CN103521767B - Method and device for precisely machining complex part at high speed - Google Patents

Method and device for precisely machining complex part at high speed Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103521767B
CN103521767B CN201310398911.XA CN201310398911A CN103521767B CN 103521767 B CN103521767 B CN 103521767B CN 201310398911 A CN201310398911 A CN 201310398911A CN 103521767 B CN103521767 B CN 103521767B
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powder bed
machining
powder
bistrique
speed
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CN103521767A (en
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史玉升
张李超
贾和平
夏伟
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Jiangsu Jiu Yu Machinery Co Ltd
Huazhong University of Science and Technology
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Jiangsu Jiu Yu Machinery Co Ltd
Huazhong University of Science and Technology
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Abstract

The invention discloses a method for precisely machining a complex part at a high speed. The method includes the steps of obtaining a CAD model of the part to be machined, obtaining aslice outline of an entity based on a layered slicing method, obtaining an outline filling route of the entity through an outline filling algorithm based on an active edge table algorithm, obtaining position parameters and partial machining paths of work of a grinding head in the position according to the slice outline of the entity and a triangle outer normal vector direction of the outline position, joining all the partial machining paths to generate the abrasive machining route of the grinding head, machining a single layer blank of the part through metal powder materials by using a laser beam for conducting laser melting along the outline filling route of the entity, then, conducting machining along the abrasive machining route through the grinding head to obtain a piece manufactured through finish machining, directly supplying chippings produced in the grinding process to a next layer for manufacture and use, and conducting manufacturing layer by layer till the machining of the part is completed. The method can solve the technical problem that in the prior art, a complex mechanical part which is complex in surface shape and has internal channel features is difficult to machine through an existing precise machining method.

Description

A kind of high-speed & precise progressive die method and apparatus of complex parts
Technical field
The invention belongs to direct metal fabricating technical field, more specifically, relate to a kind of high-speed & precise progressive die method and apparatus of complex parts.
Background technology
Along with producing and scientific and technical development, many industrial departments, especially the industry such as national defence, space flight, electronics, require that product is to high accuracy, high speed, the future development such as high-power, high temperature resistant, high pressure resistant, miniaturized, the more and more difficult processing of the material that product parts uses, shape and structure are more and more complicated, numerous parts inside also has various architectural feature as inner flow passage etc., and permissible accuracy is more and more high, surface roughness is more and more little, and conventional, traditional processing method can not be satisfied the demand.Precision Machining is under the strict environmental condition controlled, and uses precision processing machine and fine measuring instrument and amount instrument to realize.
Existing precision machining method has sbrasive belt grinding, precision cutting, honing, precise finiss and polishing etc.Sbrasive belt grinding is that grinding tool is processed workpiece with the blended cloth being stained with abrasive material, belongs to the category of coated abrasive tool grinding, have the features such as productivity ratio is high, surface quality good, the scope of application is wide; Precision cutting, also claims diamond cutter to cut, carries out machining with high-accuracy lathe and Single-crystal Diamond Cutters, is mainly used in the Precision Machining of the soft metal of the unsuitable grinding such as copper, aluminium, 1 ~ 2 grade higher than general machining precision; Honing, with the honing head of oilstone emery stick composition, moves back and forth along surface of the work under a certain pressure, surface roughness after processing can reach Ra0.4 ~ 0.1 micron, preferably can arrive Ra0.025 micron, be mainly used to processing cast iron and steel, should not be used for that workhardness is little, the non-ferrous metal of good toughness; Precise finiss, by between the abrasive material of workpiece and Tool Room and working fluid, workpiece and the mutual mechanical friction of grinding tool, make workpiece reach required size and the processing method of precision; Polishing, it is a kind of microfabrication utilizing machinery, chemistry, electrochemical method to carry out surface of the work, be mainly used to reduce workpiece surface roughness, conventional method has craft or machine glazed finish, ultrasonic polishing, chemical polishing, electrochemical polish and Electrochemical-mechanical-finishing etc.
