step S31, adopts ANFIS to carry out modeling to irradiance time series:
Wherein, i=1,2 ..., n; J=1,2 ..., 5; X (tj) is input quantity; X (t) is output quantity; ξ _{i}for consequent parameter, n is regular number; c _{ij}, σ _{ij}for former piece parameter;
Step S32, carries out subtractive clustering analysis for training sample set, specifically refers to:
According to formula: calculate data point density D _{p},
Wherein, p, q=(1,2 ..., m), Y is sample pair, m is the right number of sample, δ _{a}for the effective radius of neighbourhood of cluster centre;
Select density index mxm. obtain first cluster centre reconstruct density function:
Wherein, δ _{b}=1.25 δ _{a}, utilize new density function to obtain the density index of all data points, determine next cluster centre again construct new density function, repeat this process until meet it is the density index mxm. of p cluster centre;
Thereby obtain optimum fuzzy rule number n and initial model former piece parameter c _{ij}and σ _{ij};
Step S33, adopts blended learning method Optimized model parameter, and consequent adopts least squares identification parameter, and former piece adopts backpropagation algorithm Optimal Parameters:
Adopt least squares identification consequent parameter and ξ _{i}: the fortran that step S31 is obtained is X=Φ θ, the matrix that Φ is m * 2n, the consequent parameter vector that θ is 2n * 1; X is the output vector of m * 1;
Make error criterion function be for desired output, according to principle of least square method, make J (θ) minimum, must have: thereby obtain optimized model consequent parameter and ξ _{i};
Fixing consequent parameter and ξ _{i}, adopt backpropagation algorithm to adjust former piece parameter c _{ij}and σ _{ij}, correcting algorithm is:
Wherein, α _{c}and α _{σ}for learning rate; c _{ij}(r+1), σ _{ij}(r+1), c _{ij}(r), σ _{ij}(r) represent respectively Center Parameter and the width parameter of the former piece membership function of the step of r+1 in correcting algorithm and r step.
The ultrashort term Forecasting Methodology of abovementioned a kind of photovoltaic plant irradiance, wherein,
Described
Learning rate α _{c}and α _{σ}initial value get 0.01, number cycle of training of blended learning is 25,0≤r≤25.
The ultrashort term Forecasting Methodology of abovementioned a kind of photovoltaic plant irradiance, wherein, described step S4 specifically refers to:
The optimum fuzzy rule number n that judgement obtains, if regular number is one, adopts the method for continuing prediction;
If regular number is more than one, by forecast sample V _{n+1}be input to model, obtain predicted value x _{n+6}if: 0≤x _{n+6}≤ 1, represent that this predicted value is effective, otherwise, still adopt the method for continuing prediction.
The ultrashort term Forecasting Methodology of abovementioned a kind of photovoltaic plant irradiance, wherein, described step S7 specifically refers to:
According to formula: P (t)=E (t)x (t) * E (t), the predicted value obtaining is carried out to renormalization processing, wherein, x (t) is predicted value, and P (t) is the data after renormalization, and E (t) is the t degree of external irradiation theoretically value constantly.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows: the present invention utilizes the historical irradiance data of photovoltaic plant collection in worksite, adopt the difference rule of three of extraterrestrial irradiance theoretical value and actual irradiance to carry out the original irradiance data of normalization, with adaptive neurofuzzy inference system, set up forecast model, with multistep recycle design, realize ultrashort term prediction, can effectively complete the ultrashort term prediction of irradiance, precision of prediction is good, and be easy to implement, thereby provide the foundation and ensure for Accurate Prediction photovoltaic plant ultrashort term generated output.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the process flow diagram of the ultrashort term Forecasting Methodology of photovoltaic plant irradiance of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is ANFIS model structure figure of the present invention;
Fig. 3 is the membership function of input variable 1;
Fig. 4 is the membership function of input variable 2;
Fig. 5 is the membership function of input variable 3;
Fig. 6 is the membership function of input variable 4;
Fig. 7 is the membership function of input variable 5;
Fig. 8 is predicted value and actual comparison curve;
Fig. 9 is predicated error curve.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, the invention will be further described.
