CN103528934B - Measure the cross-correlation method of Oil in Super-low Permeability rock permeability stress sensitivity - Google Patents

Measure the cross-correlation method of Oil in Super-low Permeability rock permeability stress sensitivity Download PDF

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CN103528934B
CN103528934B CN201310518094.7A CN201310518094A CN103528934B CN 103528934 B CN103528934 B CN 103528934B CN 201310518094 A CN201310518094 A CN 201310518094A CN 103528934 B CN103528934 B CN 103528934B
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permeability
pressure
rock
correlation
confined
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CN201310518094.7A
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CN103528934A (en
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王小琼
葛洪魁
申颍浩
汪道兵
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中国石油大学(北京)
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Abstract

The invention provides a kind of cross-correlation method of measuring Oil in Super-low Permeability rock permeability stress sensitivity. The method comprises the following steps: a) to choose the Oil in Super-low Permeability such as shale or tight sand rock core, is processed into cylinder test specimen; B) a cylinder bloom standard specimen of processing, for system calibrating; C) adopt rectilinear oscillation method to carry out the measurement of ultra-low penetration rate, pore media can adopt gas or water. Bloom measurement result is for calibration system; D) rock core is put in clamper, applies confined pressure, Pore Pressure, rock core is carried out saturated, apply upstream sine pressure wave and remain unchanged, measure the downstream pressure wave response of different confined pressures; E) the downstream pressure waveform of different confined pressures is carried out to cross-correlation analysis, obtain the variation of permeability with confined pressure. The rectilinear oscillation method that the present invention measures in conjunction with ultra-low penetration rock permeability, carries out cross-correlation analysis to the pressure waveform of permeability survey, improves the precision that permeability variation is measured, and solves ultra-low penetration rate stress sensitivity and measures a difficult problem.

Description

Measure the cross-correlation method of Oil in Super-low Permeability rock permeability stress sensitivity
Technical field
The invention relates to the method for ultra-low penetration rate material stress sensitivity tests, particularly about oneMeasure the cross-correlation method of testing of Oil in Super-low Permeability rock permeability stress sensitivity. The present invention can be unconventional oilThe permeability stress sensitivity test supplying method support of gas reservoir, nuke rubbish reservoir.
Background technology
Permeability is the most important physical parameter of reservoir, is also the basis of oil and gas development. In recent years along with pageThe exploitation of the unconventional oil gas such as rock gas, tight sand oil gas, in the urgent need to carrying out ultra-low penetration rate(<0.1×10-3μm2) test, this has all proposed challenge to method of testing and instrument, is that non-conventional gas and oil is openedSend out the difficult point of research. In China Petroleum, main steady state method and the pulse attenuation method of adopting carries out ultralow at presentPermeability test, in Shortcomings also aspect measuring accuracy, stability and test period, development high accuracyThe method of ultra-low penetration rate is very important.
The factor that affects permeability survey mainly can be divided into external cause and the large class of internal cause two, and internal cause is the ore deposit of rockThing composition, pore structure, granular size etc. External cause mainly contains the character of pressure, temperature and fluid. ?In laboratory for Oil in Super-low Permeability rock core, especially for permeability lower than 0.1 × 10-3μm2Core sample,Permeability survey length consuming time, what have reaches several weeks to the several months, therefore first the compression pump to press and holeThe instruments such as gap compression pump have proposed higher requirement, need the precision of instrument high, good stability, Ke YibaoHold a certain stress state and reach a few days to the several months to measure the permeability value under a certain stress state. Secondly,No matter be pore pressure pump reason or the reason of measuring permeability method, the disturbance of pore pressure is also non-Often little. All there is noise in the pore pressure or the test pressure of output that in experimentation, are input,As the signal of telecommunication of the noise of the pump of the thermal perturbation of low frequency, high frequency and pressure sensor and other high frequenciesContour low frequency noise, these noises have material impact to test result, along with test sample permeabilityReduce and increase. Particularly, for the rock core of Oil in Super-low Permeability, instrument steady temperature is most important. Otherwise very littleTemperature and environmental perturbation all may cause pore pressure curve to be difficult to matching. At present conventional steady state method andPulse attenuation method measures that ultra-low penetration rate stability is good not, precision is also subject to temperature noise etc. to be affected, more difficultMeasure the stress sensitivity of permeability.
