CN103522518B - 多功能木塑复合材料一步法挤出机 - Google Patents

多功能木塑复合材料一步法挤出机 Download PDF

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CN103522518B
CN103522518B CN201310468929.2A CN201310468929A CN103522518B CN 103522518 B CN103522518 B CN 103522518B CN 201310468929 A CN201310468929 A CN 201310468929A CN 103522518 B CN103522518 B CN 103522518B
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screw
twin
prilling granulator
speed
mixing device
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CN103522518A (zh
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许黎明
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Jiangsu Jiamin wood Equipment Manufacturing Company Limited
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C48/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C48/25Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29C48/285Feeding the extrusion material to the extruder
    • B29C48/297Feeding the extrusion material to the extruder at several locations, e.g. using several hoppers or using a separate additive feeding
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C48/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C48/25Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29C48/36Means for plasticising or homogenising the moulding material or forcing it through the nozzle or die
    • B29C48/50Details of extruders
    • B29C48/505Screws
    • B29C48/53Screws having a varying channel depth, e.g. varying the diameter of the longitudinal screw trunk
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29BPREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
    • B29B7/00Mixing; Kneading
    • B29B7/30Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/34Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/38Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary
    • B29B7/40Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with single shaft
    • B29B7/44Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with single shaft with paddles or arms
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29BPREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
    • B29B7/00Mixing; Kneading
    • B29B7/30Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/34Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/38Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary
