CN103529237B - The measuring method of a kind of fo Sediment Group Settling speed and measurement apparatus - Google Patents

The measuring method of a kind of fo Sediment Group Settling speed and measurement apparatus Download PDF

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CN103529237B
CN103529237B CN201310499361.0A CN201310499361A CN103529237B CN 103529237 B CN103529237 B CN 103529237B CN 201310499361 A CN201310499361 A CN 201310499361A CN 103529237 B CN103529237 B CN 103529237B
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pressure
instrumentataion
overbar
horizontal plane
silt
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CN201310499361.0A
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CN103529237A (en
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陈启刚
李文杰
李丹勋
钟强
王兴奎
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清华大学
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Abstract

The present invention relates to the measurement apparatus that a kind of fo Sediment Group Settling speed measuring method adopts, belong to river model test field, this device includes settlement barrel, multiple pressure instrumentataion and computer three part;Settlement barrel is the column shape container of the vertical Arbitrary Shape Cross Section placed, and limit wall is vertically evenly arranged multiple pressure tap, and the number of pressure tap is no less than 3;Pressure instrumentataion is vertically mounted in pressure tap, and seals with limit wall, and the center of the pressure element of pressure instrumentataion flushes with pressure tap center;Each pressure instrumentataion is connected with computer, under control of the computer synchro measure pressure, and measurement result is passed back computer is in real time analyzed and stores.This method calculates the change procedure of sediment concentration by measuring the change procedure of pressure, and then calculates the group settling velocity of silt.The present invention can realize automatic, noiseless, accurately measure bulk settling of sediment speed in silt-including water.

Description

The measuring method of a kind of fo Sediment Group Settling speed and measurement apparatus

Technical field

The invention belongs to river model test field, particularly to the measurement to bulk settling of sediment speed.

Background technology

In the rational approach and engineer applied of sediment movement, the group sinking velocity of silt is important parameter.For single spherical granules, fine grain heavy speed can calculate with Stokes formula, and coarse grained heavy speed can use resistance formula to calculate, and the heavy speed of the transition region granule between large or fine granule then needs test to measure;Heavy speed such as granules in irregular shape such as natural sands also needs to pass through test determination.The heavy speed test of traditional individual particle is usually in special settlement barrel and puts into a granule every time, reach after stabilized speed, to record settling height and corresponding time until it, heavy speed, repeatedly repeated trials can be calculated, take the statistical average heavy speed as this kind of sand-like of each test.

Under its natural environment and in engineer applied, the silt that current contain all has certain concentration, and namely sand grain can by sedimentation and diffusion in current in the way of colony, and the motion between granule also can influence each other, and its heavy fast and individual particle heavy speed can be variant.Particularly colony's sedimentation of fine sediment, it is also possible to flocculating, the research making fo Sediment Group Settling speed is more complicated.

Silt for fines, it is common that will stir, and there is certain density slurry contain in graduated cylinder, observation is clear, the decrease speed of muddy water interface as this kind of silt group sinking velocity under this concentration, this type of test it is frequently necessary to the time of several days.Group sinking velocity for general sand grain is tested, typical method is one special settlement barrel of design, differing heights at barrel arranges thief hole, to stir, and there is certain density slurry contain in sedimentation, in the different moment from each thief hole sample drawn, carry out the analysis of sediment concentration and grating, inquire into the group sinking velocity of silt according to sediment concentration over time.This kind of method workload greatly, and will reduce the liquid level in settlement barrel due to sample drawn, add difficulty to data analysis.

Summary of the invention

It is an object of the invention to overcome the weak point of prior art, it is provided that the measuring method of a kind of bulk settling of sediment speed and measurement apparatus, with realize automatic, noiseless, accurately measure bulk settling of sediment speed in silt-including water.