With respect to the pulse attenuation method of current extensive use, rectilinear oscillation method is wanted experiment condition, environment etc.Ask low, there is the used time short, the advantage that result is stable, precision is high. Rectilinear oscillation method has only been used rock two endsThe amplitude ratio of pore pressure signal and phase difference, to not requirement of absolute value, therefore reduce to a certain extentThe impact of environmental change on measurement result. And the Pore Pressure Reeb of rectilinear oscillation method possesses wave character,Can apply the digital signal processing method treatment cycle vibrations such as fast Fourier transformation (FFT), cross-spectrum methodThe data of method, thus signal to noise ratio can be improved significantly, to reach the requirement of meticulous measurement ultra-low penetration rate.The rectilinear oscillation method that the present invention measures in conjunction with ultra-low penetration rock permeability, is used for waveform cross-correlation methodPermeability variation is measured, and increases substantially the precision and stability that permeability variation is measured, and solves Oil in Super-low PermeabilityRock permeability stress sensitivity is measured a difficult problem thoroughly. The method principle is: the cross-correlation of two train wave shapes can be highPrecision ground obtains waveform phase difference, belongs to waveform interferometry, obtains and extensively should in signal detection fieldWith. The present invention measures waveform cross-correlation method for permeability variation, to the pressure wave of permeability surveyShape is carried out cross-correlation analysis, obtains the variation of permeability with confined pressure, evaluation ultra-low penetration rock permeabilityStress sensitivity. For the permeability stress sensitivity test of unconventional oil and gas reservoir, nuke rubbish reservoir providesTechnical support.
Summary of the invention
The object of this invention is to provide a kind of cross-correlation side of measuring Oil in Super-low Permeability rock permeability stress sensitivityMethod, the method has comprehensively embodied the low hole of unconventional reservoir, hypotonic feature, and in experimental facilities and dataIn processing, do the invention of novelty. Thereby carry out the monitoring of Oil in Super-low Permeability core permeability stress sensitivity.
For achieving the above object, the invention provides the mutual of a kind of Oil in Super-low Permeability rock permeability stress sensitivityCorrelation technique, the method comprises the following steps: a) to choose the Oil in Super-low Permeability such as shale or tight sand rock core, willIt is processed into cylinder test specimen; B) a cylinder bloom standard specimen of processing, for system calibrating; C)Adopt rectilinear oscillation method to carry out the measurement of ultra-low penetration rate, pore media can adopt gas or water. First willBloom test specimen is put in core holding unit, and clamper is given respectively rock core by two servo pressure pumps by valveApply confined pressure, sinusoidal Pore Pressure Reeb. Bloom measurement result is for calibration system; D) rock core is put in to folderHold in device, apply confined pressure, Pore Pressure, to rock core carry out water saturation or gas saturated. After rock core is saturated, executeAdd upstream sine pressure wave, measure downstream sinusoidal pressure wave response. Keep upstream sine pressure wave constant,Become confined pressure, the response of measuring the downstream pressure ripple of different confined pressures; E) waveform cross-correlation method is used for to infiltrationRate measure of the change, carries out cross-correlation analysis to the pressure waveform of permeability survey under different confined pressures, and acquisition is oozedRate, with the variation of confined pressure, is evaluated the stress sensitivity of ultra-low penetration rock permeability thoroughly.
Further, step a) in, the rock core such as shale, tight sand of choosing is taken from developed reservoirFull-hole core or the appearing of identical layer position, there is ultra-low penetration rate. Described rock core is processed into diameterFor 2.5cm, it is highly the standard cylinder of 3-4cm.
Further, step b) in, process one with the cylinder bloom test specimen of rock core with yardstick.The porosity and permeability of bloom is zero in theory.
Further, step c) in, bloom test specimen is put in clamper, respectively give bloom test specimen executeAdd confined pressure, Pore Pressure. And apply sinusoidal Pore Pressure Reeb in bloom test specimen upstream, measure downstream Pore PressureReeb response. This measurement result is for demarcating than storage flow rate equivalence system.
Further, in steps d) in, it is ultralow that employing rectilinear oscillation method is carried out shale, tight sand etc.Ooze the measurement of core permeability. Apply confined pressure, Pore Pressure to rock core carry out saturated after, apply upstream sinePressure wave, measures downstream sinusoidal pressure wave response. Keep upstream sine pressure wave constant, become confined pressure, surveyMeasure the response of the downstream pressure ripple of different confined pressures.
Further, step e) in, rectilinear oscillation method Data processing adopt cross-correlation method, choosingThe downstream hole pressure wave of selecting a certain confined pressure is reference pressure waveform, by downstream pressure ripple under different confined pressuresWith the cross correlation process of reference pressure ripple, obtain relative when phase difference of pressure waveform amplitude.