    • B29B7/46Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with more than one shaft
    • B29B7/48Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices with movable mixing or kneading devices rotary with more than one shaft with intermeshing devices, e.g. screws
    • B29B7/488Parts, e.g. casings, sealings; Accessories, e.g. flow controlling or throttling devices
    • B29B7/489Screws
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29BPREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
    • B29B7/00Mixing; Kneading
    • B29B7/30Mixing; Kneading continuous, with mechanical mixing or kneading devices
    • B29B7/58Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29B7/60Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations for feeding, e.g. end guides for the incoming material
    • B29B7/603Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations for feeding, e.g. end guides for the incoming material in measured doses, e.g. proportioning of several materials
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29BPREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
    • B29B7/00Mixing; Kneading
    • B29B7/80Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29B7/88Adding charges, i.e. additives
    • B29B7/90Fillers or reinforcements, e.g. fibres
    • B29B7/92Wood chips or wood fibres
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29BPREPARATION OR PRETREATMENT OF THE MATERIAL TO BE SHAPED; MAKING GRANULES OR PREFORMS; RECOVERY OF PLASTICS OR OTHER CONSTITUENTS OF WASTE MATERIAL CONTAINING PLASTICS
    • B29B9/00Making granules
    • B29B9/02Making granules by dividing preformed material
    • B29B9/06Making granules by dividing preformed material in the form of filamentary material, e.g. combined with extrusion
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C48/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C48/001Combinations of extrusion moulding with other shaping operations
    • B29C48/0013Extrusion moulding in several steps, i.e. components merging outside the die
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C48/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C48/25Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29C48/36Means for plasticising or homogenising the moulding material or forcing it through the nozzle or die
