CN103469789B - Karst-area underwater bridge pier drilled pile construction method - Google Patents

Karst-area underwater bridge pier drilled pile construction method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103469789B
CN103469789B CN201310468085.1A CN201310468085A CN103469789B CN 103469789 B CN103469789 B CN 103469789B CN 201310468085 A CN201310468085 A CN 201310468085A CN 103469789 B CN103469789 B CN 103469789B
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China
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solution cavity
need
hole
boring
filling mixture
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CN201310468085.1A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN103469789A (en
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侯田海
田杰
郭富明
任宵
周吉学
崔旭
任少强
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中铁二十局集团有限公司
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Abstract

The invention discloses a karst-area underwater bridge pier drilled pile construction method. The construction drilled pile passes through one or more karst caves from top to bottom according to the following steps that (1) measuring staking-out is conducted; (2) a steel protection barrel is put downwards and fixed; (3) drilling is carried out, namely, the steel protection barrel is put downwards and drilled from top to bottom through a percussion drill until the designed depth is reached, a slurry breast wall is adopted in the drilling process, when the drilled pile is drilled to enter the karst caves needing passing from top to bottom in the drilling process, an energy transfer method is firstly adopted to process the karst caves needing passing under the current state, then downward drilling is continuously carried out through the percussion drill; (4) a steel reinforcement cage is put downwards and concrete pouring is conducted. The karst-area underwater bridge pier drilled pile construction method is simple in step, reasonable in design, low in input cost, convenient to achieve, good in construction effect and capable of simply, conveniently and fast finishing the karst-area drilled pile construction process at a low cost in a high-quality mode.

Description

A kind of pier drilled pile construction method in In Karst Areas For Bridge water
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of drilled pile construction method, especially relate to a kind of pier drilled pile construction method in In Karst Areas For Bridge water.
Background technology
At present, karst region drilled pile construction method has following four kinds: mud wall building method, static pressure chemical grouting method, casing follow-up step and NE BY ENERGY TRANSFER METHOD.Wherein, mud wall building method is mainly applicable to the small-sized solution cavity being not more than a footpath, and concrete condition is determined by the character factor of the relative position of solution cavity, country rock kind and filler.The injecting paste material that static pressure chemical grouting method adopts is normal silicate 425 cement, water glass, calcium chloride, sodium aluminate etc.Casing follow-up step is suitable for the larger solution cavity of the larger solution cavity of underflow, multilayer karst cave, volume and silt particle karst, first Upper Plate of Karst Cave is punctured by normally creeping into close, drill bit is mentioned, vibrating hammer is coordinated by sinking steel protecting canister through solution cavity with loop wheel machine, make casing bottom support bottom solution cavity or top board, then in casing, continue boring, if spillage, then can adopt lower interior casing or adopt additive method leak stopping.When adopting this method to construct for large-scale solution cavity, after block stamp punctures solution cavity, immediately to throwing slabstone in hole and floccule and block stamp hits pressure, solution cavity is filled up, for steel pile casting follow-up provides support, ensure that steel pile casting does not occur tilt phenomenon, be finally sinking steel protecting canister to design attitude or be stabilized on firm basement rock, reach the effect of guard aperture pile.Steel pile casting makes the steel plate thickness that adopts according to solution cavity size, and stake holes length is determined, generally adopts δ=8mm ~ 10mm, the thinlyyest can not be less than 6mm, to ensure that casing has certain Rigidity and strength, makes it indeformable.The required operation of steel pile casting follow-up step construction and auxiliary equipment more, progress is slow, and cost is high, but pore-forming and pile quality are stablized, and answers the factors such as integrated construction difficulty or ease Cheng Du and economic benefit to consider in construction.NE BY ENERGY TRANSFER METHOD construction is for karst strata, oblique rock surface, and rock matter soft or hard is uneven, easily cause the stressed bias of bit edge pin, cause the generation of the faults such as inclined hole, inclined hole, curved hole and the treatment measures taked, be also suitable for and eclipsed form bead string type karst, pile foundation is generally longer.The operation principle of NE BY ENERGY TRANSFER METHOD is to the thing such as throwing slabstone and ball clay in stake holes when percussive drilling enters solution cavity or oblique scar close to Upper Plate of Karst Cave, packed height is generally top, solution cavity top or Xie Yan top and is about 1.5m, the quality of throwing slabstone is hard and be similarly good with hole wall rock strength, in percussive drill drilling process, stroke is about 0.6m ~ 1.0m, continue punching operation, mixing inserts is through repeated stock, in solution cavity, form consolidation or form cylinder in hole, have and enough transmit impact energy, via hole or broken tiltedly rock, formed solid simultaneously, vertically, smoother transition aperture, for following bore operation plays good guide effect.When inclined-plane tilts seriously or stake position is in solution cavity edge, drill bit deflection side, solution cavity edge in creeping into, inclined hole or curved hole problem cannot be solved by NE BY ENERGY TRANSFER METHOD, side-play amount is little after testing to run into this situation, should continue throwing slabstone in hole, rubble, ball clay, block stamp hits pressure, by inclined hole, and curved uprighting.
Conveniently construct, adopt the construction of casing follow-up step, meet the processing method of super-huge solution cavity completely.If but need the quantity of construction drill stake more and stake long larger time, then need the length of machined steel casing very large.Static pressure chemical grouting method is also inapplicable, although be moist plasticity and stream plasticity filler in super-huge solution cavity, use this method effect better, because solution cavity is too large, quantity is too many, and thus slip casting total amount cannot be estimated.To sum up, though above two kinds of drilled pile construction methods are constructed simple, convenient, safety is high, be convenient to control, but the economic benefit of input and output is disproportionate.
Summary of the invention
Technical problem to be solved by this invention is for above-mentioned deficiency of the prior art, a kind of pier drilled pile construction method in In Karst Areas For Bridge water is provided, its processing step is simple, reasonable in design, input cost is lower and it is convenient to realize, construction effect is good, can easy, quick, low cost and high-quality completes bored pile construction process in karst region process.
For solving the problems of the technologies described above, the technical solution used in the present invention is: a kind of pier drilled pile construction method in In Karst Areas For Bridge water, and one or more solution cavity is passed through in institute's construction drill stake from top to bottom, it is characterized in that the method comprises the following steps:
Step one, surveying and locating: surveying and locating is carried out to the stake position of current institute construction drill stake;
Step 2, transfer and fix steel pile casting: according to the surveying setting-out result in step one, transfer steel pile casting and transferred steel pile casting is fixed; The length of described steel pile casting is greater than the depth of water of current institute's construction drill stake present position;
Step 3, to creep into: adopt percussive drill and crept into from top to bottom by the steel pile casting of transferring in step 2, until creep into projected depth, and adopting mud off in drilling process;
In drilling process, when creeping into when need pass through solution cavity from top to bottom, first adopting NE BY ENERGY TRANSFER METHOD to process needing to pass through solution cavity under current state, adopting described percussive drill to continue to creep into afterwards downwards;
Step 4, reinforcing cage are transferred and concreting.
