CN103455005A - Controller redundancy and switching method - Google Patents

Controller redundancy and switching method Download PDF

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CN103455005A
CN103455005A CN2013104015764A CN201310401576A CN103455005A CN 103455005 A CN103455005 A CN 103455005A CN 2013104015764 A CN2013104015764 A CN 2013104015764A CN 201310401576 A CN201310401576 A CN 201310401576A CN 103455005 A CN103455005 A CN 103455005A
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controller
standby
state
fault
normal
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CN2013104015764A
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CN103455005B (en
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杨咏林
白雪玲
苏亚楠
奚志江
王晓峰
黄磊
焦邵华
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北京四方继保自动化股份有限公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P90/00Enabling technologies with a potential contribution to greenhouse gas [GHG] emissions mitigation
    • Y02P90/02Total factory control, e.g. smart factories, flexible manufacturing systems [FMS] or integrated manufacturing systems [IMS]

Abstract

The invention discloses controller redundancy and a switching method. The method is used for the redundancy switching logic between an industrial controller main machine and a spare machine. Calculation and output synchronization between the main machine and the spare machine is guaranteed, and rapid undisturbed switching is achieved when the main machine fails. A switching circuit is composed of two pairs of GPIO control lines and a 100M Ethernet. Through recognition of low level states, pulse signal states and high level states of IOs, the normal state or the failure state of the opposite end controller main machine or the spare machine is obtained, and the normal state or the failure state of the main machine or the spare machine of an opposite end controller can be obtained in a communication mode when the hardware switching circuit fails, so that arbitration and switching of the main machine and the spare machine are achieved. The design method of state machines is adopted, the operation states of the controller are summarized to be five states that the main machine is normal, the main machine fails, the spare machine is normal, the spare machine fails, and opposite ends are powered off, and the arbitration treatment of the main machine and the spare machine is achieved through matrixes of the state machines. The hardware switching circuit and redundant communication serve as connecting signals between redundancy devices, reliability of redundancy switching control is greatly enhanced, and stable operation of an industrial control system can be effectively guaranteed.

Description

A kind of controller redundancy and changing method
Technical field
The invention belongs to the industry automatic control technical field, be specifically related to controller master-slave redundancy and the changing method of scattered control system (DCS), be applicable to all kinds of industrial automation control systems with redundant configuration.
Background technology
In field of industrial automatic control; the cost that causes equipment downtime to cause due to communication failure and equipment failure is extremely expensive; hot backup redundancy is one of effective technology improved system reliability, as power supply redundancy, controller redundancy, network redundancy, server redundancy etc.
The hot backup redundancy of controller configures on all four two controllers by hardware and engineering and forms, and controller is realized switching and usually adopted in two ways: 1) by redundancy, switch hardware circuit; 2) realize quick switching by redundancy communication passage interactive information.Under the control of redundancy switch logic, a controller operates in duty (master controller), and another one operates in hot stand-by duty (preparation controller).At any one time, only have master controller to bear the work of reception remote control and remote regulating instruction, control output and procedural information issue, preparation controller real-time follow-up master controller executing state, when master controller generation communication failure or hardware fault, realize the undisturbed switching of active and standby controller, thereby improve the reliability of system.
In existing controller redundancy handoff technique, have three kinds of implementation application comparatively extensive: 1) ethernet channel between multiplexing active and standby controller and supervisory system (HMI) carries out the mutual of redundant information, the method networking and configuration are relatively simple, but the real-time of active and standby switching is lower, due to the HMI common network, make between active and standby machine a small amount of information alternately, can not the switching of strict guarantee unperturbed; 2) use special-purpose redundancy communication passage (as HDLC, 100 m ethernet etc.), take into account switching and synchronizing function simultaneously, the real-time of the active and standby switching of the method is lower, can not guarantee the unperturbed switching in quick logic task situation, on the other hand, when the redundancy communication channel failure, system will there will be the two main situations of controller, and on system, operation causes fatal impact; 3) use special-purpose active and standby commutation circuit, such as the synchronous interlock circuit based on the FPGA design etc., the external circuit design is more complicated, and failure rate is higher.