The measurement apparatus that a kind of fo Sediment Group Settling speed measuring method that the present invention proposes adopts, it is characterised in that this device includes settlement barrel, multiple pressure instrumentataion and computer three part;Settlement barrel is the column shape container of the vertical Arbitrary Shape Cross Section placed, and limit wall is vertically evenly arranged multiple pressure tap, and the number of pressure tap is no less than 3;Pressure instrumentataion is vertically mounted in pressure tap, and seals with limit wall, and the center of the pressure element of pressure instrumentataion flushes with pressure tap center;Each pressure instrumentataion is connected with computer, under control of the computer synchro measure pressure, and measurement result is passed back computer is in real time analyzed and stores.

The present invention also proposes to adopt the fo Sediment Group Settling speed measuring method of said apparatus, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:

1) being contained by mortar to be measured into settlement barrel, stand mortar after build-up of fluid calmness, open each pressure instrumentataion by computer and start to measure muddy water pressure by the Frequency Synchronization set, each pressure instrumentataion passes the pressure measured in real time back computer;

2) pressure measured according to each pressure instrumentataion calculates the mean sediment concentration of mortar t at any time: setting the number of pressure instrumentataion as N, the horizontal plane at each pressure instrumentataion 2 and place is numbered n(n=1 respectively, and 2 ... N), the discrepancy in elevation of horizontal plane n distance mortar liquid level is Hn(n=1,2 ... N), the pressure readings of pressure instrumentataion n t at any time is Pn(t) (n=1,2 ... N), it is f=1/ Δ t that each pressure instrumentataion measures the frequency of pressure, and wherein Δ t is pressure measurement interval;Definition according to hydrostatic pressure, the volume averaging unit weight of the t at any time of the mortar between horizontal plane n and liquid levelFor:

γ n ‾ ( t ) = P n ( t ) H n , ( n = 1,2 , . . . N ) - - - ( 1 )

Definition according to quality silt content, the mean sediment concentration of the mortar between horizontal plane n and liquid levelWith volume averaging unit weightBetween meet following relation:

S n ‾ ( t ) = γ s γ n ‾ ( t ) - γ γ s - γ , ( n = 1,2 , . . . N ) - - - ( 2 )

γ in formulasFor the dry density of silt to be measured, γ is the unit weight of water;

3) try to achieve the mean sediment concentration of the mortar between all horizontal planes and liquid level according to formula (2), obtaining the mortar between horizontal plane n and horizontal plane n-1 in the mean sediment concentration of moment t is:

S n - 1 , n ‾ ( t ) = H n S n ‾ ( t ) - H n - 1 S n - 1 ‾ ( t ) H n - H n - 1 , ( n = 1,2 , . . . N ) - - - ( 3 )

WillBeing taken as with the liquid level discrepancy in elevation is (Hn+Hn-1The silt content at the plane place of)/2, interpolation obtains the silt content S at horizontal plane n placen(t);

S n ( t ) = S n - 1 , n ‾ ( t ) + S n , n + 1 ‾ ( t ) 2 , ( n = 1,2 , . . . N ) - - - ( 4 )

4) definition according to silt discharge, is silt discharge g by the quantity of sand and mud of horizontal plane n divided by settlement barrel area of section A and time between moment t-Δ t to t+ Δ tnT (), is calculated as follows:

g n ( t ) = ( S n ‾ ( t + Δt ) - S n ‾ ( t - Δt ) ) H n A 2 AΔt , ( n = 1,2 , . . . N ) - - - ( 5 )

By gnT () is taken as the horizontal plane n instantaneous silt discharge at moment t;

5) obtaining any time t from the liquid level discrepancy in elevation according to formula (4) and formula (5) is HnThe group settling velocity ω of the silt at placen(t) be:

ω n ( t ) = g n ( t ) S n ( t ) , ( n = 1,2 , . . . N ) - - - ( 6 ) .