Refer to Fig. 1, the ultrashort term Forecasting Methodology of photovoltaic plant irradiance of the present invention, comprises the following steps:
Step S1, from historical data base, extract the onsite actual irradiance data of section photovoltaic plant preset time, according to the theoretically external irradiation degree of same time with area, the actual irradiance data of extracting is carried out to abnormal test, the irradiance data completing after abnormal test is normalized; In the present embodiment, utilize the weather station of photovoltaic plant, the irradiance data of collection site, frequency acquisition is 30 seconds, and then counts the irradiance mean value of 15 minutes, is kept in historical data base; Step S1 specifically comprises:
Step S11, from historical data base, extract to be predicted day before the onsite irradiance time sequential value of the photovoltaic plant v (t) (t irradiance actual observation data constantly) of h days as original sample collection, h is positive integer, and in the present embodiment, h is 30 days; Because irradiance data is null value at night, therefore get 48 15 minutes mean values in the middle of every day, namely from early 6 to the irradiance data 6 of evenings, form continuous time series;
Step S12, is ignoring under the minor impact prerequisites such as earth's axis precession and Ghandler motion, utilizes following formula to calculate with the theoretically external irradiation degree of time with area:
Wherein, E is extraterrestrial irradiance value; E _{sc}be solar constant, value is 1367W/m2; (r _{0}/ r) ^{2}it is solar distance correction factor; δ is declination angle; E _{t}be the time difference, unit divides (min); θ is a day angle; N is day of year (serial number of date in 1 year, January 1, day of year was 0, the day of year in Dec 31 nonleap year is 364, the leap year is 365); △ N is the value of correcting of day of year; Y refers to the time; INT refers to get the integral part of bracket inner digital; τ puts the solar hour angle in the required moment for this; S _{d}it is the local time of this point; geographic latitude for this point; γ is the geographic longitude of this point; S is the hourage of this local meam time (being Beijing time), and F is the number of minutes of this local meam time.Input latitude, longitude and the time at regional place, can obtain the degree of external irradiation theoretically in this moment of this area.
Whether step S13, check each irradiance time sequential value v (t) normal according to formula: 0≤v (t)≤E (t), and E (t) is the t degree of external irradiation theoretically of this area constantly; If note abnormalities irradiance data, enter step S14; If not, enter step S15;
Step S14, rejects all irradiance data containing the data day of abnormal exposure degrees of data;
Step S15, according to formula:
Irradiance data after abnormality processing is normalized, and x (t) is the data after normalization, 0≤x (t)≤1.
Step S2, determines training sample set by the input and output dimension of forecast model, that is:
By the N+5 after normalization continuous irradiance time series { x _{1}, x _{2}, x _{3}..., x _{n+5}resolve into the vector { V of N+1 5 dimensions _{1}..., V _{n+1}, N is positive integer:
(x _{1},x _{2},x _{3},x _{4},x _{5})=V _{1}
(x _{2},x _{3},x _{4},x _{5},x _{6})=V _{2}
......
(x _{N},x _{N+1},x _{N+2},x _{N+3},x _{N+4})=V _{N}
(x _{N+1},x _{N+2},x _{N+3},x _{N+4},x _{N+5})=V _{N+1}
And then irradiance value and this vector in next moment of last dimension data of top n vector are matched, form N training sample pair: { (V _{1}, x _{6}), (V _{2}, x _{7}) ..., (V _{n}, x _{n+5}); V _{n+1}be the prediction input of model, x _{n+5}next be constantly worth x _{n+6}be the value that we need to predict.
Step S3, adopts ANFIS to carry out modeling to irradiance time series, and model is 5 dimension input 1 dimension outputs, adopts subtractive clustering to determine regular number and the initial parameter of ANFIS model, and adopts backpropagation algorithm and least square method Optimization of Fuzzy model parameter; Step S3 comprises:
Step S31, adopts ANFIS to carry out modeling to irradiance time series, as follows:
Build irradiance seasonal effect in time series ANFIS model framework:
Wherein, i=1,2 ..., n; J=1,2 ..., 5; X (t1), x (t2), x (t3), x (t4), x (t5) are input quantities, ξ _{i}for consequent parameter, n is regular number; it is the fuzzy set of input quantity x (tj);
Fuzzy set adopts Gauss's membership function to represent: wherein, represent degree of membership; Former piece parameter c _{ij}and σ _{ij}the center and the width that represent respectively membership function;
Utilize 5 layers of ANFIS network structure shown in Fig. 2 to obtain fuzzy inference rule:
Wherein, x (t) is output quantity;
By substitution,
Again according to fuzzy inference rule, by x _{i}(t) substitution above formula has following expression:
Step S32, subtractive clustering is using each data point as possible cluster centre, and calculate this as the possibility of cluster centre according to each data point data point density around, overcome the deficiency that other clustering procedure calculated amount increase with exponential manner along with the dimension of problem.For training sample set, carry out subtractive clustering analysis, specifically refer to:
According to formula: calculate data point density D _{p},
Wherein, p, q=(1,2 ..., m), Y is sample pair, m is the right number of sample, δ _{a}for the effective radius of neighbourhood of cluster centre, be a positive number, in the present embodiment, be set as 0.5;
Select density index mxm. obtain first cluster centre reconstruct density function:
Wherein, δ _{b}=1.25 δ _{a}, utilize new density function to obtain the density index of all data points, determine next cluster centre again construct new density function, repeat this process until meet it is the density index mxm. of p cluster centre;
Thereby obtain optimum fuzzy rule number n and initial model former piece parameter c _{ij}and σ _{ij};
Step S33, adopts least squares identification consequent parameter and ξ _{i}, that is: fortran step S31 being obtained is X=Φ θ, the matrix that Φ is m * 2n, the consequent parameter vector that θ is 2n * 1; X is the output vector of m * 1;
Make error criterion function be for desired output, according to principle of least square method, make J (θ) minimum, must have: thereby obtain optimized model consequent parameter and ξ _{i};
Fixing consequent parameter and ξ _{i}, adopt backpropagation algorithm to adjust former piece parameter c _{ij}and σ _{ij}, consider error criterion function , x _{i}(t) be t current output constantly, be desired output, correcting algorithm is:
Wherein, learning rate α _{c}and α _{σ}initial value get 0.01, number cycle of training of blended learning is 25; c _{ij}(r+1), σ _{ij}(r+1), c _{ij}(r), σ _{ij}(r) represent respectively Center Parameter and the width parameter of the former piece membership function of the step of r+1 in correcting algorithm and r step, 0≤r≤25.