But, complicated for surface configuration, with inner flow passage complex mechanical for, traditional precision machining method cannot approach due to machinery knives, and part post processing generally cannot carry out NC automatic processing.And although artificial post processing can improve surface smoothness, cannot precise control of sizes precision, be also difficult to process the entity internal structure surfaces such as similar inner flow passage.Adopt method for electrochemical machining processing precise mould speed slow, and numerical control programming is complicated.
Summary of the invention
For above defect or the Improvement requirement of prior art, the invention provides a kind of high speed and precision automatic processing method and device of complex parts, its object is to solve existing precision machining method be difficult to automatic finished surface complex-shaped, with the complex mechanical of inner flow passage, and cannot the technical problem of precise control of sizes precision and surface roughness.
For achieving the above object, according to one aspect of the present invention, provide a kind of high speed precision machining device of complex parts, comprise powder bed, powder-laying roller, lifting work cylinder, laser instrument, light path focalizer, scanning galvanometer, bistrique, grinding spindle, multi-shaft interlocked system, and dusty material, powder bed is connected with the fuselage of processing unit (plant), lifting work cylinder is arranged at the bottom of powder bed, and its upper surface is concordant with the upper surface of powder bed, lifting work cylinder is built with dusty material and molded article, and liftable, powder-laying roller is arranged at the upper surface of powder bed, and roll back and forth in the left and right of powder bed, for conveying powder material in powder bed, and the dusty material in powder bed is paved, laser instrument is fixed on the fuselage of processing unit (plant), and high energy laser beam can be launched after powered up, light path focalizer is fixed on the fuselage of processing unit (plant), and be arranged between scanning galvanometer and laser instrument, for the hot spot of confined laser, light spot energy density is reached can the requirement of melting powder material, scanning galvanometer is fixed on the fuselage of processing unit (plant), and the position that the laser beam that can change laser instrument focuses on powder bed, bistrique is arranged on the top of grinding spindle, grinding spindle is connected with multi-shaft interlocked system, and can move in 6 frees degree with multi-shaft interlocked system, rotate to drive bistrique, and then molded article is ground, multi-shaft interlocked system is fixed on the fuselage of processing unit (plant), and drive bistrique to move.
Preferably, dusty material is made up of metal material, and be the raw material of machine-shaping product.
Preferably, the spot diameter of laser instrument is 100 microns to 500 microns.
Preferably, multi-shaft interlocked system is used for when laser works, bistrique and grinding spindle is moved to the edge of powder bed, and keeps inactive state, after laser instrument quits work, the top that multi-shaft interlocked system is used for bistrique and grinding spindle to move to molded article starts the work of grinding.
According to another aspect of the present invention, provide a kind of high-speed & precise progressive die method of complex parts, comprise the following steps:
(1) obtain the cad model of part to be processed, based on hierarchical slicing method by cad model from bottom layering always to most top layer;
(2) according to the annexation of each triangle surface in cad model, search the triangle sequence crossing with hierarchy slicing, and successively triangle surface is connected with the intersection head and the tail of slice plane, to obtain the slicing profile of entity according to these triangle sequence;
(3) slicing profile of Contour filling algorithm to entity based on Sorted Edge table method is adopted to process, to obtain physical profiles fill path;
(4) according to the slicing profile of entity and the outer direction of normal of the triangle of this outline position, the principle tangent with this triangle surface location parameter and the partial operation track of the bistrique work of this outline position must be obtained according to bistrique cutter location place, and each partial operation track is connected, to generate the bistrique grinding machining path of outline.
(5) utilize powder-laying roller at powder bed uniformly layer overlay metal dust, its thickness is 50 microns to 200 microns;
(6) scanning galvanometer is driven to scan on powder bed, to carry out laser fusion to the metal dust on powder bed according to the physical profiles fill path generated in step (3);
(7) metal dust after laser fusion is carried out nature cooling, to form the entity part blank of cad model;
(8) drive grinding spindle motion according to the outline bistrique grinding machining path generated in step (3), carry out speed lapping fine finishining with the edge of the entity part blank to cad model;
(9) after attrition process, powder bed is reduced certain height, and repeat above-mentioned steps (5) to (8), until be worked into the most top layer of cad model, thus obtain whole part.