    • B29C48/375Plasticisers, homogenisers or feeders comprising two or more stages
    • B29C48/385Plasticisers, homogenisers or feeders comprising two or more stages using two or more serially arranged screws in separate barrels
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C48/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C48/25Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29C48/36Means for plasticising or homogenising the moulding material or forcing it through the nozzle or die
    • B29C48/375Plasticisers, homogenisers or feeders comprising two or more stages
    • B29C48/39Plasticisers, homogenisers or feeders comprising two or more stages a first extruder feeding the melt into an intermediate location of a second extruder
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C48/00Extrusion moulding, i.e. expressing the moulding material through a die or nozzle which imparts the desired form; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C48/25Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29C48/36Means for plasticising or homogenising the moulding material or forcing it through the nozzle or die
    • B29C48/395Means for plasticising or homogenising the moulding material or forcing it through the nozzle or die using screws surrounded by a cooperating barrel, e.g. single screw extruders
    • B29C48/40Means for plasticising or homogenising the moulding material or forcing it through the nozzle or die using screws surrounded by a cooperating barrel, e.g. single screw extruders using two or more parallel screws or at least two parallel non-intermeshing screws, e.g. twin screw extruders

Abstract

一种新型多功能木塑复合材料一步法挤出机,电机通过齿轮变速箱和延伸传动轴连接双螺杆齿轮分配箱和调速变速箱,齿轮分配箱连接双螺杆造粒装置,混料装置通过双螺杆加料机与双螺杆造粒装置连接,色母粒加料装置与双螺杆造粒装置连接,连接桶连接双螺杆造粒装置和单螺杆挤出机,单螺杆挤出机和调速变速箱连接,全部连接安装在机座上,主要用于木塑复合材料和性质相近的复合材料挤出加工,也可单纯用于造粒,它能实现原料配混后一步法完成生产,高效节能;完全避免螺杆与螺筒的摩擦损坏,提高设备的使用效能;使挤出加工的产品有各种仿木材花纹;能适用于各体系、多挤出量的复合材料。

Description

多功能木塑复合材料一步法挤出机
技术领域
[0001] 本发明涉及一种多功能的木塑复合材料采用一步法生产的节能高效的挤出设备。
背景技术