Pier drilled pile construction method in above-mentioned a kind of In Karst Areas For Bridge water, is characterized in that: adopt in step 3 NE BY ENERGY TRANSFER METHOD to need under current state to pass through solution cavity process time, by boring throwing filling mixture backfill solution cavity need be passed through; Described need pass through solution cavity be hole higher primary school in the small-sized solution cavity of 2m, the hole height medium-sized solution cavity that is 2m ~ 5m or hole tall and big in the large-scale solution cavity of 5m;
When the hole higher primary school need passing through solution cavity is in 2m, the filling mixture of institute's throwing is the first filling mixture be made up of slabstone and ball clay; In described first filling mixture the mass ratio of slabstone and ball clay be (0.8 ~ 1.2) ︰ 1, in described first filling mixture, the particle diameter of slabstone is 10cm ~ 15cm;
When the hole height that need pass through solution cavity has stream to mould shape filler for 2m ~ 5m and inside, carry out back-filling in layers by throwing second filling mixture in holing to institute in step 3 to solution cavity need be passed through and tamp; Each raising 1.5m ~ 2.5m, in described boring, cement mortar or the two slurries of cement-silicate are first injected before each raising, again to the second filling mixture described in throwing in described boring, all adopt described percussive drill repeated stock to tamp after each raising, and make injected cement mortar or the two slurries of cement-silicate enter in institute's throwing second filling mixture; Described second filling mixture is mixed by slabstone, rubble and ball clay, and in described second filling mixture, the mass ratio of slabstone, rubble and ball clay is (1.8 ~ 2.2) ︰ (0.8 ~ 1.2) ︰ 2; In described second filling mixture, the particle diameter of slabstone is 15cm ~ 25cm, and the particle diameter of rubble is at below 7cm;
When need pass through solution cavity and be hole height 2m ~ 5m and inner non-filler empty time, in boring filling concrete backfill solution cavity need be passed through;
When the hole need passing through solution cavity tall and big in 5m and inside mould shape and/or stream mould shape filler time, by boring throwing the 3rd filling mixture carry out back-filling in layers to solution cavity need be passed through and tamp; Each raising 1.5m ~ 2.5m, in described boring, cement mortar or the two slurries of cement-silicate are first injected before each raising, again to the 3rd filling mixture described in throwing in described boring, all adopt described percussive drill repeated stock to tamp after each raising, and make injected cement mortar or the two slurries of cement-silicate enter in institute's throwing the 3rd filling mixture; Described 3rd filling mixture is mixed by block stone, ball clay, slabstone and rubble or is mixed by block stone, slabstone, rubble and packed clay, in described 3rd filling mixture, the mass ratio of block stone, ball clay, slabstone and rubble is (1.8 ~ 2.2) ︰ (1.8 ~ 2.2) ︰ (0.8 ~ 1.2) ︰ 1, and in described 3rd filling mixture, the mass ratio of block stone, slabstone, rubble and packed clay is (1.8 ~ 2.2) ︰ (0.8 ~ 1.2) ︰ (0.8 ~ 1.2) ︰ 1; In described 3rd fill concrete, the diameter of block stone is about 40cm, and the particle diameter of slabstone is 15cm ~ 25cm, and the particle diameter of rubble is about 5cm.
Pier drilled pile construction method in above-mentioned a kind of In Karst Areas For Bridge water, it is characterized in that: in step 3, adopt described percussive drill to carry out from top to bottom in drilling process, when creep into need pass through solution cavity top about 1m to distance time, reduce the impact stroke of described percussive drill immediately, puncture described need pass through solution cavity with short stroke, fast Frequency Patterns.
Pier drilled pile construction method in above-mentioned a kind of In Karst Areas For Bridge water, it is characterized in that: in step 3, adopt described percussive drill to carry out from top to bottom in drilling process, mud off adopt that the proportion of mud is 1.2 ~ 1.5, viscosity is 22s ~ 30s, sand factor≤4%, pH value are 8 ~ 10 and colloidity >=95%.
Pier drilled pile construction method in above-mentioned a kind of In Karst Areas For Bridge water, is characterized in that: creep in step 3 to projected depth, also needs to carry out hole clearly to shaping boring; Actual carry out clearly hole time, first the block stamp of described percussive drill is increased to 20cm at the bottom of the shaping drilling hole of distance institute left back, again pump line is inserted at the bottom of the shaping drilling hole of institute, carries out the clear hole of reacting cycle by described pump line afterwards, until mud density is less than 1.1g/cm in the shaping drilling hole of institute 3.
Pier drilled pile construction method in above-mentioned a kind of In Karst Areas For Bridge water, it is characterized in that: when the hole height that need pass through solution cavity for 2m ~ 5m and inside mould shape and/or stream mould shape filler time, also need to the cement mortar injected in boring or cement-silicate pair slurries be added with retarding agent; When the hole need passing through solution cavity tall and big in 5m and inside has stream to mould shape filler time, in described boring while the 3rd filling mixture described in throwing, also need to boring in throw in straw.
Pier drilled pile construction method in above-mentioned a kind of In Karst Areas For Bridge water, it is characterized in that: when the hole higher primary school need passing through solution cavity is in 2m, to in step 3 in boring throwing filling mixture backfill solution cavity need be passed through, till being backfilled to and need passing through solution cavity about over top 1m;
When need pass through solution cavity and be hole height 2m ~ 5m and inner non-filler empty time, in boring concrete described in filling backfill solution cavity need be passed through, solution cavity about over top 1m need be passed through until be backfilled to;
When the hole height that need pass through solution cavity for 2m ~ 5m and inside mould shape and/or stream mould shape filler time, adopt described second filling mixture carry out back-filling in layers to solution cavity need be passed through and tamp, till being backfilled to and need passing through solution cavity about over top 1m; All adopt described percussive drill repeated stock to tamp after each raising, and until backfill the second filling mixture internal void by the cement mortar injected in advance or the two slurry plugs of cement-silicate after stop impacting; Back-filling in layers complete and until backfill the second filling mixture and institute and inject after cement mortar or cement-silicate consolidation be integrated, then adopt percussive drill continuation to creep into downwards;
When the hole need passing through solution cavity tall and big in 5m and inside mould shape and/or stream mould shape filler time, adopt described 3rd filling mixture carry out back-filling in layers to solution cavity need be passed through and tamp, till being backfilled to and need passing through solution cavity over top 2m ~ 3m; All adopt described percussive drill repeated stock to tamp after each raising, and until backfill the 3rd filling mixture internal void by the cement mortar injected in advance or the two slurry plugs of cement-silicate after stop impacting; Back-filling in layers complete and until backfill the 3rd filling mixture and institute and inject after cement mortar or cement-silicate consolidation be integrated, then adopt percussive drill continuation to creep into downwards.
Pier drilled pile construction method in above-mentioned a kind of In Karst Areas For Bridge water, it is characterized in that: in step 3 in drilling construction process, when because passing through that the breakdown and another part rock stratum of a solution cavity cap rock layer part is not breakdown makes the block stamp of described percussive drill tilt to snap in breakdown solution cavity, adopt loosening blasting formula bit freezing treating apparatus process bit freezing; Described loosening blasting formula bit freezing treating apparatus comprises transfers bit freezing position and to the demolition set loosened by card drill hammer to boring from top to bottom, described drill hammer be lifted by wire rope and impact enter solution cavity after be stuck in block stamp in the cap rock layer of solution cavity, the stretching left side retrodeviated to boring of described wire rope; Described demolition set comprise dynamite container and dynamite container is vertical under put into and transfer rope between block stamp and the cap rock layer of solution cavity, described dynamite container is suspended in transfers immediately below rope, described dynamite container is fixed on the bottom of transferring rope, described dynamite container and transfer the right side that rope is all positioned at boring; Described dynamite container comprises inside and the paper web of explosive and priming device is housed and is fixed on outside described paper web or the balancing weight be contained in described paper web, and described paper web is carry out by sealant tape the sealing drum that seals.
Pier drilled pile construction method in above-mentioned a kind of In Karst Areas For Bridge water, it is characterized in that: when need pass through solution cavity and be hole height 2m ~ 5m and inner non-filler empty time, described concrete is sheet stone concrete, and the slabstone that described stone concrete is 15cm ~ 25cm by C30 concrete and particle diameter mixes; Adopt described stone concrete to need pass through solution cavity backfill time, by concrete pumping equipment in step 3 boring in inject C30 concrete, and inject C30 concrete while, to in boring throwing particle diameter be the slabstone of 15cm ~ 25cm, and by described percussive drill repeated stock, injected C30 concrete to be mixed with institute throwing slabstone; After described slabstone concrete setting, then percussive drill is adopted to continue to creep into downwards.
Pier drilled pile construction method in above-mentioned a kind of In Karst Areas For Bridge water, is characterized in that: in step 3 in drilling construction process, when carrying out drilling construction to oblique rock, the block stamp of described percussive drill is replaced by reinforced block stamp; Described reinforced block stamp comprises in vertically to the middle part column laid and multiple being along the circumferential direction evenly laid in middle part column lateral wall rushing tooth, and described middle part column is cylindrical, massive steel column, and the diameter of described middle part column is 500mm ~ 800mm; Multiple described structure of rushing tooth is all identical with size, and multiple described tooth that rushes is the rail that top is weldingly fixed on column middle and upper part, middle part, and the laying of multiple described rail is highly all identical; All be fastenedly connected by gusset between multiple described rail and middle part column; The bottom height of described middle part column is not less than the bottom height of multiple described rail, and multiple described rail is all in being tilted to laying, and the angle between multiple described rail and middle part column is 15 ° ~ 20 °; The vertical height H of described rail is 1500mm ~ 2000mm.