Preferably, the layer thickness after section is 50 microns to 200 microns.
Preferably, the fusion temperature in step (6) is 1000 to 2000 degrees Celsius.
Preferably, in step (9) the bed depressed height of powder cut into slices with step (1) is middle after layer thickness equal, and be 50 microns to 200 microns.
In general, the above technical scheme conceived by the present invention compared with prior art, can obtain following beneficial effect:
1, the present invention is owing to adopting each layer blank of Layered manufacturing part and the mode of fine gtinding, evade the cutter interference problem in complex parts process, the threedimensional model of any complicated shape automatically can be processed, therefore, it is possible to overcome the problem that existing precise processing device is difficult to process the threedimensional model of any complexity (particularly containing inner flow passage feature) by unified method.
2, the present invention is owing to have employed the mode of successively grinding, and grinding wheel feed amount little (micron level), so obtained parts size precision is high, surface quality is good.
3, the present invention is owing to have employed the motion of multi-shaft interlocked Systematical control bistrique, therefore obtained part all outer surfaces except lower surface and except upper surface all inner surfaces all possess great surface quality, significantly reduce the amount of labour of product being carried out to artificial post processing.
4, the present invention is owing to adopting the technology of high-speed grinding, and the waste material that speed lapping produces directly as the raw material that laser fusion is shaped, is therefore not only saved material, and be there is not the problems such as waste material absorption, recovery.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the structural representation of the high speed precision machining device of complex parts of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the flow chart of the high-speed & precise progressive die method of complex parts of the present invention.
Detailed description of the invention
In order to make object of the present invention, technical scheme and advantage clearly understand, below in conjunction with drawings and Examples, the present invention is further elaborated.Should be appreciated that specific embodiment described herein only in order to explain the present invention, be not intended to limit the present invention.In addition, if below in described each embodiment of the present invention involved technical characteristic do not form conflict each other and just can mutually combine.
Thinking of the present invention is, part to be formed is divided into the sub-layers of some certain thickness (being specially 50 microns to 200 microns) along assigned direction, selective laser melting technology is adopted to process the blank of each sub-layers, then station is converted, speed lapping technology is adopted to be the material object parts meeting dimensional accuracy and surface roughness requirements by this layer of blank grinding fine finishining, so successively reciprocal stacking manufacture, until by whole part completion of processing.
As shown in Figure 1, the high speed precision machining device of complex parts of the present invention comprises powder bed 1, powder-laying roller 2, lifting work cylinder 3, laser instrument 4, light path focalizer 5, scanning galvanometer 6, bistrique 7, grinding spindle 8, multi-shaft interlocked system 9 and dusty material 10.
Powder bed 1 is connected with the fuselage of processing unit (plant).
Lifting work cylinder 3 is arranged at the bottom of powder bed 1, and its upper surface is concordant with the upper surface of powder bed 1, and lifting work cylinder 3 is built with dusty material 10 and molded article 11, and liftable.
Dusty material 10 is made up of metal material, and be the raw material of machine-shaping product 11.
Powder-laying roller 2 is arranged at the upper surface of powder bed 1, and rolls back and forth in the left and right of powder bed 1, for conveying powder material 10 in powder bed 1, and is paved by the dusty material 10 in powder bed 1.
Laser instrument 4 is fixed on the fuselage of processing unit (plant), and can launch high energy laser beam after powered up.In the present embodiment, laser instrument 4 is power is 200W ~ 1000W optical fiber laser.
Light path focalizer 5 is fixed on the fuselage of processing unit (plant), be arranged between scanning galvanometer 6 and laser instrument 4, and the hot spot of laser instrument 4 is focused on specify size (spot diameter is generally 100 microns to 500 microns), light spot energy density is reached can the requirement of melting powder material 10.
Scanning galvanometer 6 is fixed on the fuselage of processing unit (plant), and the position that the laser beam that can change laser instrument 4 focuses on powder bed 1.
Bistrique 7 is arranged on the top of grinding spindle 8, and grinding spindle 8 is connected with multi-shaft interlocked system 9, and can move in 6 frees degree with multi-shaft interlocked system, to drive bistrique 7 to rotate, and then grinds molded article 11.In the present embodiment, grinding spindle 8 uses the mechanical main shaft that rotating speed is 20000rpm.