The feature of the present invention and effect be:

(1) the natural subsidence process of silt will not be produced interference by measurement process;

(2) calculating of pressure measurement and sedimentation velocity is all completed by computer, it is achieved that the real-time automatic measuring of bulk settling of sediment speed;

(3) this method is particularly well suited to measure in middle and high concentration slurry the group settling velocity of silt.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is measurement apparatus schematic diagram.

Detailed description of the invention

Below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, technical scheme is described in detail.

The ultimate principle of the present invention is: uniformly install pressure instrumentataion along settlement barrel short transverse, after the slurry stirred being contained settlement barrel and standing, sediment concentration changes in time because of sediment settlement, causes that the pressure that each pressure instrumentataion records changes in time.Owing to pressure and sediment concentration have strict mathematics corresponding relation, the change procedure of sediment concentration can be calculated by measuring the change procedure of pressure, and then calculate the group settling velocity of silt.

Based on above-mentioned principle, the measurement apparatus that a kind of fo Sediment Group Settling speed measuring method of the present invention adopts is as it is shown in figure 1, include settlement barrel 1, multiple pressure instrumentataion 2 and computer 3 three part composition.Settlement barrel 1 is the column shape container of the vertical Arbitrary Shape Cross Section placed, and is highly not less than 1m, and limit wall is vertically evenly arranged pressure tap 4, for installing pressure instrumentataion 2, pressure instrumentataion 2 is vertically mounted in pressure tap, and seals with limit wall, and the center of its pressure element flushes with pressure tap center;For ensureing certainty of measurement and being easy to Mathematical treatment, the number of pressure tap is no less than 3;Pressure instrumentataion 2 is muddy water pressure measurement instrument;Pressure instrumentataion 2 is connected with computer, synchro measure pressure under the control of computer 3, and measurement result is passed back computer 3 is in real time analyzed and stores.

The embodiment of each parts of this measurement apparatus is respectively described below:

Computer 3 is common desktop computer or notebook computer.The present embodiment selects the rectangle settlement barrel of length respectively 80cm, 80cm and 200cm, and barrel is vertically evenly arranged 6 pressure taps, and pitch of holes is 20cm;Pressure instrumentataion 2 is HeLM company of Germany HM10 (0~40KPa)-3-D1-V1-F1-W1 type high accuracy muddy water pressure transducer, and certainty of measurement is the 0.1% of full scale;The AC6616P board that computer 3 is produced by Beijing Shuan Nuo company communicates with pressure transducer.

Based on above-mentioned measurement apparatus, the measuring method of the fo Sediment Group Settling speed of the present invention comprises the following steps:

1) being contained by mortar to be measured into settlement barrel 1, standing mortar is opened each pressure instrumentataion 2 by computer 3 after build-up of fluid calmness and is started to measure muddy water pressure by the Frequency Synchronization set, and each pressure instrumentataion 2 passes the pressure measured in real time back computer 3;

2) pressure measured according to each pressure instrumentataion calculates the mean sediment concentration of mortar t at any time: setting the number of pressure instrumentataion 2 as N, the horizontal plane at each pressure instrumentataion 2 and place is numbered n(n=1 respectively, and 2 ... N), the discrepancy in elevation of horizontal plane n distance mortar liquid level is Hn(n=1,2 ... N), the pressure readings of pressure instrumentataion n t at any time is Pn(t) (n=1,2 ... N), it is f=1/ Δ t that each pressure instrumentataion measures the frequency of pressure, and wherein, Δ t is pressure measurement interval, and the present embodiment is 1 minute;Definition according to hydrostatic pressure, the volume averaging unit weight of the t at any time of the mortar between horizontal plane n and liquid levelFor:

γ n ‾ ( t ) = P n ( t ) H n , ( n = 1,2 , . . . N ) - - - ( 1 )

Definition according to quality silt content, the mean sediment concentration of the mortar between horizontal plane n and liquid levelWith volume averaging unit weightBetween meet following relation:

S n ‾ ( t ) = γ s γ n ‾ ( t ) - γ γ s - γ , ( n = 1,2 , . . . N ) - - - ( 2 )