The present invention compared with prior art has the following advantages:
1, method step is simple, reasonable in design and to drop into construction cost lower, effectively can reduce labour cost, cost of materials, every input cost such as machinery expense, overhead cost etc.
2, construction speed fast and construction period can be guaranteed, and drilled pile construction quality can effectively be ensured, and work progress safety, reliable.
3, karst cave treatment method design rationally, input construction cost is low and construction effect good, breach the conventional construction method that large-scale solution cavity adopts the construction of casing follow-up step, aperture steel pile casting is first adopted to carry out mud off, adopt NE BY ENERGY TRANSFER METHOD to carry out drilling construction afterwards, save a large amount of casing steel used and processing, mounting cost.
4, the filling batch component that adopts of NE BY ENERGY TRANSFER METHOD and proportion design rationally, fill convenient and filling effect is good, can effectively ensure karst cave treatment effect, and input cost is lower.
In sum, present invention process step is simple, reasonable in design, input cost is lower and it is convenient to realize, construction effect is good, can easy, quick, low cost and high-quality completes bored pile construction process in karst region process.
Below by drawings and Examples, technical scheme of the present invention is described in further detail.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is method flow block diagram of the present invention.
Fig. 2 is the structural representation of the reinforced block stamp of the present invention.
Fig. 3 is the top view of Fig. 2.
Fig. 4 is the using state schematic diagram of loosening blasting formula bit freezing treating apparatus of the present invention.
Description of reference numerals:
1-1-middle part column; 1-2-rail; 1-3-gusset;
2-1-dynamite container; 2-2-transfer rope; 2-3-drill hammer.
Detailed description of the invention
Pier drilled pile construction method in a kind of In Karst Areas For Bridge water as shown in Figure 1, one or more solution cavity is passed through in institute's construction drill stake from top to bottom, and the method comprises the following steps:
Step one, surveying and locating: surveying and locating is carried out to the stake position of current institute construction drill stake.
During practice of construction, surveying setting-out must be accurate, and pile position deviation will meet the requirements.Unwrapping wire on request, once after pile, if pile position deviation is comparatively large, changes to the stressed of some.Adopt total powerstation unwrapping wire, repeatedly check in unwrapping wire process, compound multiparty control.Take again to correct off normal, in order to avoid deviation is large, cause duration delayed and fund waste.
After surveying setting-out completes, because karst region geologic anomaly is complicated, although carried out encrypting probing research to geology, also be difficult to guarantee feel out the situation, therefore each drilled pile carries out the steel sheet pile of percussive drill front laying 2 in place to 4 long 10m of drilling construction, the base of percussive drill is reinforced, makes percussive drill steady, in case percussive drill immerge and inclination during borehole collapse.
Step 2, transfer and fix steel pile casting: according to the surveying setting-out result in step one, transfer steel pile casting and transferred steel pile casting is fixed; The length of described steel pile casting is greater than the depth of water of current institute's construction drill stake present position.
In the present embodiment, when transferred steel pile casting is fixed, with embedding manner, described steel pile casting is fixed.When described steel pile casting being fixed with embedding manner, adopting clay the surrounding of fixed steel pile casting to be tamped, be subjected to displacement to prevent described steel pile casting.
In the present embodiment, steel pile casting is buried underground in the stake holes aperture of institute's construction drill stake, the long 8m of steel pile casting, and its length is determined according to geology, groundwater table, the depth of water 5m of institute's construction drill pile driving construction position, cofferdam used of constructing exceeds water surface 2m, the internal diameter of steel pile casting is than the large 20cm in the stake footpath of institute's construction drill stake and its wall thickness δ=10mm, and steel plate rolls and forms, and protecting tube embedding top exceeds water surface 30cm, in case outside mud overfolw hole, the surface water flows in stake holes.
Step 3, to creep into: adopt percussive drill and crept into from top to bottom by the steel pile casting of transferring in step 2, until creep into projected depth, and adopting mud off in drilling process.
In drilling process, when creeping into when need pass through solution cavity from top to bottom, first adopting NE BY ENERGY TRANSFER METHOD to process needing to pass through solution cavity under current state, adopting described percussive drill to continue to creep into afterwards downwards.
Step 4, reinforcing cage are transferred and concreting.
In the present embodiment, percussive drill described in step 3 is percussive drill.
Further, described percussive drill is CZ-8 percussive drill.During practice of construction, also according to specific needs, the percussive drill of other model can be selected.
The reason of percussive drill is adopted to be the architectonic particularity in karst region, stake holes will pass through covering layer, weathered rock formation, overall rock stratum, eclipsed form solution cavity, bead string type solution cavity, the shape scars such as oblique rock, sawtooth pattern, wolf's fang type, solely post rock are had in hole, and rock strength is quite hard, surface is smooth especially.Adopt full circle swinging percussive drill and revolve that to dig percussive drill in the rate of penetration of covering layer, weathered rock formation, overall rock stratum be percussive drill more than 4 ~ 5 times.After creeping into karst, be uneven bottom solution cavity, solution cavity is inner, and shape rock is in different poses and with different expressions as mentioned above.
Full circle swinging percussive drill and revolve the drill bit that digs percussive drill because being subject to the cutting collision of height fluctuating rock bottom solution cavity, the own applied pressure of percussive drill in addition, makes drill bit produce batch (-type) consumingly and vibrates; Along with the rotary motion of percussive drill, drill bit produces batch (-type) vibration passing consumingly, to drilling rod, makes windup be out of shape.If the scar full circle swinging percussive drill running into oblique rock or soft or hard inequality is better than to revolve dig percussive drill, because the cutter of full circle swinging percussive drill is placed in its lower end, and be rigidly connected between sleeve pipe, vertical bulk strength is large, although drill bit is subject to batch (-type) vibration, but sleeve pipe rotates at drill hole inner wall, the restriction being subject to hole wall is unlikely to move along oblique rockslide.Revolve that to dig percussive drill little due to drill pipe diameter, run into 60 ° of oblique scars, tiltedly scar is smooth in addition, drill bit intermittent control shaking, and along oblique scar slippage, although jackstone correction, drilling rod and drill bit junction torsional deformation.Thus, full circle swinging percussive drill and revolve and dig percussive drill there is following several respects defect in creeping into: the batch (-type) the first, be subject to vibrates the power produced and causes serious infringement to percussive drill rotary system; The second, in drilling process, drill bit is subject to the vibration of strong shock and makes away drill cuttings be easy to wearing and tearing and destroy; Three, after percussive drill bit damage, drilling rod lifting repairing efficiency is long, and each repair time is all more than 10 days; Four, revolve that to dig percussive drill mud off in drilling process bad, backfill slabstone and earth do not have good consolidation, when lifting drilling rod bit change or easily produce collapse hole when changing drilling rod; Five, filler is not tamped, and void content is large, easily produces spillage during concreting.
Churn drill function makes up full circle swinging percussive drill and revolves the defect and deficiency of digging percussive drill, in cover sand gravel and overall Rock penetrating, target efficiency is low, in the pile foundation construction of karst region, efficiency digs percussive drill higher than full circle swinging percussive drill with revolving, reason is: the first, Churn drill becomes potential energy work done by kinetic transformation, power conversion, and potential energy is controlled; The second, structure is simple, convenient operation, and cost is low; As long as the 3rd method of operating is proper, with effective measures, in solution cavity boring procedure, various grotesque rock can tackle; Four, solution cavity backfill slabstone, after earth under the effect of potential energy impact force, filler is by External Force Acting, extruding is mobile, rearrange combination, particularly crack, crack can be tamped and be filled up, and add the smooth of mud and infiltration, make it form new overall consolidation, mud off is good, also can not spillage in concreting process.In addition, percussive drill is due to simple structure, and acquisition expenses is few, and equipment depreciation expense is little, and maintenance expense is low, and frequent maintenance items is few.As changed friction clutch-plate, change steel rope, drill bit maintenance repair welding is once got over, and operating personnel are few, and power is 75kw, is that full circle swinging percussive drill digs percussive drill 1/4 power consumption with revolving.To sum up, the most economical, most economical, the most durable, the most effective rig of percussive drill.
In addition, needed for the fractured rock calculated, impact force is 42.6kN, thus selects quality to be 5000kg, i.e. the block stamp of 5T.