Multi-shaft interlocked system 9 is fixed on the fuselage of processing unit (plant), and drives bistrique 7 to move.Bistrique 7 and grinding spindle 8, when laser instrument 4 works, are moved to the edge of powder bed 1, and keep inactive state by multi-shaft interlocked system 9; After laser instrument 4 quits work, the top that bistrique 1 and grinding spindle 8 move to molded article 11 is started the work of grinding by multi-shaft interlocked system 9, can not produce interfere the effect of laser beam.In the present embodiment, multi-shaft interlocked system has 3 to 6 axles.
Operation principle of the present invention is below described:
First, laser instrument 4 launches high energy laser beam after powered up, the hot spot of laser instrument 4 is focused on appointment size by light path focalizer 5, the laser beam that scanning galvanometer 6 controls after light path focalizer 5 focuses on is radiated on the dusty material 10 in region to be formed on powder bed 1, thus metal dust 10 rapid melting be set in together, after having irradiated one deck dusty material 10, the bistrique 7 be positioned in the middle of laser instrument 4 and powder bed 1 moves to the top assigned address of molded article 11, start to carry out speed lapping to molded article 11 profile, after grinding terminates, bistrique 7 returns to initial position automatically, thereafter, lifting work cylinder 3 declines certain distance, powder-laying roller 2 sprawls the dusty material 10 of certain thickness (being specially 50 microns to 200 microns) in type layer of powder material, then, repeat above-mentioned irradiation and process of lapping, until the slicing layer of all three-dimensional CAD models all scan and grind complete till, last product prints complete.
As shown in Figure 2, the high-speed & precise progressive die method of complex parts of the present invention is applied in above-mentioned high-speed & precise progressive die system, and comprise the following steps:
(1) obtain the cad model (it typically is stl file) of part to be processed, based on hierarchical slicing method by cad model from bottom layering always to most top layer, the layer thickness after section is 50 microns to 200 microns;
(2) according to the annexation (topological characteristic) of each triangle surface in cad model, search the triangle sequence (according to syntople arrangement) crossing with hierarchy slicing, and successively triangle surface is connected with the intersection head and the tail of slice plane, to obtain the slicing profile of entity according to these triangle sequence;
(3) slicing profile of Contour filling algorithm to entity based on Sorted Edge table method is adopted to process, to obtain physical profiles fill path;
(4) according to the slicing profile of entity and the outer direction of normal of the triangle of this outline position, the principle tangent with this triangle surface location parameter and the partial operation track of the bistrique work of this outline position must be obtained according to bistrique cutter location place, and each partial operation track is connected, to generate the bistrique grinding machining path of outline.
In addition, in this step process, because region to be processed is plane, and plane top is without other entities, and therefore need the interference problem considering bistrique hardly, its machining locus adopts simple geometry offset algorithm to realize.
(5) utilize powder-laying roller at powder bed uniformly layer overlay metal dust, its thickness is 50 microns to 200 microns;
(6) drive scanning galvanometer to scan on powder bed according to the physical profiles fill path generated in step (3), to carry out laser fusion to the metal dust on powder bed, fusion temperature is 1000 to 2000 degrees Celsius;
(7) metal dust after laser fusion is carried out nature cooling, to form the entity part blank of cad model;
(8) drive grinding spindle motion according to the outline bistrique grinding machining path generated in step (3), carry out speed lapping fine finishining with the edge of the entity part blank to cad model;
This step can also remove piece surface size because spherical effect and step effect cause and trueness error.
In addition, in the process of this step, the metal dust that grinding fine finishining produces falls into powder bed, thus the raw material used in becoming step (5), and then improve raw material availability, and waste entrainment environment can not be produced in process of production.
(9) after attrition process, powder bed is reduced certain height, and repeat above-mentioned steps (5) to (8), until be worked into the most top layer of cad model, thus obtain whole part; Layer thickness after cutting into slices in the bed depressed height of powder and step (1) is equal, and is 50 microns to 200 microns.