[0002] 木塑复合材料是一种由植物纤维和废塑料为主要原料的新型材料。作为一种新型、环保、低碳具有典型循环经济特色的新型材料,在国内正处于蓬勃发展期。由于大量使用农作物秸杆和农林三杂等植物纤维原料,整个产业享有“在无山水处造林”的美誉。但作为近5-6年刚刚发展起来的新材料,现有的挤出加工设备均由塑料加工设备改进而来。木塑复合材料体系可分为:聚烯烃体系、聚氯乙烯体系和工程塑料体系。虽然木塑复合材料的加工与塑料加工有一定的共性,但由于原料中大量(占原料比重的60%)使用植物纤维,使得木塑复合材料与塑料的挤出加工有本质的区别。目前,聚烯烃体系和工程塑料体系采用的是混料、平行同向双螺杆造粒机造粒,锥形异向双螺杆挤出机或单螺杆挤出机挤出成型的工艺;聚氯乙烯体系采用的是混料、锥形异向双螺杆挤出机造粒,锥形异向双螺杆挤出机或单螺杆挤出机挤出成型的工艺,如果要生产具有表面仿木纹花色的产品,还需要将造粒后的原料和花纹色母粒进行再次混配。该工艺存在如下缺陷由于原料混炼造粒后,必须要等到冷却后才能进入下一工序,使得该过程中的堆贮和下一工序中的再加热形成资源和能源浪费;2由于木塑复合材料熔融流动性差,在加工过程中对螺杆和螺筒产生很高的梯度压力,造成螺杆和螺筒摩擦,使得螺杆和螺筒磨损特别严重,为普通塑料加工的5-6倍,大幅降低设备使用效能;3三个体系的加工设备各有局限性,无法互用,不具备通用性;
[0003] 虽然也有将两种设备串联或组合的一步法工艺的存在,但只能针对固定原料体系和固定挤出量的产品有效,设备成本高,制造复杂,通用性低。
发明内容
[0004] 为了克服了现有木塑复合材料挤出加工中的工艺繁琐和设备功能的单一,本发明提供一种能在原料加入后一步法完成木塑复合材料的挤出加工;完全避免螺杆与螺筒的摩擦损坏;适用各体系的木塑复合材料的挤出加工;适应多种挤出量的型材;并可方便地使挤出加工的形材有各种仿木材花纹的新型的主要用于木塑复合材料挤出加工,也可单纯用于木塑复合材料造粒和适用与木塑复合材料性质相近的复合材料加工的新型挤出机。
[0005] 解决其技术的方案
[0006] 本发明解决其技术的方案是:
[0007] 1由机座、延伸传动轴、电机、齿轮变速箱、双螺杆齿轮分配箱、双螺杆加料机、混料装置、双螺杆造粒装置、色母粒加料装置、连接桶、单螺杆挤出机和调速变速箱构成一台完整的挤出机。设置该技术方案的有益效果是:电机通过齿轮变速箱和延伸传动轴连接双螺杆齿轮分配箱和调速变速箱,齿轮分配箱连接双螺杆造粒装置,混料装置通过双螺杆加料机与双螺杆造粒装置连接,色母粒加料装置与双螺杆造粒装置连接,连接桶连接双螺杆造粒装置和单螺杆挤出机,单螺杆挤出机和调速变速箱连接,能在原料加入后一步法完成木塑复合材料的挤出加工,节约能源和人工成本,提高设备的使用效能。
[0008] 2使用一套特殊的有较低转速比的锥形异向双螺杆挤出机的齿轮变速箱,使锥形异向双螺杆挤出机的螺杆转速由普通锥形异向双螺杆挤出机的< 50转/分钟提高到多200转/分钟,齿轮变速箱的下部有一根在螺杆转速为200转/分钟它的转速为80转/分钟的延伸传动轴;使用一台特殊的单螺杆挤出机,该挤出机由一根齿轮变速箱的下部< 80转/分钟的延伸轴、一套可调速变速箱、一副较小长径比的单螺杆螺筒(包含止推轴承加热圈等相关附件)构成,挤出机的动力由齿轮变速箱的下部< 80转/分钟的延伸轴提供,可调速变速箱提供单螺杆转速调节,单螺杆挤出机的进料口与轴承箱与双螺杆螺筒连接的开放处的下方上下相对,以一个连接筒连接。设置该技术方案的效果是:安装在机座上的齿轮变速箱给双螺杆输出动力,同时通过齿轮变速箱下部装有的一根延伸传动轴,经由延伸轴上装有的调速变速箱提供单螺杆动力,调速变速箱控制单螺杆挤出机的螺杆转速,节省动力配套空间,节约能源,工作时,只需要调节双螺杆挤出机的进料速度,形成两个部分的挤出量协同一致后,两者间转速不会波动,挤出量也就不会波动;从双螺杆挤出机塑化后被切成颗粒的料,仍处于熔融状态,使用很小的动能即可被单螺杆挤出机挤入模具成型。
[0009] 3在双螺杆加料机的上方使用一台特殊的混料装置,混料装置的容积与双螺杆加料机容积相等,混料装置的筒身上装有一可通水冷却的夹层,夹层外有一保温层,混料装置的筒身上方有一排气筒和多个精确计量加料器,混料装置与双螺杆加料机的连接处有一气动阀门,精确计量加料器的加料顺序和加料量、混料装置的混料时间及夹层的进排水由一套小型计算机控制,混料装置的工作与否和气动阀门的开关由双螺杆加料机中的压力传感器也通过该小型计算机控制。设置该技术方案的效果是:安装在机座上面的双螺杆加料机上方又安装了混料装置,使必要的混合工序不需要以独立工序的形式完成,提高了生产效率,混料装置的容积与双螺杆加料机容积相等,避免双螺杆加料机因加料量过多而堵塞,混料装置的筒身上装有的可通冷却水的夹层,是为了对完成搅拌工序后的热原料进行降温,避免原料降解和结团,夹层外保温层的设置是避免混料时产生的热量流失,提高混料效率,混料装置上方的排气筒用于排放混料时产生的水汽和降解气体,提高产品品质,混料机上方的多个精确计量加料器由小型计算机控制可根据设定配方加入原料,避免人工配料误差,混料装置下方出口处装有的一气动阀门,使混合好的原料方便地进入双螺杆加料机,精确计量加料器和气动阀门控制的进料和出料工序由小型计算机控制,大大提高了自动化程度,工作时,当双螺杆加料机中没有原料时,双螺杆加料机中的压力传感器给小型计算机控制信号,小型计算机控制的精确计量加料器开始按设定的顺序和计量加入原料,混料装置的工作可以时间控制,也可温度控制,混料装置工作完成后,等到双螺杆加料机的原料在生产过程中少于预设量时,双螺杆加料机中的压力传感器再给小型计算机控制信号,混料装置与双螺杆加料机连接处的气动阀门打开,将混合好的原料放入双螺杆加料机,料放完后阀门关闭,混料装置开始重复上一工作过程。混料过程中产生的水汽和挥发物由混料装置的机筒上方的排气筒排出。在生产聚氯乙烯体系的木塑复合材料时,混料装置完成混料后,小型计算机控制机筒的冷却夹层通水工作,当原料冷却到设定温度时,由小型计算机控制将夹层的冷却水排空。