Summary of the invention
The implementation method that the purpose of this invention is to provide the active and standby machine redundancy of a kind of industrial control unit (ICU) and switching, when master controller communication failure or hardware fault, can be switched to reliably preparation controller, handoff procedure is to the system undisturbed, avoid causing control system out of service due to master controller communication failure or hardware fault, improve the reliability of control system.
The present invention is specifically by the following technical solutions: a kind of controller redundancy and changing method, it is characterized in that, and said method comprising the steps of:
(1) active and standby controller is used identical hardware, and by controller physical address area sub-controller A or controller B, odd address is controller A, and even address is controller B;
(2) between controller A and controller B, the hardware exchange circuit is set, described commutation circuit is exported by two pairs of GPIO(universal inputs) control line forms, all can be set to input or output type, each IO control line carries pull-up resistor, four IO of controller A set gradually as DO1, DI1, DO2, DI2, controller B is provided with four IO with the corresponding connection of above-mentioned four IO of controller A, is followed successively by DI1, DO1, DI2, DO2;
(3) controller A and/or controller B detect respectively DI1 and the DI2 level state of this controller in real time, low level, pulse signal, three kinds of states of high level detected on this controller DI1 and mean that respectively opposite terminal controller is preparation controller, master controller, off-position, on this controller DI2, detect low level, pulse signal, three kinds of states of high level mean respectively opposite terminal controller in fault, normal, three kinds of states cut off the power supply;
(4) between active and standby controller, the another Ethernet by a road special use carries out data communication, realize the mutual of information and data between active and standby controller, simultaneously also as the standby mode of hardware exchange circuit, bear the passage of active and standby arbitration when the hardware exchange fault, the information such as active/standby, normal/fault that the packets of information of data channel exchange contains the machine, program loop redundancy check crc value, logic engineering crc value, configuration crc value;
(5) activestandby state of the controller detected according to step (3) and step (4) and the fault of controller, normal and off-position, by the running status of controller A and/or controller B be summarized as that main frame is normal, hostdown, standby host are normal, standby host fault, five kinds of states of opposite end outage, correspondence 0,1,2,3,4 five kind of state encoding, the state encoding of controller A and controller B forms a two-dimensional state matrix;
(6) according to described two-dimensional state matrix, the method by state machine realizes active and standby arbitration process, and the switching of active and standby controller abides by the principle: the master controller of normal condition can not switch to the spare controller of malfunction; The master controller fault, and preparation controller is unavailable, i.e. when outage or fault, current master controller continues operation; The master controller fault, and preparation controller is normal, preparation controller is switched to master controller; When controller A and controller B show, it is preparation controller and all normally or all during fault, selection control A is master controller simultaneously; When controller A and controller B are master controller and all normally or all during fault, the controller that is introduced into current master controller state continues as master controller simultaneously, another switches to preparation controller.
(7) when this controller is master controller, the pulse signal of the DO1 of this controller output fixed frequency, when this controller is preparation controller, the DO1 output low level of this controller; When this controller normal operation, the pulse signal of the DO2 of this controller output fixed frequency, during this controller failure, the DO2 output low level of this controller.
The present invention also further includes but not limited to following optimal technical scheme:
IO mouth corresponding between controller A and controller B links together by backboard or external cabling respectively.Between controller A and controller B, interconnected ethernet communication passage links together by backboard or straight-through network cables or optical fiber.
The active and standby controller switch logic adopts the method for designing of state machine, by the running status of controller be summarized as that main frame is normal, hostdown, standby host are normal, standby host fault, five kinds of states of opposite end outage, active and standby machine state forms a two-dimensional state matrix, by function of state, realizes active and standby arbitration process.The alarm grade of active and standby switching is divided into normally, alarm, three kinds of ranks of fault, and the operation of not impact of alarm status system, be considered as normal condition, send supervisory system on only; Normal condition or alarm status master controller can not automatically switch to the malfunction spare controller, and when the master controller fault, and during preparation controller unavailable (outage or fault), current master controller continues operation; When controller AB is main and all normally or all during fault, the controller that is introduced into current state is master controller simultaneously; When controller AB is standby and all normally or all during fault, controller A is master controller simultaneously;
Compared with prior art, advantage of the present invention is:
1, the commutation circuit of design specialized, while making hostdown, can reach hundred Microsecond grades switching time, for control accuracy, requires very high redundant system also can meet the demands.Commutation circuit only consists of two pairs of GPIO control lines, and the redundant manipulator system of installing for rack, can be connected by controller back plate, for separating the redundant manipulator system of installing, can be connected by external cabling, has great dirigibility.
