CN103472403B - A kind of electrokinetic cell SOC compound method of estimation based on PNGV equivalent-circuit model - Google Patents

A kind of electrokinetic cell SOC compound method of estimation based on PNGV equivalent-circuit model Download PDF

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CN103472403B
CN103472403B CN201310426021.5A CN201310426021A CN103472403B CN 103472403 B CN103472403 B CN 103472403B CN 201310426021 A CN201310426021 A CN 201310426021A CN 103472403 B CN103472403 B CN 103472403B
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amp
electrokinetic cell
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λ
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CN103472403A (en
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李明
江洋
郑荐中
彭筱筱
朱中文
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浙江省计量科学研究院
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Abstract

The present invention relates to electric automobile power battery technical field, disclose a kind of electrokinetic cell SOC compound method of estimation based on PNGV equivalent-circuit model, comprise the following steps: A. detects electrokinetic cell open-circuit voltage; B. open-circuit voltage method is adopted to calculate the initial SOC(t of electrokinetic cell 0); C. at t 0-t 1in time period, adopt EKF (EKF) algorithm to initial SOC(t 0) revise, obtain SOC(t 1); D. at t 1-t 2in time period, improvement ampere-hour integral method is adopted to estimate; When E. continuing to use electrokinetic cell, step step C D circulates; t 0: represent initial time; t 1, t 2: at t 0time point afterwards.The present invention considers the impact of the influence factor correction factors such as electrokinetic cell charging and discharging currents, environment temperature and cell health state, the ampere-hour integral method be improved, affects the defects such as larger by extraneous factor when can overcome ampere-hour integral method estimated driving force battery SOC; Make full use of the advantage that the initial error of Kalman filtering method to SOC has very strong correction effect.

Description

A kind of electrokinetic cell SOC compound method of estimation based on PNGV equivalent-circuit model

Technical field

The present invention relates to electric automobile power battery technical field, particularly relate to a kind of electrokinetic cell SOC compound method of estimation based on PNGV equivalent-circuit model.

Background technology

Battery management system is the important component part of electric automobile, and it is one of gordian technique of this system that power battery charged state (StateofCharge, SOC) is estimated.SOC estimates the optimum management relating to electrokinetic cell charge and discharge control and electric automobile in real time, directly affects the serviceable life of electrokinetic cell and the performance of power system, and therefore the accurate estimation of electrokinetic cell SOC is very crucial for the operation of electric automobile.

At present, the method for estimation of SOC mainly contains ampere-hour integral method, internal resistance method, open-circuit voltage method, neural network and Kalman filtering method etc.But ampere-hour integral method exists some defects can be caused estimating inaccurate, and such as method itself can not estimate SOC initial value, and electrokinetic cell capacity affects larger etc. by extraneous factor; Open-circuit voltage method needs battery to leave standstill for a long time, is not suitable for real-time estimate; Neural network is easily disturbed, and accuracy is very large by the impact of training method and training data; The initial error of Kalman filtering method to SOC has very strong correcting action, is particularly suitable for curent change electrokinetic cell faster, but higher to battery model accuracy requirement.

Summary of the invention

The object of the invention is the deficiency overcoming the existence of existing electrokinetic cell SOC method of estimation, provide a kind of electrokinetic cell SOC compound method of estimation based on PNGV equivalent-circuit model, the SOC achieving lithium iron phosphate dynamic battery accurately estimates.

In order to solve the problems of the technologies described above, the present invention is solved by following technical proposals:

Based on an electrokinetic cell SOC compound method of estimation for PNGV equivalent-circuit model, comprise the following steps:

A. electrokinetic cell open-circuit voltage is detected;

B. open-circuit voltage method is adopted to calculate the initial SOC(t of electrokinetic cell 0);

C. at t 0-t 1in time period, adopt EKF (EKF) algorithm to initial SOC(t 0) revise, obtain SOC(t 1);

D. at t 1-t 2in time period, improvement ampere-hour integral method is adopted to estimate;

When E. continuing to use electrokinetic cell, step step C D circulates;

T 0: represent initial time; t 1, t 2: at t 0time point afterwards.