In the present embodiment, in step 3, adopt described percussive drill to carry out from top to bottom in drilling process, mud off adopt that the proportion of mud is 1.2 ~ 1.5, viscosity is 22s ~ 30s, sand factor≤4%, pH value are 8 ~ 10 and colloidity >=95%.
Actual when carrying out drilling construction, after sinking steel protecting canister to scar, use percussive drill reciprocating impact, by the soil in punching, stone is broken or clamp-on in hole wall, to be suspended by rock ballast portal with high pressure slurry pump.
Mud off is exactly different according to the kind of solution cavity inner stuffing and stream plasticity, caustic soda is added respectively by a certain percentage in mud, cement, wood sawdust, straw bag, the mixed materials such as sheet (broken) stone, the impact of drill bit is utilized to fiddle with effect, packing material is clamp-oned in solution cavity and Karst Fissures with dense mud together, form the continuous drilling path of some strength, hole wall closed-loop is formed in continuous drilling operation, reach the effect of mud off, concrete condition presses the relative position of solution cavity, Rock Species, the factors such as the character of filler are determined, mud off under different condition adopt the preparation situation of mud in table 1:
Table 1 mud off adopt the preparation table of mud
The effect of mud off method process karst depends on the preparation quality of mud, therefore the selection requirements of various batching should be noted when Slurry confection, clay is the primary raw material of preparation mud, answer tool aquation block, the features such as yield is strong, viscosity is large, sand factor is low, General Requirements colloidity is not less than 95%, and sand factor is less than 4%, yield is greater than 2.5L/kg, and index of plasticity is not less than 20.When solution cavity inner stuffing is fine sand or stream moulds material, appropriate cement is mixed in mud, the impermeabilisation ability of mud can be improved, strengthen anti-retaining wall function, prevent collapse hole spillage function, the consumption of cement is 15% ~ 20% of clay quality, and caustic soda has maintenance and improves the effect of mud viscosity, have good effect for process hole wall spillage, generally press clay quality 2% ~ 3% uses.Mix wood chip in right amount in mud, its suspending power can be improved, meet the clear hole requirement of karst strata slag.The use of sheet (broken) stone can play the reinforcement effect of solution cavity hole wall skeleton, generally selects the slabstone of particle diameter 15 ~ 25cm and the rubble of below particle diameter 7cm.The selection of material also can be suited measures to local conditions, and selects other material, is advisable with the best results reaching process solution cavity.
When carrying out drilling construction, note observing the block stamp of percussive drill and the swing situation of wire rope in percussion drilling process.Swing due to block stamp and wire rope directly reflects the energy exchange situation of block stamp and rock, if drop hammer steadily, represents that the energy exchange of block stamp and rock is good; The hour hammer that drops hammer is not steady, and wire rope swings serious, then illustrate that the switching channel of energy is not smooth, block stamp has consumed sizable energy in swing process, and impact effect is poor, and therefore operating personnel should observe the swing situation of block stamp and wire rope when dropping hammer at any time.When shakiness of dropping hammer, wire rope seriously swings, and is in rock stratum, has illustrated that oblique rock occurs or in hole, rock strength differs, has had two kinds of rocks at least, make the unbalance stress of block stamp and rock.If the swing position of wire rope and hammer is in solution cavity inner bottom part, illustrates in hole have uneven situation at the bottom of wolf's fang rock, sawtooth rock or only hole such as stone, erratic boulder exposure, have the trend producing inclined hole and curved hole.Block stamp top is crooked, clashes into hole wall, hole expansibility will be caused significantly to increase, now should stop impacting, timely throwing filler is to the above 1m ~ 2m of inclined hole deviation scar, then percussion drilling again, adjust block stamp stroke simultaneously, low hammer high frequency, closely to hit, until wire rope and block stamp steadily creep into.In addition, in impact process, note the length loosening wire rope uniformly, Soft Soil Layer loosens 5cm ~ 8cm at every turn, loosen 3cm ~ 5cm at rock solid bed at every turn, prevent slack rope very few, form the hammer that fans the air, make percussive drill, support and wire rope cause damage by excessive impact load.
During practice of construction, described percussive drill is adopted to carry out from top to bottom in drilling process in step 3, when creep into need pass through solution cavity top about 1m to distance time, reduce the impact stroke of described percussive drill immediately, puncture described need pass through solution cavity with short stroke, fast Frequency Patterns, prevent impact force excessive and cause collapse hole or bit freezing, once mud sinks fast, will by the performances of rock of different karst, ready mud will be shifted to an earlier date and mend slurry rapidly, Quick bores simultaneously, is thrown in by filling mixture and repeated stock extruding, until pass through solution cavity smoothly.
In the present embodiment, when creep into need pass through solution cavity top 1m to distance time, reduce the impact stroke of described percussive drill immediately.
When reality reduces the impact stroke of described percussive drill, progressively successively decreasing by piercing drilling depth, reducing to 1.5m from 2m, then reducing to 1m from 1.5m, finally reducing to 0.5m from 1m.
In step 3 in drilling process, often creeping into 5cm ~ 10cm scarfing cinder once when creeping in competent bed, often creeping into 15cm ~ 30cm scarfing cinder once when weathered rock formation is crept into; Further, often creep into 4m ~ 6m, adopt verify device to carry out a verify.Actual when carrying out scarfing cinder, first block stamp is proposed, then change and draw slag cylinder and put into and put into draw at the bottom of hole and get boring mud.
In addition, in percussion drilling process, must verify.Verify device steel bar welding is connected into cage, external diameter according to examine boring aperture and determine, length is 4-6 times of aperture, often creep into 4m ~ 6m, when the easy shrinkage cavity section of solution cavity backfill layer is passed through in boring or rock mass changes repairing block stamp, must verify be carried out, the position can not sinking to former drilling depth or stay cord as verify device offsets, then may have occurred curved hole, the situation such as inclined hole or shrinkage cavity, should revise immediately.
In the whole hole of karst region construction drill stake, first will determine the thickness of bearing stratum, the complete basement rock that it has been generally acknowledged that three times of stake footpaths or be not less than 5m is completely reliably.
Creep in step 3 to projected depth, also need to carry out hole clearly to shaping boring; Actual carry out clearly hole time, first the block stamp of described percussive drill is increased to 20cm at the bottom of the shaping drilling hole of distance institute left back, again pump line is inserted at the bottom of the shaping drilling hole of institute, carries out the clear hole of reacting cycle by described pump line afterwards, until mud density is less than 1.1g/cm in the shaping drilling hole of institute 3.Note behind clear hole keeping head height, with anti-collapse.
Behind clear hole, the proportion of mud is 1.03 ~ 1.1 in shaping drilling hole, viscosity is 17s ~ 20s, sand factor is less than 2%, colloidity is greater than 98% and sediment thickness is not more than 5cm.
In the present embodiment, reinforcing cage described in step 4 is assembled from top to bottom by multiple reinforcing cage sections, is fixed connection between adjacent two described reinforcing cage sections with welding manner.
When reality makes described reinforcing cage, lay the long blanking of stake of drilled pile, sectional making by it, manufacturing process presses demand of technical standard, main muscle spacing, welding quality, stirrup spacing etc.Make length and should not be greater than 10m, suitably increase stirrup, indeformable during to ensure transport and to lift.Sectional making transports stake holes position place to after checking and accepting, after pore-forming checks and accepts first time clear hole, with crane, first segment reinforcing cage sections is hung in shaping stake holes, fix with channel-section steel or the lumps of wood after having descended first segment reinforcing cage sections, then hang second section reinforcing cage sections and overlap joint employing arc welding, weld seam interface staggers, when hanging into stake holes, falling speed is wanted evenly, and between two parties, is sure not to collide hole wall.After described reinforcing cage sinks to design elevation, corrected in center and fixed.In the present embodiment; in water of constructing the pile foundation of pier adopt ultrasound examination; pre-buried seamless steel pipe on request during reinforcing cage construction; pre-buried 3 detector tubes of stake footpath Φ more than 1.5m ~ Φ 1.8m; caliber is DN50mm, and for ensureing protective layer thickness, on stirrup, every section arranges 4 concrete pulley cushion blocks; every 2m is that broken ground suitably encrypts layout together.
Grouting pipe to be installed before concreting, in assembled grouting pipe process, will check whether interface connects tight, firm, vertical, and interface rubber cushion has breakage to change, and carries out watertight test, can use after qualified.After grouting pipe has hung, carry out the clear hole of second time.Actual carry out clearly hole time, seal up the steel plate of band pipe at the grouting pipe mouth of pipe, toward filling thin mud in grouting pipe, the sediment be deposited at the bottom of hole drifted about, pile foundation sediment thickness will be checked behind clear hole, check absolute altitude at the bottom of hole, judge whether reach design and build requirement.