γ in formulasFor the dry density of silt to be measured, γ is the unit weight of water;

3) try to achieve the mean sediment concentration of the mortar between all horizontal planes and liquid level according to formula (2), obtaining the mortar between horizontal plane n and horizontal plane n-1 in the mean sediment concentration of moment t is:

S n - 1 , n ‾ ( t ) = H n S n ‾ ( t ) - H n - 1 S n - 1 ‾ ( t ) H n - H n - 1 , ( n = 1,2 , . . . N ) - - - ( 3 )

WillBeing taken as with the liquid level discrepancy in elevation is (Hn+Hn-1The silt content at the horizontal plane place of)/2, interpolation obtains the silt content S at horizontal plane n placen(t);The embodiment of this method adopts linear interpolation, specific as follows:

S n ( t ) = S n - 1 , n ‾ ( t ) + S n , n + 1 ‾ ( t ) 2 , ( n = 1,2 , . . . N ) - - - ( 4 )

4) definition according to silt discharge, is silt discharge g by the quantity of sand and mud of horizontal plane n divided by settlement barrel area of section A and time between moment t-Δ t to t+ Δ tnT (), is calculated as follows:

g n ( t ) = ( S n ‾ ( t + Δt ) - S n ‾ ( t - Δt ) ) H n A 2 AΔt , ( n = 1,2 , . . . N ) - - - ( 5 )

By gnT () is taken as the plane n instantaneous silt discharge at moment t;

5) obtaining any time t from the liquid level discrepancy in elevation according to formula (4) and formula (5) is HnThe group settling velocity ω of the silt at placen(t) be:

ω n ( t ) = g n ( t ) S n ( t ) , ( n = 1,2 , . . . N ) - - - ( 6 ) .

By above-mentioned steps it can be seen that advantage of this approach is that in measurement process and the natural subsidence process of silt will not be produced interference;It addition, the calculating of pressure measurement and sedimentation velocity is all automatically performed by computer, it is achieved that the real-time automatic measuring of bulk settling of sediment speed;Finally, process require that the pressure change amount that caused by sediment settlement between the double measurement resolution more than pressure instrumentataion, be particularly well suited to measure in middle and high concentration slurry the group settling velocity of silt.

Claims (1)