Based on an electrokinetic cell SOC compound method of estimation for PNGV equivalent-circuit model, list open-circuit voltage equation as follows:

U(t)=U OCV(t)-U a(t)-U p(t)-R oI(t)(1)

U a ( t ) = 1 C a ∫ t 0 t I ( t ) dt - - - ( 2 )

I ( t ) - I p ( t ) = I ( t ) - U p ( t ) R p = C p d U p ( t ) dt - - - ( 3 )

U oCV: ideal voltage source, represents the open-circuit voltage of battery; T: time;

C a: electric capacity, what electric capacity described is the change of the open-circuit voltage caused because of the accumulated time effect of electric current;

U a: represent electric capacity C athe voltage at two ends; R o: the ohmic internal resistance of battery;

R p: inside battery polarization resistance; U p: the voltage at inside battery polarization resistance two ends;

C p: resistance R pshunt capacitance;

I: electrokinetic cell working current; I p: the electric current of polarization resistance; U: electrokinetic cell terminal voltage;

List the funtcional relationship of electrokinetic cell open-circuit voltage and electrokinetic cell SOC:

U OCV(t)=F[SOC(t)](4)

In formula, F [SOC (t)] is a nonlinear function;

Time t is listed according to original ampere-hour integral method estimation SOC formula 0-t 1ampere-hour integral method estimation SOC formula:

SOC ( t 1 ) = SOC ( t 0 ) - 1 Q R ∫ t 0 t 1 I ( t ) dt - - - ( 5 )

In formula, Q rfor electrokinetic cell rated capacity;

Consider electrokinetic cell charging and discharging currents λ c, environment temperature λ tand cell health state λ sOHetc. the impact of influence factor correction factor, the ampere-hour integral method that can be improved:

SOC ( t 1 ) = SOC ( t 0 ) - 1 λ Q R ∫ t 0 t 1 I ( t ) dt - - - ( 6 )

In formula: λ=λ c× λ t× λ sOH,

λ is correction factor; λ cfor electrokinetic cell charging and discharging currents coefficient; λ tfor environment temperature coefficient; λ sOHfor cell health state coefficient;

By formula (1) (3) (6) discretize,

U(k)=F[SOC(k)]-U a(k)-U p(k)-R oI(k)(7)

I ( k ) - U p ( k ) R p = C p U p ( k + 1 ) - U p ( k ) Δt - - - ( 8 )

( k + 1 ) = SOC ( k ) - Δt λ Q R ( k ) - - - ( 9 )

Finally obtain discrete-time state-space model as follows:

SOC ( k + 1 ) U p ( k + 1 ) = 1 0 0 1 - Δt R p C p SOC ( k ) U p ( k ) + - Δt λ Q R Δt C p I ( k ) + w 1 ( k ) w 2 ( k ) - - - ( 10 )

U(k)=F[SOC(k)]-U a(k)-U p(k)-R oI(k)+v(k)(11)

In this state-space model, I (k) is input quantity, represents working current; U (k) is output quantity, represents terminal voltage; w 1 ( k ) w 2 ( k ) For system noise; V (k) is observation noise; Δ t represents the mistiming;

After F [SOC (t)] in output equation is carried out linearization process, the A (k) in state-space model (10), (11), B (k) and C (k) are respectively:

A ( k ) = 1 0 0 1 - Δt R p C p , B ( k ) = - Δt λ Q R Δt C p , C ( k ) = [ ∂ F ( SOC ( k ) ] ∂ SOC ( k ) ] X ( k ) = X ^ ( k )

EKF algorithmic formula is as follows:

X ^ ( k | k - 1 ) = A ( k - 1 ) X ^ ( k - 1 ) + B ( k - 1 ) I ( k - 1 ) - - - ( 12 )

X ^ ( k ) = X ^ ( k | k - 1 ) + K ( k ) [ U ( k ) - U ^ ( k ) ] - - - ( 13 )

P(k|k-1)=A(k-1)P(k-1)A T(k-1)+Q(14)

K(k)=P(k|k-1)C T(k)[C(k)P(k|k-1)C T(k)+R] -1(15)

P(k)=[1-K(k)C(k)]P(k|k-1)(16)

EKF algorithm calculates two parts by wave filter calculating and filter gain and forms, and wave filter calculates and completed by formula (11)-(13), and wave filter is first according to the result of formula (12) by previous moment obtain the predicted value of state variable the predicted value of systematic perspective measurement is obtained again according to output equation (11) obtain predicated error with after actual observed value U (k), then according to error by the predicted value correction of formula (13) to state variable, obtain new filter result filter gain calculates and is completed by formula (14)-(16), in formula, P (k|k-1) and P (k) is the variance matrix of state variable predicated error and filtering error respectively, K (k) is filter gain, Q and R is the variance matrix of noise w (k) and v (k) respectively.