[0010] 4使用一套特殊的双螺杆造粒装置,在该装置中,两根异向旋转的螺杆末端延伸出螺筒为轴;使用一组带有分流锥出料孔的模头,模头与螺筒连接;螺杆末端的延伸轴出模头后变为花键轴;使用两片星形切刀,切刀内孔为花键齿,套装在延伸的花键轴上;使用两只压簧,套在花键轴上,压紧刀片;使用一套含有两组轴承的轴承箱,两组轴承在轴承箱中安装好后,其中心锥角等于两根螺杆安装完成后其延伸花键轴的中心锥角,延伸轴装入轴承后,轴承箱与螺筒用连接件在两侧连接,上下开放。设置该技术方案的效果是:双螺杆造粒装置的里面是两根异向旋转的双螺杆,用于原料的混炼,螺杆的末端延伸轴出切粒模头后变成花键轴,可以方便地安装和驱动切刀,用两片星形切刀,套装在延伸的花键齿上,随螺杆转动完成切粒,使用两只压簧套在花键轴上压紧刀片,使切刀与模头保持合理间隙,花键轴的末端是一段轴,套在含有轴承座的轴承箱内,轴承箱与螺筒用联接件在两侧相联,可以在工作时阻止螺杆与螺筒发生摩擦,上、下的端口开放,方便切好的粒料落下和逸出挥发分,工作时,当原料经熔融塑化后被挤向螺杆末端时,会被挤进带有分流锥和两组出料孔的模头,切刀随螺杆不停旋转,挤出模头的料被切断为颗粒,从轴承箱与螺筒连接的开放处的下方自然落下,植物纤维加工过程中半纤维素降解等因素造成的挥发份,从轴承箱与螺筒连接的开放处的上方自然逸出;螺杆旋转时,原料塑化和挤压形成的使螺杆与螺筒摩擦的高梯度压力,由螺杆的延伸轴传递给轴承箱的轴承,完全避免螺杆与螺筒摩擦。
[0011] 5使用一台特殊的带有加热装置的可调速螺杆加料装置,加料装置安装在轴承箱与螺筒连接的造粒装置开放处的上方,加热装置装在加料装置的外筒部分。设置该技术方案的效果是:加料装置安装在轴承箱与螺筒连接的造粒装置开放处的上方,用于添加仿木纹母粒,被加仿木纹母粒可以自然落下,进入单螺杆内被混合挤出,加热装置装在加料装置的外筒部分,经可调速螺杆调速配合,将仿木纹母粒加热到合适成型的匹配温度,工作时,加料装置中的仿木纹母粒经加热后从轴承箱与螺筒连接的开放处自然落下,随同挤出模头后被切断的颗粒料一同再落入单螺杆挤出机,控制温度和调节加料速度即可方便地控制挤出制品的仿木纹的花色及疏密效果。
[0012] 本发明的有益效果是:能在原料加入后一步法完成木塑复合材料的挤出加工,节约能源和人工成本;完全避免螺杆与螺筒的摩擦损坏,提高设备的使用寿命;适用各体系的木塑复合材料的挤出加工,适应多种挤出量的型材,提高设备的使用效能;可方便地使挤出加工的形材有各种仿木材花纹;结构设计合理,功能齐全,操作简易。
附图说明
[0013] 下面结合附图对本发明进一步说明。
[0014] 附图1是多功能木塑复合材料一步法挤出机的构造图。
[0015] 附图2为双螺杆造粒装置构造图。
[0016] 附图3为切粒模具的主视图。
[0017] 附图4为星形切刀的主视图。
[0018] 附图5为混料装置的剖面图。
[0019] 附图6为小型螺杆加料装置的剖面图。
[0020] 附图1中1.机座,2.延伸传动轴3.电机,4.齿轮变速箱,5.双螺杆齿轮分配箱,6.双螺杆加料机,7.混料装置,8.双螺杆造粒装置,9.色母粒加料装置,10.连接筒,11.单螺杆挤出机,12.调速变速箱。
[0021] 附图2中,8-1.轴承箱,8-2.轴承,8-3.延伸轴,8-4.轴承盖板。8-5.弹簧8-6.切刀,8-7.切粒模头,8-8.双螺杆,8-9.螺筒。
[0022] 附图3中,8-7-1.延伸轴孔,8-7-2.切粒模孔,8_7_3.安装孔。
[0023] 附图4中,8-6-1.切刀齿形孔,8-6-2.星形切刀。
[0024] 附图5中,6.双螺杆加料机,6-1.压力传感器,7-1.阀门,7-2.保温层,7_3.通水的冷却夹层,7-4.精确计量加料器,7-5.电机,7-6.排气筒,7-7.搅拌叶片,7-8.料筒,7_9气缸。
[0025] 附图6中,9-1.电机,9-2.料斗,9_3.加热器,9_4.加料螺杆,9_5.加料机螺筒,8-1.轴承箱,8-7.切粒模头,8-9.螺筒,10.连接筒。
具体实施方式
[0026] 在图1中,电机(3)通过齿轮变速箱(4)和延伸传动轴(2)连接双螺杆齿轮分配箱(5)和调速变速箱(12),齿轮分配箱(5)连接双螺杆造粒装置(8),混料装置(7)通过双螺杆加料机(6)与双螺杆造粒装置(8)连接,色母粒加料装置(9)与双螺杆造粒装置(8)连接,连接桶(10)连接双螺杆造粒装置(8)和单螺杆挤出机(11),单螺杆挤出机(11)和调速变速箱(12)连接。延伸传动轴(2)电机(3)齿轮变速箱(4)双螺杆齿轮分配箱(5)双螺杆加料机(6)混料装置(7)双螺杆造粒装置(8)色母粒加料装置(9)连接桶(10)单螺杆挤出机(11)调速变速箱(12)全部连接安装在机座(1)上。电机(3)为连接双螺杆造粒装置(8)中的双螺杆和单螺杆挤出机(11)中的单螺杆提供动力,齿轮变速箱(4)为双螺杆造粒装置(8)中的双螺杆和单螺杆挤出机(11)中的单螺杆提供合适的转速,双螺杆齿轮分配箱(5)实现双螺杆造粒装置(8)中两根螺杆的同步运转,双螺杆加料机(6)为双螺杆造粒装置(8)中的双螺杆提供加料,混料装置(7)实现原料混配并为双螺杆加料机(6)加料,双螺杆造粒装置(8)完成原料的塑化及切粒并使双螺杆的螺杆与螺筒不发生摩擦,色母粒加料机(9)完成仿木纹母粒的加入单螺杆挤出机(11),连接筒(10)保障切断的原料颗粒落入单螺杆挤出机(11),调速变速箱(12)调节延伸传动轴(2)的传动速度,使单螺杆挤出机