2, adopt standby as commutation circuit of redundancy communication passage, also can guarantee the normal operation of redundant system when hardware fault, can not cause two main situations to occur, simultaneously, it is far away that the method also is applicable to the active and standby controller mounting distance, is not suitable for using in the environment of hardware exchange; Redundant channel adopts the ethernet physical layer protocol communication, and packet receives and sends without ICP/IP protocol and resolves, and has reduced greatly the interference of station level communication to redundancy communication, effectively guarantees the reliability of redundancy communication between active and standby machine.
The accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the redundancy switching circuit schematic diagram;
Fig. 2 is active and standby arbitrate state matrix;
Fig. 3 is controller redundancy and switching flow schematic diagram.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with accompanying drawing, technical scheme of the present invention is described in further detail.
As shown in Figure 3, the invention discloses a kind of controller redundancy and changing method, said method comprising the steps of:
Step 1: active and standby controller is used identical hardware, and by controller physical address area sub-controller A or controller B, odd address is controller A, and even address is controller B.For the rack mounting structure, physical address is consistent with the groove position, for split type mounting structure, according to toggle switch, physical address is set.
Step 2: between controller A and controller B, commutation circuit is set, as shown in Figure 1, active and standby controller is realized the hardware exchange circuit by four universal input output GPIO and corresponding peripheral circuit, and each IO carries pull-up resistor, and GPIO is connected by backboard or outside hardwire.Four universal input output GPIO all can be set to input or output type, four IO of controller A set gradually as DO1, DI1, DO2, DI2, controller B is provided with four IO with the corresponding connection of above-mentioned four IO of controller A, is followed successively by DI1, DO1, DI2, DO2.
When controller A and controller B startup, 4 the GPIO travel directions used to commutation circuit according to AB machine state arrange, if the machine is controller A, 4 GPIO are initialized as to DO, DI, DO, DI successively, if the machine is controller B, 4 IO are initialized as to DI, DO, DI, DO successively.
Step 3: controller A and/or controller B detect respectively DI1 and the DI2 level state of this controller in real time, low level, pulse signal, three kinds of states of high level detected on this controller DI1 and mean that respectively opposite terminal controller is preparation controller, master controller, off-position, on this controller DI2, detect low level, pulse signal, three kinds of states of high level mean respectively opposite terminal controller in fault, normal, three kinds of states cut off the power supply;
Controller reads DI1 and DI2 level state storage in 1 millisecond of interrupt service routine, with the level value of first three record, is combined, and generates the sequence of one group of continuous 4 level sampling, such as 1010,0000,1111,0101,1100 etc.If the value of DI1 sequence of levels is 1111, be judged to the DI1 off-position, if the DI1 sequence of levels is 0000, sentencing opposite terminal controller is standby host, if the value of DI1 sequence of levels is 1010 or 0101, being judged to opposite terminal controller is main frame, if the DI1 sequence of levels is other value, be judged to transition state, do not process; If the value of DI2 sequence of levels is 1111, be judged to the DI2 off-position, if the DI2 sequence of levels is 0000, sentence opposite terminal controller in malfunction, if the value of DI2 sequence of levels is 1010 or 0101, be judged to the opposite terminal controller normal operation, if the DI2 sequence of levels is other value, be judged to transition state, do not process.
When DI1 and DI2 judgement opposite terminal controller outage during simultaneously for off-position, when DI1 or D2 only have one to be judged to be the hardware exchange fault during in off-position.
Step 4: between active and standby controller, the another Ethernet by a road special use carries out data communication, as shown in Figure 1, this communication port is realized the mutual of information and data between active and standby controller, by physical layer protocol, undertaken, without the parsing of carrying out ICP/IP protocol, can greatly improve communication efficiency and reliability.
When the hardware exchange circuit working is normal, redundant data paths is only carried out the comparison of program crc value, logic engineering crc value, configuration crc value, and the controller main frame is synchronous to the service data of controller standby host, when the hardware exchange fault, controller generates the state encoding of opposite terminal controller according to the active/standby sign of opposite terminal controller received and normal/Reflector.