Concrete transportation adopts concrete transport vehicle.During transport, the initial setting time must not be less than 5 hours, after being transported to scene, check slump and segregation degree, determine qualified after can use, initial setting time of building during concreting must not early than whole concreting deadline, when pile concrete consumption is large, in the concrete of building in the first batch, mix appropriate retarding agent by test.
Flow regime is in order to make concrete, when grouting pipe be embedded in the concrete degree of depth be greater than 6m or concrete can not fall time, grouting pipe should be promoted, hoisting velocity can not be too fast, keeps grouting pipe vertical and placed in the middle, in order to avoid topple over shock reinforcing cage, the buried depth promoting grouting behind shaft or drift lining conduit remains within the scope of 2m ~ 6m, when grouting pipe promotes, funnel is removed, vertical-lift, connect funnel after dismounting again and continue concreting.Inner concrete face, hole position sensing, adopts hammer to be heavily not less than the taper sounding bob detection of 4kg.Time within concreting to distance stake top bit 5m, can not hoisting grouting conduit, disposable proposition grouting pipe in time being poured into regulation absolute altitude, but note during hoisting grouting conduit carrying slowly and anti-plug, to ensure that pile body has enough compactnesss, when building to stake top, the concrete mix that should have been emanated on surface immediately and bleeding cement etc. are removed clean.Casting process should carry out continuously, if there is interval midway, often should twitch grouting pipe, to guarantee that concrete has enough mobility.The absolute altitude that concreting completes exceeds at least 50cm than the design elevation on stake top.
Adopt in step 3 NE BY ENERGY TRANSFER METHOD to need under current state to pass through solution cavity process time, by boring throwing filling mixture backfill solution cavity need be passed through; Described need pass through solution cavity be hole higher primary school in the small-sized solution cavity of 2m, the hole height medium-sized solution cavity that is 2m ~ 5m or hole tall and big in the large-scale solution cavity of 5m.
When the hole higher primary school need passing through solution cavity is in 2m, the filling mixture of institute's throwing is the first filling mixture be made up of slabstone and ball clay; In described first filling mixture, the mass ratio of slabstone and ball clay is that (0.8 ~ 1.2) ︰ 1, in described first filling mixture, the particle diameter of slabstone is 10cm ~ 15cm.
When the hole height that need pass through solution cavity has stream to mould shape filler for 2m ~ 5m and inside, carry out back-filling in layers by throwing second filling mixture in holing to institute in step 3 to solution cavity need be passed through and tamp; Each raising 1.5m ~ 2.5m, in described boring, cement mortar or the two slurries of cement-silicate are first injected before each raising, again to the second filling mixture described in throwing in described boring, all adopt described percussive drill repeated stock to tamp after each raising, and make injected cement mortar or the two slurries of cement-silicate enter in institute's throwing second filling mixture; Described second filling mixture is mixed by slabstone, rubble and ball clay, and in described second filling mixture, the mass ratio of slabstone, rubble and ball clay is (1.8 ~ 2.2) ︰ (0.8 ~ 1.2) ︰ 2; In described second filling mixture, the particle diameter of slabstone is 15cm ~ 25cm, and the particle diameter of rubble is at below 7cm.
When need pass through solution cavity and be hole height 2m ~ 5m and inner non-filler empty time, in step 3 in boring filling concrete backfill solution cavity need be passed through.
When the hole need passing through solution cavity tall and big in 5m and inside mould shape and/or stream mould shape filler time, by step 3 in boring throwing the 3rd filling mixture carry out back-filling in layers to solution cavity need be passed through and tamp; Each raising 1.5m ~ 2.5m, in described boring, cement mortar or the two slurries of cement-silicate are first injected before each raising, again to the 3rd filling mixture described in throwing in described boring, all adopt described percussive drill repeated stock to tamp after each raising, and make injected cement mortar or the two slurries of cement-silicate enter in institute's throwing the 3rd filling mixture; Described 3rd filling mixture is mixed by block stone, ball clay, slabstone and rubble or is mixed by block stone, slabstone, rubble and packed clay, in described 3rd filling mixture, the mass ratio of block stone, ball clay, slabstone and rubble is (1.8 ~ 2.2) ︰ (1.8 ~ 2.2) ︰ (0.8 ~ 1.2) ︰ 1, and in described 3rd filling mixture, the mass ratio of block stone, slabstone, rubble and packed clay is (1.8 ~ 2.2) ︰ (0.8 ~ 1.2) ︰ (0.8 ~ 1.2) ︰ 1; In described 3rd fill concrete, the diameter of block stone is about 40cm, and the particle diameter of slabstone is 15cm ~ 25cm, and the particle diameter of rubble is about 5cm.In the present embodiment, in described 3rd fill concrete, the diameter of block stone is 40cm, and the particle diameter of rubble is 5cm.
In the present embodiment, in described first filling mixture, the mass ratio of slabstone and ball clay is 1 ︰ 1, in described two filling mixtures, the mass ratio of slabstone, rubble and ball clay is 2 ︰ 1 ︰ 2, in described 3rd filling mixture, the mass ratio of block stone, ball clay, slabstone and rubble is 2 ︰ 2 ︰ 1 ︰ 1, and in described 3rd filling mixture, the mass ratio of block stone, slabstone, rubble and packed clay is 2 ︰ 1 ︰ 1 ︰ 1.During practice of construction, can according to specific needs, the pulp furnish of described first filling mixture, the second filling mixture and the 3rd filling mixture be adjusted accordingly.
When the hole higher primary school need passing through solution cavity is in 2m, in step 3 in boring throwing filling mixture backfill solution cavity need be passed through, till being backfilled to and need passing through solution cavity about over top 1m.Afterwards, adopt that percussive drill low hammer is close to be hit, in hole mud normal till, impact via hole smoothly.In the present embodiment, till being backfilled to and need passing through solution cavity over top 1m.
When the hole height that need pass through solution cavity for 2m ~ 5m and inside mould shape and/or stream mould shape filler time, adopt described second filling mixture carry out back-filling in layers to solution cavity need be passed through and tamp, till being backfilled to and need passing through solution cavity about over top 1m.All adopt described percussive drill repeated stock to tamp after each raising, and until backfill the second filling mixture internal void by the cement mortar injected in advance or the two slurry plugs of cement-silicate after stop impacting.Back-filling in layers complete and until backfill the second filling mixture and institute and inject after cement mortar or cement-silicate consolidation be integrated, then adopt percussive drill continuation to creep into downwards.In the present embodiment, described second filling mixture is adopted to carry out back-filling in layers to solution cavity need be passed through and tamp, till being backfilled to and need passing through solution cavity over top 1m.Back-filling in layers complete and until backfill the second filling mixture with institute inject cement mortar or cement-silicate consolidation after intensity reach 2.5MPa after, then adopt percussive drill continuation creep into downwards.It is silt particle that described stream moulds shape filler.
In the present embodiment, when the hole height that need pass through solution cavity is 2m ~ 5m and inside has stream to mould shape filler, described need pass through after solution cavity punctured by block stamp, be rapidly to need pass through in solution cavity and inject a certain amount of cement mortar, and add a certain proportion of water glass liquid, it is made to mix with hole inner stuffing as early as possible, again to throwing slabstone in hole, rubble and ball clay make it mix, back-filling in layers, each raising 2m, then the little stroke of layering percussive drill impacts filler, be squeezed to hole body periphery, form the outer retaining wall of mud rubble, cement mortar stops impacting after being blocked in slabstone space, after 24 hours, after the consolidation such as cement mortar and slabstone and intensity reach 2.5MPa, continue again to impact via hole.
Meanwhile, when the hole height that need pass through solution cavity for 2m ~ 5m and inside mould shape and/or stream mould shape filler time, also need to the cement mortar injected in boring or cement-silicate pair slurries be added with retarding agent.