Further, the internal diameter of the pipeline that transports pore-fluid in clamper is very little, is about 0.7mm,Go out the large pipeline that clamper is connected to pipeline by valve internal diameter 3mm later. To reduce than storage flow rate pairThe impact of Oil in Super-low Permeability core permeability test.
Further, keep upstream hole pressure waveform constant, keep upstream hole pressure waveform identicalAmplitude and frequency.
Further, selecting the downstream pressure ripple under a certain confined pressure condition is reference waveform, selects a certain enclosingPermeability under press strip part is with reference to permeability.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is, the rectilinear oscillation method of measuring in conjunction with ultra-low penetration rock permeability,Waveform cross-correlation method is measured for permeability variation, the pressure waveform of permeability survey is carried out mutuallyClose and analyze, increase substantially the precision and stability that permeability variation is measured, obtain permeability with confined pressureChange, solve ultra-low penetration rock permeability stress sensitivity and measure a difficult problem, to evaluate ultra-low penetration rockThe stress sensitivity of permeability. The method will be answered in unconventional oil and gas development, nuke rubbish reservoir studyPower potentiality are larger.
Brief description of the drawings
In order to be illustrated more clearly in the embodiment of the present invention, below by required use during embodiment is describedAccompanying drawing is briefly described. In the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 1 is a kind of cross-correlation side of measuring Oil in Super-low Permeability rock permeability stress sensitivity of the embodiment of the present inventionThe experiment flow figure of method;
Fig. 2 is a kind of cross-correlation side of measuring Oil in Super-low Permeability rock permeability stress sensitivity of the embodiment of the present inventionThe experimental provision structural representation of method;
Fig. 3 is that the cross-correlation method that embodiment of the present invention Oil in Super-low Permeability rock permeability stress sensitivity is measured is shownIntention.
Detailed description of the invention
For making object, technical scheme and the advantage of the embodiment of the present invention clearer, below in conjunction with attachedFigure is described in further details the embodiment of the present invention. At this, illustrative examples of the present invention and sayingBright for explaining the present invention, but not as a limitation of the invention.
Existing method measure problem that ultra-low penetration rate mainly exists be that Measuring Time is long, precision is low, steadyQualitative bad, the therefore permeability stress sensitivity of more difficult measurement Oil in Super-low Permeability rock core. Above tired in order to overcomeDifficulty, the invention provides a kind of cross-correlation method of measuring Oil in Super-low Permeability rock permeability stress sensitivity. AsShown in Fig. 1, the method comprises the following steps:
Step S101: choose the Oil in Super-low Permeability such as shale or tight sand rock core, be processed into cylinder test specimen;
Step S102: process a cylinder bloom standard specimen, for system calibrating;
Step S103: adopt rectilinear oscillation method to carry out the measurement of ultra-low penetration rate, pore media can adopt gasBody or water. First bloom test specimen is put in core holding unit, clamper is passed through by two servo pressure pumpsValve applies confined pressure, sinusoidal Pore Pressure Reeb to rock core respectively. Bloom measurement result is for calibration system;
Step S104: rock core is put in clamper, applies confined pressure, Pore Pressure, rock core is carried out to water and satisfyWith or gas saturated. After rock core is saturated, apply upstream sine pressure wave, measure downstream sinusoidal pressure wave response.Keep upstream sine pressure wave constant, become confined pressure, the response of measuring the downstream pressure ripple of different confined pressures;
Step S105: waveform cross-correlation method is measured for permeability variation, to permeating under different confined pressuresThe pressure waveform that rate is measured carries out cross-correlation analysis, obtains the variation of permeability with confined pressure, evaluates Oil in Super-low PermeabilityThe stress sensitivity of rock permeability thoroughly.
From the above mentioned, for the unconventional reservoir of Oil in Super-low Permeability, can be to the ratio of system by this instrument and equipmentStorage flow rate is demarcated and is proofreaied and correct, thereby increases substantially the certainty of measurement of permeability. In conjunction with ultra-low penetrationThe rectilinear oscillation method that rock permeability is measured, measures waveform cross-correlation method for permeability variation, rightThe pressure waveform of permeability survey carries out cross-correlation analysis, can obtain the variation of permeability with confined pressure, commentsThe stress sensitivity of valency ultra-low penetration rock permeability.