1. a fo Sediment Group Settling speed measuring method, it is characterised in that the measurement apparatus that the method adopts includes settlement barrel, multiple pressure instrumentataion and computer three part;Settlement barrel is the column shape container of the vertical Arbitrary Shape Cross Section placed, and limit wall is vertically evenly arranged multiple pressure tap;Pressure instrumentataion is vertically mounted in pressure tap, and seals with limit wall, and the center of the pressure element of pressure instrumentataion flushes with pressure tap center;Each pressure instrumentataion is connected with computer;The method comprises the following steps:
1) being contained by mortar to be measured into settlement barrel, stand mortar after build-up of fluid calmness, open each pressure instrumentataion by computer and start to measure muddy water pressure by the Frequency Synchronization set, each pressure instrumentataion passes the pressure measured in real time back computer;
2) pressure measured according to each pressure instrumentataion calculates the mean sediment concentration of mortar t at any time: set the number of pressure instrumentataion as N, the horizontal plane at each pressure instrumentataion (2) and place is numbered n, n=1,2 respectively, ... the discrepancy in elevation of N, horizontal plane n distance mortar liquid level is Hn, n=1,2 ... the pressure readings of N, pressure instrumentataion n t at any time is Pn(t), n=1,2 ... N, it is f=1/ Δ t that each pressure instrumentataion measures the frequency of pressure, and wherein Δ t is pressure measurement interval;Definition according to hydrostatic pressure, the volume averaging unit weight of the t at any time of the mortar between horizontal plane n and liquid levelFor:
γ n ‾ ( t ) = P n ( t ) H n , ( n = 1 , 2 , ... N ) - - - ( 1 )
Definition according to quality silt content, the mean sediment concentration of the mortar between horizontal plane n and liquid levelWith volume averaging unit weightBetween meet following relation:
S n ‾ ( t ) = γ s γ n ‾ ( t ) - γ γ s - γ , ( n = 1 , 2 , ... N ) - - - ( 2 )
γ in formulasFor the dry density of silt to be measured, γ is the unit weight of water;
3) try to achieve the mean sediment concentration of the mortar between all horizontal planes and liquid level according to formula (2), obtaining the mortar between horizontal plane n and horizontal plane n-1 in the mean sediment concentration of moment t is:
S n - 1 , n ‾ ( t ) = H n S n ‾ ( t ) - H n - 1 S n - 1 ‾ ( t ) H n - H n - 1 , ( n = 1 , 2 , ... N ) - - - ( 3 )
WillBeing taken as with the liquid level discrepancy in elevation is (Hn+Hn-1The silt content at the plane place of)/2, interpolation obtains the silt content S at horizontal plane n placen(t);
S n ( t ) = S n - 1 , n ‾ ( t ) + S n , n + 1 ‾ ( t ) 2 , ( n = 1 , 2 , ... N ) - - - ( 4 )
4) definition according to silt discharge, is silt discharge g by the quantity of sand and mud of horizontal plane n divided by settlement barrel area of section A and time between moment t-Δ t to t+ Δ tnT (), is calculated as follows:
g n ( t ) = ( S n ‾ ( t + Δ t ) - S n ‾ ( t - Δ t ) ) H n A 2 A Δ t , ( n = 1 , 2 , ... N ) - - - ( 5 )
By gnT () is taken as the horizontal plane n instantaneous silt discharge at moment t;
5) obtaining any time t from the liquid level discrepancy in elevation according to formula (4) and formula (5) is HnThe group settling velocity ω of the silt at placen(t) be:
ω n ( t ) = g n ( t ) S n ( t ) , ( n = 1 , 2 , ... N ) - - - ( 6 ) .
CN201310499361.0A 2013-10-22 2013-10-22 The measuring method of a kind of fo Sediment Group Settling speed and measurement apparatus CN103529237B (en)

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CN103675328B (en) * 2013-12-04 2016-08-17 重庆交通大学 A kind of detection method of suspended sediment group sinking velocity
CN105203424A (en) * 2014-06-26 2015-12-30 南京梅山冶金发展有限公司 Simple measuring method for content of micro-fine-particle-level particles
CN105004508B (en) * 2015-07-14 2017-08-25 中国科学院水利部成都山地灾害与环境研究所 Mud-rock flow is along journey evolution parameter measuring method
CN105300860A (en) * 2015-11-03 2016-02-03 华东师范大学 Large-size movable suspended matter section high-resolution measurement and slidable sampling device
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CN101852813A (en) * 2010-05-18 2010-10-06 河海大学 Device and method for measuring silt-settling velocity
CN102359862A (en) * 2011-08-12 2012-02-22 河海大学 Simulating method of numerical value of sediment movement of silty and muddy coast
CN102383394A (en) * 2011-08-09 2012-03-21 黄河水利委员会黄河水利科学研究院 Test method of rive project movable bed physical model coupling

Patent Citations (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
US3896660A (en) * 1973-12-26 1975-07-29 Univ Michigan Tech Sedimentation device
CN101813601A (en) * 2010-04-23 2010-08-25 河海大学 Sediment settling velocity measuring device with automatic measuring function and method thereof
CN101852813A (en) * 2010-05-18 2010-10-06 河海大学 Device and method for measuring silt-settling velocity
CN102383394A (en) * 2011-08-09 2012-03-21 黄河水利委员会黄河水利科学研究院 Test method of rive project movable bed physical model coupling
CN102359862A (en) * 2011-08-12 2012-02-22 河海大学 Simulating method of numerical value of sediment movement of silty and muddy coast

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