In the present embodiment, be hole height 2m ~ 5m and (general rock mass strength is high in the cavity of inner non-filler when solution cavity need be passed through, not easy-weathering and without decomposed rock mud and fine sand and so in hole) time, described concrete is sheet stone concrete, and the slabstone that described stone concrete is 15cm ~ 25cm by C30 concrete and particle diameter mixes; Adopt described stone concrete to need pass through solution cavity backfill time, by concrete pumping equipment in step 3 inject C30 concrete in boring, and inject C30 concrete while to hole in the throwing particle diameter slabstone that is 15cm ~ 25cm being mixed with institute throwing slabstone injecting C30 concrete by described percussive drill repeated stock; After described slabstone concrete setting, then percussive drill is adopted to continue to creep into downwards.
Further, when need pass through solution cavity and be hole height 2m ~ 5m and inner non-filler empty time, in boring concrete described in filling backfill solution cavity need be passed through, solution cavity about over top 1m need be passed through until be backfilled to.In the present embodiment, being mixed with institute throwing slabstone injected C30 concrete by described percussive drill repeated stock and make C30 concrete and the inner tight of institute's throwing slabstone, after 24 hours, intensity reaches and necessarily requires that via hole is hit in backlash.To in boring concrete described in filling to need pass through solution cavity backfill time, till being backfilled to and need passing through solution cavity over top 1m.
In the present embodiment, when the hole need passing through solution cavity tall and big in 5m and inside mould shape and/or stream mould shape filler time, in described boring while the 3rd filling mixture described in throwing, also need to throw in straw in boring.
In the present embodiment, when the hole need passing through solution cavity tall and big in 5m and inside mould shape and/or stream mould shape filler time, described 3rd filling mixture is adopted to carry out back-filling in layers to solution cavity need be passed through and tamp, till being backfilled to and need passing through solution cavity over top 2m ~ 3m; All adopt described percussive drill repeated stock to tamp after each raising, and until backfill the 3rd filling mixture internal void by the cement mortar injected in advance or the two slurry plugs of cement-silicate after stop impacting; Back-filling in layers complete and until backfill the 3rd filling mixture and institute and inject after cement mortar or cement-silicate consolidation be integrated, then adopt percussive drill continuation to creep into downwards.
In the present embodiment, when the hole need passing through solution cavity tall and big in 5m and inside mould shape and/or stream mould shape filler time, described need pass through in solution cavity to be moulded volume that shape and/or stream moulds shape filler and accounts for and need pass through 1/2 ~ 3/4 of solution cavity volume.See according to Use of Geophysical Data, need pass through solution cavity hole inner volume 3/4 for filler, and filler is silt particle graininess, filler the first half is moist, and the latter half is that stream moulds shape.When described need pass through solution cavity breakdown after, in boring, inject concrete mortar, and add water glass in right amount, make it mix with hole inner stuffing, again to fill block stone throwing, ball clay, slabstone, rubble and straw in hole, straw adds fashionable trembling out by hand and throws in building stones, clay simultaneously.Each throwing height is 2m, and low hammer is close to be hit, and until throwing to the above 2m ~ 3m in solution cavity top, stop impacting, after 24 hours, hole inner stuffing is bonded to some strength requirement, impacts via hole.
When nowadays carrying out karst cave treatment, solution cavity is divided into four classes by the physical property according to the size of Geologic Structure Feature in region and solution cavity, shape and solution cavity inner stuffing (cavity), refers to table 2:
Table 2 solution cavity development degree classification chart
In the present embodiment, the tall and big need in 5m in hole pass through solution cavity and comprise large-scale solution cavity and two kinds, super-huge solution cavity.
During practice of construction, the process of solution cavity must be carried out by base area matter Use of Geophysical Data, and the solution cavity for different size, heterogeneity, different fillings takes different treatment measures.First to analyze and research geology Use of Geophysical Data, to determine the size of the position residing for solution cavity and stake holes, solution cavity, the filler in the intensity of solution cavity rock stratum and solution cavity and performance.In the present embodiment, residing for institute's construction drill stake, construction area comprises large-scale solution cavity, half filler is in hole, half empty, filler is plasticity, stream plasticity, and filler major part is for moulding shape, for stream moulds shape bottom solution cavity, rock mass strength is 500MPa ~ 800MPa, other solution cavity hole Gao Jun at below 5m, half empty or cavity.
In the present embodiment, when super-huge solution cavity is processed, when block stamp need pass through after solution cavity punctures, a large amount of concrete mortar is injected in hole, suitable increase cement proportion, and in concrete mortar, increase a certain proportion of retarding agent, make it in backfill and compacting process, extend setting time, increase permeability, in compacting and jackstone process, concrete mortar slurries are well mixed with filler former in hole; In addition, because super-huge solution cavity backfill amount is large, throwing is relatively long with the compacting time, to fill and filler in compacting process in hole is in mobile and squeezed state all the time, after injecting concrete mortar, in hole, throw in block stone, slabstone, rubble and packed clay and mass ratio is 2 ︰ 1 ︰ 1 ︰ 1, throw in simultaneously straw appropriate and throw in time tremble out and synchronously throw in building stones.The particle diameter throwing in building stones is: block stone is 40cm, slabstone is 15-20cm, rubble is about 5cm, and each packed height is 2m, low hammer is close hit after to reinject a certain amount of concrete mortar, and then a certain proportion of filler of throwing, layering is filled and compacting, till the filling above 2m ~ 3m in solution cavity top, stops impacting, after 24 hours, when its intensity reaches 2.5MPa, start percussive drilling.Weight strong rammer is forbidden in throwing and compacting process, block stamp stroke can not more than 1m, because what produce in block stamp compacting process hits power effect of shaking, make building stones extrude slippage in slurries, such slippage (displacement) process is also fill the process that building stones rearrange combination.After relatively large stone displacement is stable, slabstone and rubble are squeezed the effect of power, play and fill space and effect is leveled up to the support of block stone, appropriate straw serves mesh sheet effect (namely to the mutual restraining function of building stones), its filler in punch process can not be caved in, but control injected volume.If filled and weight strong rammer in compacting process, the stone of filling is easily made to fly upward in hole, well do not mix with slurries, form irregular body, void content is also large, easy collapse hole in percussive drilling process like this, void content is large, in concreting process, easy spillage, produces pile breaking phenomenon.
After hole inner stuffing intensity reaches 2.5MPa, perform mud by above-mentioned requirements, note match ratio and concentration.In stake holes, rubble and straw is dropped into during percussive drilling, too much unsuitable.Rubble fills hole wall duck eye in extrusion process.Form fibres fasten after straw is hit in hole wall, make mud off better effects if.
In step 3 in drilling construction process, when drilling construction is carried out to oblique rock, the block stamp of described percussive drill is replaced by reinforced block stamp.As shown in Figures 2 and 3, when carrying out drilling construction to oblique petrographic province territory, reinforced block stamp used comprises in vertically to the middle part column 1-1 laid and multiple being along the circumferential direction evenly laid in middle part column 1-1 lateral wall rushing tooth, described middle part column 1-1 is cylindrical, massive steel column, and the diameter of described middle part column 1-1 is 500mm ~ 800mm.Multiple described structure of rushing tooth is all identical with size, and multiple described tooth that rushes is the rail 1-2 that top is weldingly fixed on column 1-1 middle and upper part, middle part, and the laying of multiple described rail 1-2 is highly all identical.All be fastenedly connected by gusset 1-3 between multiple described rail 1-2 and middle part column 1-1.The bottom height of described middle part column 1-1 is not less than the bottom height of multiple described rail 1-2, and multiple described rail 1-2 is all in being tilted to laying, and the angle between multiple described rail 1-2 and middle part column 1-1 is 15 ° ~ 20 °.The vertical height H of described rail 1-2 is 1500mm ~ 2000mm.
In the present embodiment, multiple described rail 1-2 is all weldingly fixed on by gusset 1-3 on the lateral wall of middle part column 1-1, and the quantity of described gusset 1-3 is identical with the quantity of rail 1-2, and multiple described gusset 1-3 along the circumferential direction evenly lays.
Actually add man-hour, the quantity of multiple described rail 1-2 is 4 ~ 8.In the present embodiment, the quantity of multiple described rail 1-2 is 6.Specifically add man-hour, can according to actual needs, the quantity of multiple described rail 1-2 be adjusted accordingly.
In the present embodiment, described middle part column 1-1 is 45# round steel, and described gusset 1-3 is flat plate.The diameter of described middle part column 1-1 is 600mm.The specification of multiple described rail 1-2 is 50kg/m.