In laboratory for Oil in Super-low Permeability rock core, especially for permeability lower than 0.1 × 10-3μm2Rock coreSample, permeability survey length consuming time, the instruments such as the compression pump to press and pore pressure pump have proposedHigh requirement, needs the precision of instrument high, and good stability can keep a certain stress state to reach a few daysTo the several months to measure the permeability value under a certain stress state. In addition, due to the permeability of unconventional reservoirExtremely low, the ratio storage flow rate that transports the pipeline of pore-fluid just becomes very large to the impact of permeability survey result,In order to overcome deficiency, adopt pipeline to become internal diameter and transported pore-fluid, the internal diameter of the pipeline in clamper is approximatelyFor 0.7mm, go out clamper and by valve, pipeline is connected to the large pipeline that internal diameter is 3mm later. As figureShown in 2,1 is core chamber, and 2,3 are respectively Pore Pressure servopump and confined pressure control pump, apply to rock corePore Pressure and confined pressure. 4,5,6 be respectively upstream hole pressure sensor, downstream hole pressure sensor, enclosePressure sensor. While adopting rectilinear oscillation method testing rock core permeability, apply a sinusoidal hole in rock core upstreamGap pressure wave, the response of observation rock core downstream pore pressure. 7 is by-pass valve control, and 8 for transporting pore-fluidInternal diameter be 0.7mm pipeline, the 9th, the pipeline that the internal diameter that transports pore-fluid is 3mm. TestIt is 2.5cm that rock core is processed into diameter, is highly the standard cylinder of 3-4cm, is positioned over 1 place of core chamber.Experimental facilities can become confined pressure and measure. In order to solve core holding unit than storing up flow rate to ultra-low penetration rate essenceDegree impact, processed one with the cylinder bloom test specimen of rock core with yardstick. The porosity of bloom and oozingOn rate theory, be zero thoroughly. Bloom test specimen is put in clamper, applies confined pressure, Pore Pressure to bloom respectively,Apply a sinusoidal Pore Pressure Reeb in bloom upstream, measure downstream pressure wave response, this measurement result is usedIn core permeability measurement result is demarcated.
In order to measure the relative variation of permeability, adopt the Wave data of cross-correlation method to rectilinear oscillation methodAnalyze. The method principle is: the cross-correlation of two train wave shapes can obtain waveform phase difference accurately,Belong to waveform interferometry, obtain extensive use in signal detection field. Cross-correlation function is defined as:
R ( t , t w ) ( t S ) &equiv; &Integral; t - t w t + t w u u n p ( t &prime; ) u p e r ( t &prime; + t s ) dt &prime; ( &Integral; t - t w t + t w u u n p 2 ( t &prime; ) dt &prime; &Integral; t - t w t + t w u p e r 2 ( t &prime; ) dt &prime; ) 1 2
In formula, time window length is 2tw, the center that t is window. tsIt is the movement of using in cross-correlationTime, uunp represents reference wave field, and uuper represents the wave field under different confined pressures. Cross-correlation functionLarge value (Rmax) represent the similarity degree of two train waves, corresponding to RmaxTime delay (δt) representedThe variation of out of phase.
The rectilinear oscillation method that the present invention measures in conjunction with ultra-low penetration rock permeability, by waveform cross-correlation methodMeasure for permeability variation. Utilize cross-correlation method, relatively the phase difference of the similar wave train of two row is to obtainThe high-acruracy survey of permeability variation. The cross-correlation method that rectilinear oscillation method permeability variation is measured is to utilizeThe cross-correlation of downstream waveform obtains the phase difference under different stress. As shown in Figure 3,1 is on rock coreTrip Pore Pressure Reeb, no matter how confined pressure changes, remains that upstream pressure waveform is identical, possesses identicalAmplitude, frequency. 2 is rock core, has ultra-low penetration. The 3rd, rock core downstream Pore Pressure under different confined pressuresForce-responsive waveform. Because upstream hole pressure wave has identical amplitude, frequency, therefore can be by rightThe cross-correlation of downstream hole pressure wave obtains the when phase difference of amplitude under different confined pressure conditions. In Fig. 34Under different confined pressure conditions, the phase difference of downstream hole pressure wave, the 5th, under different confined pressure conditions, downstreamPore pressure wave amplitude ratio. Under different confined pressure conditions, the when phase of amplitude of downstream hole pressure waveformPotential difference obtains the variation of permeability with confined pressure, evaluates the stress sensitivity of ultra-low penetration rock permeability.