(11)有合理的速度,单螺杆挤出机(11)将原料挤入模具成型。
[0027] 在图2中,双螺杆(8-8)装在螺筒(8-9)内,延伸轴(8_3)与轴承(8_2)连接安装在轴承箱(8-1)内,弹簧(8-5)套在延伸轴(8-3)上,两端分别压在轴承盖板(8-4)和切刀(8-6)上,切粒模头(8-7)连接在螺筒(8-9)上,轴承箱(8-1)在两侧与螺筒(8_9)连接,上下开放。原料经双螺杆(8-8)塑化混炼后被挤向切粒模头(8-7),从模孔中流出后被两片切刀(8-6)切断为颗粒,延伸轴(8-3)伸出切粒模头(8-7)的部分被加工为花键轴以便于安装切刀(8-6),用弹簧(8-5)压紧切刀(8-6)使之紧贴模头(8-7),当双螺杆(8_8)运转时,原料塑化和挤压形成的迫使双螺杆(8-8)与螺筒(8-9)发生摩擦的高梯度压力由延伸轴(8-3)通过轴承(8-2)传递到轴承箱(8-1)上,使双螺杆(8-8)和螺筒(8_9)不发生摩擦,
[0028] 在图3中,延伸轴孔(8-7-1)延伸轴(8-3)的穿出孔,切粒模孔(8_7_2)是塑化混炼后料的流出孔,安装孔(8-7-3)是切粒模头(8-7)与螺筒(8-9)连接孔。
[0029] 在图4中,由于延伸轴(8-3)伸出切粒模头(8-7)的部分被加工为花键轴,切刀齿形孔(8-6-1)使切刀(8-6)能够安装在延伸轴(8-3)上,并随双螺杆(8-8)运转切粒,星形切刀(8-6-2)的形状能使相同的两片在安装后,形成齿合效果,在运转中不会发生碰撞。
[0030] 在图5中,料筒(7-8)外侧分别为冷却夹层(7-3)和保温层(7_2),电机(7_5)连接搅拌叶片(7-7)和精确计量加料器(7-4)及排气筒(7-6)装在料筒(7-8)上方,全部装置通过带气缸(7-8)的阀门(7-1)与双螺杆加料机(6)连接,压力传感器(6-1)装在双螺杆加料机(6)中。当压力传感器(6-1)给出需要混料装置(7)工作的信号后,小型计算机控制精确计量加料器(7-4)开始按设定的顺序和计量加入原料,电机(7-5)提供动力带动搅拌叶片(7-7)混料,保温层(7-2)降低混料产生的热量的散发,通水的冷却夹层(7-3)能调节混合完成的原料至合适的温度,排气筒(7-6)能排出混合产生的水汽和挥发物,混合完成后,当压力传感器(6-1)给出需要原料的信号时,小型计算机控制气缸(7-8)打开阀门(7-1),将混合好的原料放入双螺杆加料机(6)中。
[0031] 在图6中,色母粒加料装置(9)安装在螺筒(8-9)上。电机(9-1)带动加料螺杆(9-4)将料斗(9-2)中的仿木纹色母粒向前输送,经加热器(9-3)加热后到达加料机螺筒(9-5)尽头,自然落入轴承箱(8-1)与螺筒(8-9)连接的上开放处,与切粒模头(8-7)切下的颗粒原料一起再落入连接筒(10)。

Claims (5)

1.一种多功能木塑复合材料一步法挤出机,由机座、延伸传动轴、电机、齿轮变速箱、双螺杆齿轮分配箱、双螺杆加料机、混料装置、双螺杆造粒装置、色母粒加料装置、连接桶、单螺杆挤出机和调速变速箱构成,其特征在于:电机通过齿轮变速箱和延伸传动轴连接双螺杆齿轮分配箱和调速变速箱,齿轮分配箱连接双螺杆造粒装置,混料装置通过双螺杆加料机与双螺杆造粒装置连接,色母粒加料装置与双螺杆造粒装置连接,连接桶连接双螺杆造粒装置和单螺杆挤出机,单螺杆挤出机和调速变速箱连接,延伸传动轴、电机、齿轮变速箱、双螺杆齿轮分配箱、双螺杆加料机、混料装置、双螺杆造粒装置、色母粒加料装置、连接桶、单螺杆挤出机、调速变速箱、全部连接安装在机座上。
2.根据权利要求1所述的多功能木塑复合材料一步法挤出机,其特征在于:在机座上安装了齿轮变速箱,从齿轮变速箱的下半部分装有一根延伸传动轴,延伸传动轴上同时装有调速变速箱,调速变速箱与单螺杆挤出机相联。
3.根据权利要求1所述的多功能木塑复合材料一步法挤出机,其特征在于:安装在机座上面的双螺杆加料机的上方又安装了混料装置,混料装置的容积与双螺杆加料机的容积相等,在混料装置的筒身上装有可通冷却水的夹层,夹层外还有一保温层,混料装置的上方有一排气筒和多个精确计量加料器,混料装置的下方出口处装有一气动阀门,精确计量加料器和气动阀门元件均与小型计算机连接。
4.根据权利要求1所述的多功能木塑复合材料一步法挤出机,其特征在于:双螺杆造粒装置的里面是两根异向旋转的双螺杆,螺杆的末端延伸轴出切粒模头后变成花键轴,用两片星形切刀,套装在延伸的花键齿上,使用两只压簧套在花键轴上压紧刀片,花键轴的末端是一段轴,套在含有轴承座的轴承箱内,轴承箱与螺筒用联接件在两侧相联,上、下的端口开放。
5.根据权利要求1所述的多功能木塑复合材料一步法挤出机,其特征在于:在双螺杆造粒装置的上开放端处装有色母粒加料装置,色母粒加料装置的外筒部分装有加热装置。
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