Actually add man-hour, the thickness of slab of described gusset 1-3 is 15mm ~ 25mm.The vertical spacing on column 1-1 top, described middle part and rail 1-2 top is 450mm ~ 550mm, and the vertical spacing of column 1-1 bottom, described middle part and rail 1-2 bottom is 220mm ~ 250mm.In the present embodiment, the thickness of slab of described gusset 1-3 is 20mm, and the vertical spacing on column 1-1 top, described middle part and rail 1-2 top is 500mm, and the vertical spacing of column 1-1 bottom, described middle part and rail 1-2 bottom is 240mm.The vertical height H of described rail 1-2 is 1740mm.
Actually add man-hour, can according to specific needs, the thickness of slab of the specification of the material of middle part column 1-1 and diameter, the vertical height H of described rail 1-2, multiple described rail 1-2, gusset 1-3, column 1-1 top, middle part and the vertical spacing on rail 1-2 top and the vertical spacing of column 1-1 bottom, middle part and rail 1-2 bottom are adjusted accordingly.
In drilled pile drilling construction process, when adopting the oblique rock of reinforced block stamp process as shown in Figures 2 and 3, because its crown is sharp, intensity is high, so result of use is good, when running into oblique rock in creeping into, adopt the slabstone identical with oblique rock rock mass strength and clay to backfill, backfill height 2m above oblique scar, then hit by oblique rock with the low rammer of this block stamp is close, once rectify a deviation not all right, repeatedly fill out to hit and pass through.If the slabstone that on-the-spot nothing is identical with rock mass strength, C30 or C40 concreting can be adopted to reach 2.5MPa requirement to intensity after oblique scar above about 1m, 24h hour, can via hole be impacted.
In step 3 in drilling construction process, when because passing through that the breakdown and another part rock stratum of a solution cavity cap rock layer part is not breakdown makes the block stamp of described percussive drill tilt to snap in breakdown solution cavity, observe the swing situation of percussive drill wire rope, when wire rope deflection drill through the side of boring time, block stamp is by card, illustrating that solution cavity punctures part is consistent with the position of departing from bore center axis of wire rope, reverse at wire rope offset direction of not breakdown part.Now, loosening blasting formula bit freezing treating apparatus process bit freezing as shown in Figure 4 need be adopted.As shown in Figure 4, described loosening blasting formula bit freezing treating apparatus comprises transfers bit freezing position and to the demolition set loosened by card drill hammer 2-3 to boring from top to bottom, described drill hammer 2-3 be lifted by wire rope and impact enter solution cavity after be stuck in block stamp in the cap rock layer of solution cavity, the stretching left side retrodeviated to boring of described wire rope.Described demolition set comprise dynamite container 2-1 and dynamite container 2-1 is vertical under put into and transfer rope 2-2 between block stamp and the cap rock layer of solution cavity, described dynamite container 2-1 is suspended in and transfers immediately below rope 2-2, described dynamite container 2-1 is fixed on the bottom of transferring rope 2-2, described dynamite container 2-1 and transfer the right side that rope 2-2 is all positioned at boring.Described dynamite container 2-1 comprises inside and the paper web of explosive and priming device is housed and is fixed on outside described paper web or the balancing weight be contained in described paper web, and described paper web is carry out by sealant tape the sealing drum that seals.
In the present embodiment, described balancing weight is the soil block being contained in described paper web inside bottom.
During practice of construction, described balancing weight also can adopt the counter weight construction of other type.
In the present embodiment, described priming device is electric cap, and described electric cap is connected with detonating power supply by wire, and the sidewall of described paper web or top have the through wires hole passed for described wire.
In the present embodiment, described paper web is cylindrical.Described dynamite container 2-1 colligation is fixed on the bottom of transferring rope 2-2.
During realtime construction, put upside down on part rock not breakdown in dynamite container 2-1 and feeding boring by transferring rope 2-2, then the wire rope of block stamp is strained, explosive initiation is made to produce the horizontal thrust of shock wave by electric cap afterwards, drill hammer 2-3 is moved or not breakdown rock is shaken, drill hammer 2-3 original position is proposed.Explosive payload in described dynamite container 2-1 is 0.8kg ~ 1kg, and treatment effect is fine.
The above; it is only preferred embodiment of the present invention; not the present invention is imposed any restrictions, every above embodiment is done according to the technology of the present invention essence any simple modification, change and equivalent structure change, all still belong in the protection domain of technical solution of the present invention.

Claims (8)

1. a pier drilled pile construction method in In Karst Areas For Bridge water, one or more solution cavity is passed through in institute's construction drill stake from top to bottom, it is characterized in that the method comprises the following steps:
Step one, surveying and locating: surveying and locating is carried out to the stake position of current institute construction drill stake;
Step 2, transfer and fix steel pile casting: according to the surveying setting-out result in step one, transfer steel pile casting and transferred steel pile casting is fixed; The length of described steel pile casting is greater than the depth of water of current institute's construction drill stake present position;
Step 3, to creep into: adopt percussive drill and crept into from top to bottom by the steel pile casting of transferring in step 2, until creep into projected depth, and adopting mud off in drilling process;
In drilling process, when creeping into when need pass through solution cavity from top to bottom, first adopting NE BY ENERGY TRANSFER METHOD to process needing to pass through solution cavity under current state, adopting described percussive drill to continue to creep into afterwards downwards;
Step 4, reinforcing cage are transferred and concreting;
Adopt described percussive drill to carry out from top to bottom in drilling process in step 3, when creep into need pass through solution cavity top 1m to distance time, reduce the impact stroke of described percussive drill immediately, puncture described need pass through solution cavity with short stroke, fast Frequency Patterns;
Adopt described percussive drill to carry out from top to bottom in drilling process in step 3, mud off adopt that the proportion of mud is 1.2 ~ 1.5, viscosity is 22s ~ 30s, sand factor≤4%, pH value are 8 ~ 10 and colloidity >=95%.
2. according to pier drilled pile construction method in a kind of In Karst Areas For Bridge water according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: adopt in step 3 NE BY ENERGY TRANSFER METHOD to need under current state to pass through solution cavity process time, by boring throwing filling mixture backfill solution cavity need be passed through; Described need pass through solution cavity be hole higher primary school in the small-sized solution cavity of 2m, the hole height medium-sized solution cavity that is 2m ~ 5m or hole tall and big in the large-scale solution cavity of 5m;
When the hole higher primary school need passing through solution cavity is in 2m, the filling mixture of institute's throwing is the first filling mixture be made up of slabstone and ball clay; In described first filling mixture the mass ratio of slabstone and ball clay be (0.8 ~ 1.2) ︰ 1, in described first filling mixture, the particle diameter of slabstone is 10cm ~ 15cm;
When the hole height that need pass through solution cavity has stream to mould shape filler for 2m ~ 5m and inside, carry out back-filling in layers by throwing second filling mixture in holing to institute in step 3 to solution cavity need be passed through and tamp; Each raising 1.5m ~ 2.5m, in described boring, cement mortar or the two slurries of cement-silicate are first injected before each raising, again to the second filling mixture described in throwing in described boring, all adopt described percussive drill repeated stock to tamp after each raising, and make injected cement mortar or the two slurries of cement-silicate enter in institute's throwing second filling mixture; Described second filling mixture is mixed by slabstone, rubble and ball clay, and in described second filling mixture, the mass ratio of slabstone, rubble and ball clay is (1.8 ~ 2.2) ︰ (0.8 ~ 1.2) ︰ 2; In described second filling mixture, the particle diameter of slabstone is 15cm ~ 25cm, and the particle diameter of rubble is at below 7cm;
When need pass through solution cavity and be hole height 2m ~ 5m and inner non-filler empty time, in boring filling concrete backfill solution cavity need be passed through;
When the hole need passing through solution cavity tall and big in 5m and inside mould shape and/or stream mould shape filler time, by boring throwing the 3rd filling mixture carry out back-filling in layers to solution cavity need be passed through and tamp; Each raising 1.5m ~ 2.5m, in described boring, cement mortar or the two slurries of cement-silicate are first injected before each raising, again to the 3rd filling mixture described in throwing in described boring, all adopt described percussive drill repeated stock to tamp after each raising, and make injected cement mortar or the two slurries of cement-silicate enter in institute's throwing the 3rd filling mixture; Described 3rd filling mixture is mixed by block stone, ball clay, slabstone and rubble or is mixed by block stone, slabstone, rubble and packed clay, in described 3rd filling mixture, the mass ratio of block stone, ball clay, slabstone and rubble is (1.8 ~ 2.2) ︰ (1.8 ~ 2.2) ︰ (0.8 ~ 1.2) ︰ 1, or in described 3rd filling mixture, the mass ratio of block stone, slabstone, rubble and packed clay is (1.8 ~ 2.2) ︰ (0.8 ~ 1.2) ︰ (0.8 ~ 1.2) ︰ 1; In described 3rd filling mixture, the diameter of block stone is 40cm, and the particle diameter of slabstone is 15cm ~ 25cm, and the particle diameter of rubble is 5cm.