Step S4, input prediction sample, calculates predicted value; Specifically refer to:
The optimum fuzzy rule number n that obtains of judgement, if regular number is one, adopts the method for continuing prediction, usings the irradiance value of current time as next predicted value constantly;
If regular number is more than one, by forecast sample V _{n+1}be input to model, obtain predicted value x _{n+6}if: 0≤x _{n+6}≤ 1, represent that this predicted value is effective, otherwise, still adopt the method for continuing prediction.So far, Singlestep Prediction completes.
Step S5, judges that whether multistep prediction completes, and if so, enters step S7; If not, enter step S6;
Step S6, adds predicted value to form new sample set, and returns to step S2; Repeat, circulate and obtain multistep prediction value according to this;
Step S7, carries out renormalization processing by predicted value, refers to:
According to formula: P (t)=E (t)x (t) * E (t), the predicted value obtaining is carried out to renormalization processing, model predication value is reduced to actual value; Wherein, x (t) is predicted value, and P (t) is the data after renormalization, and E (t) is the t degree of external irradiation theoretically value constantly.
Below with a concrete case explanation:
Select the irradiance data of District of Shanghai photovoltaic plant as experimental verification object.Gather on April 18th, 2013 to May 17 the 15 minutes mean value of irradiance of totally 30 days as initial modeling data sample, totally 2880, get every day early 6 to the data between 6 of evenings as valid data, totally 1440.According to step S12, calculate the theoretical irradiance of equal time period, according to step S13, detect and wherein have two days to have bad data, remain 1344 irradiance effective values of 28 days after rejecting these data of two days.The data of getting first 20 days are set up ANFIS model as original training sample collection, predict the irradiance value of latter 8 days, and prediction per hour once, is predicted 4 15 minutes mean values at every turn.
First front 960 data are made to normalized, then its division is consisted of to 955 training samples pair, every pair of sample is to being 5 dimension input vectors, and 1 ties up output vector.Adopt subtractive clustering to determine that number of fuzzy rules is 5, then adopt back propagation and least square method to obtain the front and back part parameter of model.The membership function of five input quantities of ANFIS model is as shown in Fig. 3 to Fig. 7.In figure, in1ct1～in1ct4 represents four membership function curve maps of the first dimension input variable; In2ct1～in2ct4 represents four membership function curve maps of the second dimension input variable; In3ct1～in3ct4 represents four membership function curve maps of third dimension input variable; In4ct1～in4ct4 represents four membership function curve maps of fourth dimension input variable; In5ct1～in5ct4 represents four membership function curve maps of the 5th dimension input variable.
The parameter of fuzzy rule former piece Gauss membership function is as shown in table 1, and consequent linear function parameter is as shown in table 2:
Table 1
Table 2
5 15 minutes actual irradiance mean values (being between 17:45 to 18:00 on May 9) before May 10 6:00 are as forecast sample input model, can draw the mean value of next 15 minutes (being between 6:00 to 6:15 on May 10), this predicted value is added to forecast sample, repeat the predicted value that above process can obtain following 1 hour (being between 6:00 to 7:00 on May 10) for 4 times.Carry out prediction once at interval of one hour, circulate and can obtain the irradiance predicted value of following 8 days for 96 times, totally 384 points, it is 59.7 that statistics obtains rootmeansquare error (RMSE), standard root square error (NRMSE) is 0.4259.Wherein, RMSE and NRMSE are calculated as follows respectively:
In formula, P _{i}for prediction irradiance, for actual measurement irradiance, the number that N' is future position.
As shown in Figure 8, predicated error curve as shown in Figure 9, visible for predicted value and actual comparison curve, and forecast model possesses good precision of prediction.
Above embodiment is used for illustrative purposes only, but not limitation of the present invention, person skilled in the relevant technique, without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention, can also make various conversion or modification, therefore all technical schemes that are equal to also should belong to category of the present invention, should be limited by each claim.
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