The present invention, owing to have employed above technical scheme, has significant technique effect:

The present invention considers the impact of the influence factor correction factors such as electrokinetic cell charging and discharging currents, environment temperature and cell health state, the ampere-hour integral method be improved, affects the defects such as larger by extraneous factor when can overcome ampere-hour integral method estimated driving force battery SOC; For vehicle-mounted electrokinetic cell system, due to the continuous change of vehicle load, the battery model that is suitable for should be dynamic model, and researchist is analyzed above-mentioned model static and dynamic c haracteristics by constant-current discharge test and pulsed discharge test, confirm that PNGV model is exactly a kind of like this equivalent-circuit model that can compare the dynamic charge-discharge characteristic of accurate description battery.Comprehensive employing open-circuit voltage method, improvement ampere-hour integral method and EKF algorithm are estimated, make full use of the advantage that the initial error of Kalman filtering method to SOC has very strong correction effect.Effectively can improve the accuracy of method of estimation.

Accompanying drawing explanation

Fig. 1 is PNGV equivalent-circuit model of the present invention;

Fig. 2 is the process flow diagram calculating SOC in the present invention.

Embodiment

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and embodiment, the present invention is described in further detail.

Embodiment 1

Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, 1,2 couples of the present invention describe in further detail:

Based on an electrokinetic cell SOC compound method of estimation for PNGV equivalent-circuit model, as shown in Figure 2, comprise the following steps:

A. electrokinetic cell open-circuit voltage is detected;

B. open-circuit voltage method is adopted to calculate the initial SOC(t of electrokinetic cell 0);

C. at t 0-t 1in time period, adopt EKF (EKF) algorithm to initial SOC(t 0) revise, obtain SOC(t 1);

D. at t 1-t 2in time period, improvement ampere-hour integral method is adopted to estimate;

When E. continuing to use electrokinetic cell, step step C D circulates;

T 0: represent initial time; t 1, t 2: at t 0time point afterwards.

A kind of electrokinetic cell SOC compound method of estimation based on PNGV equivalent model, the battery model simple and clear that PNGV recommends, can directly quote, as shown in Figure 1, for the mathematical model of electrokinetic cell PNGV equivalent-circuit model, can show that open-circuit voltage equation is as follows according to circuit:

U(t)=U OCV(t)-U a(t)-U p(t)-R oI(t)(1)

U a ( t ) = 1 C a ∫ t 0 t I ( t ) dt - - - ( 2 )

I ( t ) - I p ( t ) = I ( t ) - U p ( t ) R p = C p d U p ( t ) dt - - - ( 3 )

U oCV: ideal voltage source, represents the open-circuit voltage of battery; T: time;

C a: electric capacity, what electric capacity described is the change of the open-circuit voltage caused because of the accumulated time effect of electric current;

U a: represent electric capacity C athe voltage at two ends; R o: the ohmic internal resistance of battery;

R p: inside battery polarization resistance; U p: the voltage at inside battery polarization resistance two ends;

C p: resistance R pshunt capacitance;

I: electrokinetic cell working current; I p: the electric current of polarization resistance; U: electrokinetic cell terminal voltage;

List the funtcional relationship of electrokinetic cell open-circuit voltage and electrokinetic cell SOC:

U OCV(t)=F[SOC(t)](4)

In formula, F [SOC (t)] is a nonlinear function;

Time t is listed according to original ampere-hour integral method estimation SOC formula 0-t 1ampere-hour integral method estimation SOC formula:

SOC ( t 1 ) = SOC ( t 0 ) - 1 Q R ∫ t 0 t 1 I ( t ) dt - - - ( 5 )

In formula, Q rfor electrokinetic cell rated capacity;

Consider electrokinetic cell charging and discharging currents λ c, environment temperature λ tand cell health state λ sOHetc. the impact of influence factor correction factor, the ampere-hour integral method that can be improved:

SOC ( t 1 ) = SOC ( t 0 ) - 1 λ Q R ∫ t 0 t 1 I ( t ) dt - - - ( 6 )

In formula: λ=λ c× λ t× λ sOH,

λ is correction factor; λ cfor electrokinetic cell charging and discharging currents coefficient; λ tfor environment temperature coefficient; λ sOHfor cell health state coefficient;

By formula (1) (3) (6) discretize,

U(k)=F[SOC(k)]-U a(k)-U p(k)-R oI(k)(7)

I ( k ) - U p ( k ) R p = C p U p ( k + 1 ) - U p ( k ) Δt - - - ( 8 )