3., according to pier drilled pile construction method in a kind of In Karst Areas For Bridge water described in claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that: creep in step 3 to projected depth, also need to carry out hole clearly to shaping boring; Actual carry out clearly hole time, first the block stamp of described percussive drill is increased to 20cm at the bottom of the shaping drilling hole of distance institute, again pump line is inserted at the bottom of the shaping drilling hole of institute, carries out the clear hole of reacting cycle by described pump line afterwards, until mud density is less than 1.1g/cm in the shaping drilling hole of institute 3.
4. according to pier drilled pile construction method in a kind of In Karst Areas For Bridge water according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: when the hole height that need pass through solution cavity for 2m ~ 5m and inside mould shape and/or stream mould shape filler time, also need to the cement mortar injected in boring or cement-silicate pair slurries be added with retarding agent; When the hole need passing through solution cavity tall and big in 5m and inside has stream to mould shape filler time, in described boring while the 3rd filling mixture described in throwing, also need to boring in throw in straw.
5. according to pier drilled pile construction method in a kind of In Karst Areas For Bridge water according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: when the hole higher primary school need passing through solution cavity is in 2m, to in step 3 in boring throwing filling mixture backfill solution cavity need be passed through, till being backfilled to and need passing through solution cavity over top 1m;
When need pass through solution cavity and be hole height 2m ~ 5m and inner non-filler empty time, in boring concrete described in filling backfill solution cavity need be passed through, solution cavity over top 1m need be passed through until be backfilled to;
When the hole height that need pass through solution cavity has stream to mould shape filler for 2m ~ 5m and inside, described second filling mixture is adopted to carry out back-filling in layers to solution cavity need be passed through and tamp, till being backfilled to and need passing through solution cavity over top 1m; All adopt described percussive drill repeated stock to tamp after each raising, and until backfill the second filling mixture internal void by the cement mortar injected in advance or the two slurry plugs of cement-silicate after stop impacting; Back-filling in layers complete and until backfill the second filling mixture and institute and inject after cement mortar or cement-silicate consolidation be integrated, then adopt percussive drill continuation to creep into downwards;
When the hole need passing through solution cavity tall and big in 5m and inside mould shape and/or stream mould shape filler time, adopt described 3rd filling mixture carry out back-filling in layers to solution cavity need be passed through and tamp, till being backfilled to and need passing through solution cavity over top 2m ~ 3m; All adopt described percussive drill repeated stock to tamp after each raising, and until backfill the 3rd filling mixture internal void by the cement mortar injected in advance or the two slurry plugs of cement-silicate after stop impacting; Back-filling in layers complete and until backfill the 3rd filling mixture and institute and inject after cement mortar or cement-silicate consolidation be integrated, then adopt percussive drill continuation to creep into downwards.
6. according to pier drilled pile construction method in a kind of In Karst Areas For Bridge water described in claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that: in step 3 in drilling construction process, when because passing through that the breakdown and another part rock stratum of a solution cavity cap rock layer part is not breakdown makes the block stamp of described percussive drill tilt to snap in breakdown solution cavity, adopt loosening blasting formula bit freezing treating apparatus process bit freezing; Described loosening blasting formula bit freezing treating apparatus comprises transfers bit freezing position and to the demolition set loosened by card drill hammer (2-3) to boring from top to bottom, described drill hammer (2-3) be lifted by wire rope and impact enter solution cavity after be stuck in block stamp in the cap rock layer of solution cavity, the stretching left side retrodeviated to boring of described wire rope; Described demolition set comprise dynamite container (2-1) and dynamite container (2-1) is vertical under put into and transfer rope (2-2) between block stamp and the cap rock layer of solution cavity, described dynamite container (2-1) is suspended in transfers immediately below rope (2-2), described dynamite container (2-1) is fixed on the bottom of transferring rope (2-2), described dynamite container (2-1) and transfer the right side that rope (2-2) is all positioned at boring; Described dynamite container (2-1) comprises inside and the paper web of explosive and priming device is housed and is fixed on outside described paper web or the balancing weight be contained in described paper web, and described paper web is carry out by sealant tape the sealing drum that seals.
7. according to pier drilled pile construction method in a kind of In Karst Areas For Bridge water according to claim 2, it is characterized in that: when need pass through solution cavity and be hole height 2m ~ 5m and inner non-filler empty time, described concrete is sheet stone concrete, and the slabstone that described stone concrete is 15cm ~ 25cm by C30 concrete and particle diameter mixes; Adopt described stone concrete to need pass through solution cavity backfill time, by concrete pumping equipment in step 3 boring in inject C30 concrete, and inject C30 concrete while, to in boring throwing particle diameter be the slabstone of 15cm ~ 25cm, and by described percussive drill repeated stock, injected C30 concrete to be mixed with institute throwing slabstone; After described slabstone concrete setting, then percussive drill is adopted to continue to creep into downwards.
8., according to pier drilled pile construction method in a kind of In Karst Areas For Bridge water described in claim 1 or 2, it is characterized in that: in step 3 in drilling construction process, when drilling construction is carried out to oblique rock, the block stamp of described percussive drill is replaced by reinforced block stamp; Described reinforced block stamp comprise in vertically to the middle part column (1-1) laid and multiple be along the circumferential direction evenly laid in the middle part of column (1-1) lateral wall rushes tooth, described middle part column (1-1) is cylindrical, massive steel column, and the diameter at described middle part column (1-1) is 500mm ~ 800mm; Multiple described structure of rushing tooth is all identical with size, and multiple described tooth that rushes is the rail (1-2) that top is weldingly fixed on column (1-1) middle and upper part, middle part, and the laying of multiple described rail (1-2) is highly all identical; All be fastenedly connected by gusset (1-3) between multiple described rail (1-2) and middle part column (1-1); The bottom height at described middle part column (1-1) is not less than the bottom height of multiple described rail (1-2), multiple described rail (1-2) is all in being tilted to laying, and the angle between multiple described rail (1-2) and middle part column (1-1) is 15 ° ~ 20 °; The vertical height H of described rail (1-2) is 1500mm ~ 2000mm.
CN201310468085.1A 2013-09-30 2013-09-30 Karst-area underwater bridge pier drilled pile construction method CN103469789B (en)

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CN106049467A (en) * 2016-08-02 2016-10-26 中铁六局集团有限公司 Method for treating slurry leakage of bored pile through percussion drill under complex geology
CN107701109A (en) * 2017-09-08 2018-02-16 浙江江南春建设集团有限公司 The sand foundation of stone flour containing block bored concrete pile drilling preprocess method
CN108086342A (en) * 2017-12-22 2018-05-29 中交第三航务工程局有限公司宁波分公司 The construction method of karst strata pile foundation
CN108149672A (en) * 2017-12-22 2018-06-12 中交第三航务工程局有限公司宁波分公司 The processing method of underground karst cavity
CN108049397A (en) * 2017-12-22 2018-05-18 中交第三航务工程局有限公司宁波分公司 The construction method of Karst Geological Landscape drilled pile
CN107938650A (en) * 2017-12-22 2018-04-20 中交第三航务工程局有限公司宁波分公司 The method for filling and treating of underground karst cavity
CN108444121B (en) * 2018-02-01 2019-11-15 湖北工业大学 Based on the rear construction method for boring buried tubular type pouring type energy pile heat-exchange system
CN109235426A (en) * 2018-09-30 2019-01-18 中交第三航务工程局有限公司 A kind of construction process for bored pile
CN109577197A (en) * 2018-11-05 2019-04-05 中铁二十二局集团轨道工程有限公司 A kind of construction method of thick sand bed Pile In Karst Area
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CN111021949A (en) * 2019-10-28 2020-04-17 中国一冶集团有限公司 Drilling method for improving impact drilling on sand layer and mud rock layer

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