Those skilled in the art will readily understand; the foregoing is only preferred embodiment of the present invention; not in order to limit the present invention, all any amendments done within the spirit and principles in the present invention, equivalent replacement and improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

1. the high-speed & precise progressive die method of complex parts, it is applied in a kind of high speed precision machining device of complex parts, described high speed precision machining device comprises powder bed, powder-laying roller, lifting work cylinder, laser instrument, light path focalizer, scanning galvanometer, bistrique, grinding spindle, multi-shaft interlocked system and dusty material, powder bed is connected with the fuselage of processing unit (plant), lifting work cylinder is arranged at the bottom of powder bed, and its upper surface is concordant with the upper surface of powder bed, lifting work cylinder is built with dusty material and molded article, and liftable, powder-laying roller is arranged at the upper surface of powder bed, and roll back and forth in the left and right of powder bed, for conveying powder material in powder bed, and the dusty material in powder bed is paved, laser instrument is fixed on the fuselage of processing unit (plant), and high energy laser beam can be launched after powered up, light path focalizer is fixed on the fuselage of processing unit (plant), and be arranged between scanning galvanometer and laser instrument, for the hot spot of confined laser, light spot energy density is reached can the requirement of melting powder material, scanning galvanometer is fixed on the fuselage of processing unit (plant), and the position that the laser beam that can change laser instrument focuses on powder bed, bistrique is arranged on the top of grinding spindle, grinding spindle is connected with multi-shaft interlocked system, and can move in 6 frees degree with multi-shaft interlocked system, rotate to drive bistrique, and then molded article is ground, multi-shaft interlocked system is fixed on the fuselage of processing unit (plant), and drive bistrique to move, it is characterized in that, described high-speed & precise progressive die method comprises the following steps:
(1) obtain the cad model of part to be processed, based on hierarchical slicing method by cad model from bottom layering always to most top layer;
(2) according to the annexation of each triangle surface in cad model, search the triangle sequence crossing with hierarchy slicing, and successively triangle surface is connected with the intersection head and the tail of slice plane, to obtain the slicing profile of entity according to these triangle sequence;
(3) slicing profile of Contour filling algorithm to entity based on Sorted Edge table method is adopted to process, to obtain physical profiles fill path;
(4) according to the slicing profile of entity and the outer direction of normal of the triangle of this outline position, the principle tangent with this triangle surface location parameter and the partial operation track of the bistrique work of this outline position must be obtained according to bistrique cutter location place, and each partial operation track is connected, to generate the bistrique grinding machining path of outline;
(5) utilize powder-laying roller at powder bed uniformly layer overlay metal dust, its thickness is 50 microns to 200 microns;
(6) scanning galvanometer is driven to scan on powder bed, to carry out laser fusion to the metal dust on powder bed according to the physical profiles fill path generated in step (3);
(7) metal dust after laser fusion is carried out nature cooling, to form the entity part blank of cad model;
(8) drive grinding spindle motion according to the bistrique grinding machining path of the outline generated in step (4), carry out speed lapping fine finishining with the edge of the entity part blank to cad model;
(9) after attrition process, powder bed is reduced certain height, and repeat above-mentioned steps (5) to (8), until be worked into the most top layer of cad model, thus obtain whole part.
2. high-speed & precise progressive die method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, the layer thickness after section is 50 microns to 200 microns.
3. high-speed & precise progressive die method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, the fusion temperature in step (6) is 1000 to 2000 degrees Celsius.
4. high-speed & precise progressive die method according to claim 1, is characterized in that, in step (9) the bed depressed height of powder cut into slices with step (1) is middle after layer thickness equal, and be 50 microns to 200 microns.
CN201310398911.XA 2013-09-04 2013-09-04 Method and device for precisely machining complex part at high speed Active CN103521767B (en)

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CN104550950B (en) * 2014-11-24 2015-09-16 湖南华曙高科技有限责任公司 For the Laser Scanning of precinct laser fusion
CN105834426B (en) * 2016-05-24 2018-12-21 苏州大学 Cavity part laser 3D forming technology
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