Above-described specific embodiment, has carried out object of the present invention, technical scheme and beneficial effectFurther describe, institute it should be understood that and the foregoing is only specific embodiments of the invention,The protection domain being not intended to limit the present invention, within the spirit and principles in the present invention all, that does appointsWhat revises, is equal to replacement, improvement etc., within all should being included in protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (5)

1. the cross-correlation method of measuring Oil in Super-low Permeability rock permeability stress sensitivity, is characterized in that waveformCross-correlation method is measured for permeability variation, increases substantially the precision of permeability variation measurement and stablizesProperty, solve ultra-low penetration rock permeability stress sensitivity and measure a difficult problem; The method principle is: two train wavesThe cross-correlation of shape can obtain waveform phase difference accurately, belongs to waveform interferometry, in signal detectionField obtains extensive use; The rectilinear oscillation method that the present invention measures in conjunction with ultra-low penetration rock permeability, willWaveform cross-correlation method is measured for permeability variation, and the pressure waveform of permeability survey is carried out to cross-correlationAnalyze, obtain the variation of permeability with confined pressure, evaluate the stress sensitivity of ultra-low penetration rock permeability;
The method comprises the following steps:
A) choose shale or tight sand Oil in Super-low Permeability rock core, be processed into cylinder test specimen;
B) a cylinder bloom standard specimen of processing, for system calibrating;
C) adopt rectilinear oscillation method to carry out the measurement of ultra-low penetration rate, pore media can adopt gas or water;First described cylinder bloom standard specimen is put in core holding unit, clamper is by two servo pressuresPump applies confined pressure, sinusoidal Pore Pressure Reeb to rock core respectively by valve; Described cylinder bloom standard examinationPart measurement result is for calibration system;
D) rock core is put in clamper, applies confined pressure, Pore Pressure, rock core is carried out to water saturation or gas fullWith; After rock core is saturated, apply upstream sine pressure wave, measure downstream sinusoidal pressure wave response; In maintenanceTrip sine pressure wave is constant, becomes confined pressure, the response of measuring the downstream pressure ripple of different confined pressures;
E) waveform cross-correlation method is measured for permeability variation, to permeability survey under different confined pressuresPressure waveform carries out cross-correlation analysis, obtains the variation of permeability with confined pressure, evaluates ultra-low penetration rock and oozesThe stress sensitivity of rate thoroughly;
Step c) in, in described clamper, transport two internal diameter of the pipeline of pore media described in upstream and downstreamFor 0.7mm, after going out described clamper, by valve, described pipeline being connected to internal diameter is the large of 3mmPipeline;
Described maintenance upstream hole pressure waveform is constant, keeps the identical amplitude of upstream hole pressure waveformAnd frequency;
Step e) in, rectilinear oscillation method Data processing adopt cross-correlation method, select a certain confined pressureDownstream hole pressure wave be reference pressure waveform, by downstream pressure ripple and reference pressure under different confined pressuresThe cross correlation process of ripple, obtains relative when phase difference of pressure waveform amplitude;
Selecting the downstream pressure ripple under a certain confined pressure condition is reference waveform, selects under a certain confined pressure conditionPermeability is with reference to permeability.
2. the cross-correlation side of measurement Oil in Super-low Permeability rock permeability stress sensitivity as claimed in claim 1Method, is characterized in that, step a) in, shale, the tight sand rock core chosen are taken from developed reservoirFull-hole core or the appearing of identical layer position, there is ultra-low penetration rate, described rock core is processed into diameterFor 2.5cm, it is highly the standard cylinder of 3-4cm.
3. the cross-correlation side of measurement Oil in Super-low Permeability rock permeability stress sensitivity as claimed in claim 1Method, is characterized in that, step b) in, process one with the described cylinder bloom of rock core with yardstickStandard specimen, the porosity and permeability of described cylinder bloom standard specimen is zero in theory.
4. the cross-correlation side of measurement Oil in Super-low Permeability rock permeability stress sensitivity as claimed in claim 1Method, is characterized in that, step c) in, described cylinder bloom standard specimen is put in clamper,Apply confined pressure, Pore Pressure to respectively described cylinder bloom standard specimen, and at described cylinder bloom markAccurate test specimen upstream applies sinusoidal Pore Pressure Reeb, measures downstream hole pressure wave response, and this measurement result is usedIn system is demarcated than storage flow rate value.
5. the cross-correlation side of measurement Oil in Super-low Permeability rock permeability stress sensitivity as claimed in claim 1Method, is characterized in that, in steps d) in, employing rectilinear oscillation method is carried out shale, tight sand is ultralowOoze the measurement of core permeability, apply confined pressure, Pore Pressure to rock core carry out saturated after, apply upstream sinePressure wave, measures downstream sinusoidal pressure wave response, keeps upstream sine pressure wave constant, becomes confined pressure, surveysMeasure the response of the downstream pressure ripple of different confined pressures.
CN201310518094.7A 2013-10-29 2013-10-29 Measure the cross-correlation method of Oil in Super-low Permeability rock permeability stress sensitivity CN103528934B (en)

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