( k + 1 ) = SOC ( k ) - Δt λ Q R ( k ) - - - ( 9 )

Finally obtain discrete-time state-space model as follows:

SOC ( k + 1 ) U p ( k + 1 ) = 1 0 0 1 - Δt R p C p SOC ( k ) U p ( k ) + - Δt λ Q R Δt C p I ( k ) + w 1 ( k ) w 2 ( k ) - - - ( 10 )

U(k)=F[SOC(k)]-U a(k)-U p(k)-R oI(k)+v(k)(11)

In this state-space model, I (k) is input quantity, represents working current; U (k) is output quantity, represents terminal voltage; w 1 ( k ) w 2 ( k ) For system noise; V (k) is observation noise; Δ t represents the mistiming;

After F [SOC (t)] in output equation is carried out linearization process, the A (k) in state-space model (10), (11), B (k) and C (k) are respectively:

A ( k ) = 1 0 0 1 - Δt R p C p , B ( k ) = - Δt λ Q R Δt C p , C ( k ) = [ ∂ F ( SOC ( k ) ] ∂ SOC ( k ) ] X ( k ) = X ^ ( k )

EKF algorithmic formula is as follows:

X ^ ( k | k - 1 ) = A ( k - 1 ) X ^ ( k - 1 ) + B ( k - 1 ) I ( k - 1 ) - - - ( 12 )

X ^ ( k ) = X ^ ( k | k - 1 ) + K ( k ) [ U ( k ) - U ^ ( k ) ] - - - ( 13 )

P(k|k-1)=A(k-1)P(k-1)A T(k-1)+Q(14)

K(k)=P(k|k-1)C T(k)[C(k)P(k|k-1)C T(k)+R] -1(15)

P(k)=[1-K(k)C(k)]P(k|k-1)(16)

EKF algorithm calculates two parts by wave filter calculating and filter gain and forms, and wave filter calculates and completed by formula (11)-(13), and wave filter is first according to the result of formula (12) by previous moment obtain the predicted value of state variable the predicted value of systematic perspective measurement is obtained again according to output equation (11) obtain predicated error with after actual observed value U (k), then according to error by the predicted value correction of formula (13) to state variable, obtain new filter result filter gain calculates and is completed by formula (14)-(16), in formula, P (k|k-1) and P (k) is the variance matrix of state variable predicated error and filtering error respectively, K (k) is filter gain, Q and R is the variance matrix of noise w (k) and v (k) respectively.

The SOC compound algorithm for estimating (IAh-EKF) that the present invention proposes comprehensively adopts open-circuit voltage method, improvement ampere-hour integral method is estimated in conjunction with EKF algorithm, and flow process is as follows:

When electric automobile just starts, first detect electrokinetic cell open-circuit voltage, SOC initial value SOC(t when utilizing the estimation of open-circuit voltage method just to start 0), then at t 0-t 1in time period by EKF algorithm to battery initial value SOC(t 0) carry out correction and obtain SOC(t 1), finally according to revised SOC(t 1) value, adopt and improve ampere-hour integral method to t 1after SOC estimate, adopt and improve ampere-hour integral method section t estimated time 1-t 2after, if continue to use electrokinetic cell, then adopt EKF algorithm to revise battery SOC again.

In a word, the foregoing is only preferred embodiment of the present invention, all equalizations done according to the present patent application the scope of the claims change and modify, and all should belong to the covering scope of patent of the present invention.

Claims (1)

1., based on an electrokinetic cell SOC compound method of estimation for PNGV equivalent-circuit model, it is characterized in that comprising the following steps:
A. electrokinetic cell open-circuit voltage is detected;
B. open-circuit voltage method is adopted to calculate the initial SOC (t of electrokinetic cell 0);
C. at t 0-t 1in time period, adopt EKF (EKF) algorithm to initial SOC (t 0) revise, obtain SOC (t 1);
D. at t 1-t 2in time period, improvement ampere-hour integral method is adopted to estimate;
When E. continuing to use electrokinetic cell, step step C D circulates;
T 0: represent initial time; t 1, t 2: at t 0time point afterwards;
The method is specially:
List open-circuit voltage equation as follows:
U(t)=U OCV(t)-U a(t)-U p(t)-R oI(t)(1)
U a ( t ) = 1 C a ∫ t 0 t I ( t ) d t - - - ( 2 )
I ( t ) - I p ( t ) = I ( t ) - U p ( t ) R p = C p dU p ( t ) d t - - - ( 3 )
U oCV: ideal voltage source, represents the open-circuit voltage of battery; T: time;
C a: electric capacity, what electric capacity described is the change of the open-circuit voltage caused because of the accumulated time effect of electric current;
U a: represent electric capacity C athe voltage at two ends; R o: the ohmic internal resistance of battery;
R p: inside battery polarization resistance; U p: the voltage at inside battery polarization resistance two ends;
C p: resistance R pshunt capacitance;
I: electrokinetic cell working current; I p: the electric current of polarization resistance; U: electrokinetic cell terminal voltage;
List the funtcional relationship of electrokinetic cell open-circuit voltage and electrokinetic cell SOC:
U OCV(t)=F[SOC(t)](4)
In formula, F [SOC (t)] is a nonlinear function;
Time t is listed according to original ampere-hour integral method estimation SOC formula 0-t 1ampere-hour integral method estimation SOC formula:
S O C ( t 1 ) = S O C ( t 0 ) - 1 Q R ∫ t 0 t 1 I ( t ) d t - - - ( 5 )
In formula, Q rfor electrokinetic cell rated capacity;
Consider electrokinetic cell charging and discharging currents λ c, environment temperature λ tand cell health state λ sOHetc. the impact of influence factor correction factor, the ampere-hour integral method be improved:
S O C ( t 1 ) = S O C ( t 0 ) - 1 λQ R ∫ t 0 t 1 I ( t ) d t - - - ( 6 )
In formula: λ=λ c× λ t× λ sOH,
λ is correction factor; λ cfor electrokinetic cell charging and discharging currents coefficient; λ tfor environment temperature coefficient; λ sOHfor cell health state coefficient;
By formula (1) (3) (6) discretize,
U(k)=F[SOC(k)]-U a(k)-U p(k)-R oI(k)(7)
I ( k ) - U p ( k ) R p = C p U p ( k + 1 ) - U p ( k ) Δ t - - - ( 8 )
S O C ( k + 1 ) = S O C ( k ) - Δ t λQ R I ( k ) - - - ( 9 )
Finally obtain discrete-time state-space model as follows:
S O C ( k + 1 ) U p ( k + 1 ) = 1 0 0 1 - Δ t R p C p S O C ( k ) U p ( k ) + - Δ t λQ R Δ t C p I ( k ) + w 1 ( k ) w 2 ( k ) - - - ( 10 )
U(k)=F[SOC(k)]-U a(k)-U p(k)-R oI(k)+v(k)(11)
In this state-space model, I (k) is input quantity, represents working current; U (k) is output quantity, represents terminal voltage; w 1 ( k ) w 2 ( k ) For system noise; V (k) is observation noise; Δ t represents the mistiming;
After F [SOC (t)] in output equation is carried out linearization process, the A (k) in state-space model (10), (11), B (k) and C (k) are respectively:
A ( k ) = 1 0 0 1 - Δ t R p C p , B ( k ) = - Δ t λQ R Δ t C p , C ( k ) = [ ∂ F ( S O C ( k ) ] ∂ S O C ( k ) ] X ( k ) = X ^ ( k )
EKF EKF algorithmic formula is as follows:
X ^ ( k | k - 1 ) = A ( k - 1 ) X ^ ( k - 1 ) + B ( k - 1 ) I ( k - 1 ) - - - ( 12 )
X ^ ( k ) = X ^ ( k | k - 1 ) + K ( k ) [ U ( k ) - U ^ ( k ) ] - - - ( 13 )
P(k|k-1)=A(k-1)P(k-1)A T(k-1)+Q(14)
K(k)=P(k|k-1)C T(k)[C(k)P(k|k-1)C T(k)+R] -1(15)
P(k)=[1-K(k)C(k)]P(k|k-1)(16)
EKF EKF algorithm calculates two parts by wave filter calculating and filter gain and forms, and wave filter calculates and completed by formula (11)-(13), and wave filter is first according to the result of formula (12) by previous moment obtain the predicted value of state variable the predicted value of systematic perspective measurement is obtained again according to output equation (11) obtain predicated error with after actual observed value U (k), then according to error by the predicted value correction of formula (13) to state variable, obtain new filter result filter gain calculates and is completed by formula (14)-(16), in formula, P (k|k-1) and P (k) is the variance matrix of state variable predicated error and filtering error respectively, K (k) is filter gain, Q and R is the variance matrix of noise w (k) and v (k) respectively.
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CN109239602A (en) * 2018-09-18 2019-01-18 清华大学深圳研究生院 A kind of evaluation method of the ohmic internal resistance of power battery

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