Step 5: if opposite terminal controller is main frame and normal operation, it is 0 that its state encoding is set, if opposite terminal controller is main frame and fault, it is 1 that its state encoding is set, if opposite terminal controller is standby host and normal operation, it is 2 that its state encoding is set, if opposite terminal controller is standby host and fault, it is 3 that its state encoding is set, if opposite terminal controller is processed off-position, it is 4 that its state encoding is set.
Step 6: the switch logic of active and standby controller is according to Figure 2 shows that active and standby arbitration state machine matrix realization.By the state encoding of local controller and opposite terminal controller 0,1,2,3,4, design the two-dimensional matrix of 5 * 5, the row subscript means the local state coding, and the row subscript means the opposite end state encoding, such as [0] [1] means that the machine is main frame, working properly, opposite end is standby host, working properly.The function pointer of the element of two-dimensional matrix for according to 25 kinds of combinations, carrying out active and standby arbitration carries out active and standby arbitration in processing function, and result is for liter is main, it is standby to fall, maintain current state.Resolving strategy is: the master controller of normal condition can not switch to the spare controller of malfunction; The master controller fault, and during preparation controller unavailable (outage or fault), current master controller continues operation; When controller AB is standby and all normally or all during fault, controller A is main frame simultaneously.According to resolving strategy, sum up when changing appears in controller state, need situation to be processed to have 10, define accordingly 10 processing functions as follows: hostOK_HostOK_proc (), hostErr_HostOK_proc (), hostErr_HostErr_proc (), hostErr_SlaveOK_proc (), slaveOK_HostErr_proc (), slaveOK_SlaveOK_proc (), slaveOK_SlaveErr_proc (), slaveOK_Null_proc (), slaveErr_SlaveErr_proc (), slaveErr_Null_proc ().Define one 2 dimension array of function pointer statusMatrix[5] [5], the initial value using above-mentioned 10 function addresses as array element is assigned to respectively [0] [0], [1] [0], [1] [1], [1] [2], [2] [1], [2] [2], [2] [3], [2] [4], [3] [3], [3] [4].In program process, according to the state encoding direct index of the machine and standby host, to corresponding function, processed.Take slaveOK_Null_proc () as example, when the machine is standby host and normal, opposite end outage, local state is encoded to 2, the opposite end state encoding is 4, finding statusMatrix[2 in state matrix] [4] function of pointing to is slaveOK_Null_proc (), this function is revised as main frame by local state in processing.
Step 7: when this controller is master controller, the pulse signal of the DO1 of this controller output fixed frequency, when this controller is preparation controller, the DO1 output low level of this controller; When this controller normal operation, the pulse signal of the DO2 of this controller output fixed frequency, during this controller failure, the DO2 output low level of this controller.
When this controller is master controller, once, the output cycle is 2 milliseconds to every millisecond of upset of the DO1 of this controller, the square wave of dutycycle 50%, and when this controller is preparation controller, the DO1 output low level; When this controller normal operation, once, the output cycle is 2 milliseconds to every millisecond of upset of DO2, the square wave of dutycycle 50%, and when this controller failure, the DO2 output low level.
Above-described embodiment of the present invention does not form limiting the scope of the invention.Any any improvement based on doing within the spirit and principles in the present invention etc., within all should being included in claim protection domain of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. a controller redundancy and changing method, is characterized in that, said method comprising the steps of:
(1) active and standby controller is used identical hardware, and by controller physical address area sub-controller A or controller B, odd address is controller A, and even address is controller B;
(2) between controller A and controller B, the hardware exchange circuit is set, described commutation circuit is exported by two pairs of GPIO(universal inputs) control line forms, all can be set to input or output type, each IO control line carries pull-up resistor, four IO of controller A set gradually as DO1, DI1, DO2, DI2, controller B is provided with four IO with the corresponding connection of above-mentioned four IO of controller A, is followed successively by DI1, DO1, DI2, DO2;
(3) controller A and/or controller B detect respectively DI1 and the DI2 level state of this controller in real time, low level, pulse signal, three kinds of states of high level detected on this controller DI1 and mean that respectively opposite terminal controller is preparation controller, master controller, off-position, on this controller DI2, detect low level, pulse signal, three kinds of states of high level mean respectively opposite terminal controller in fault, normal, three kinds of states cut off the power supply;
(4) between active and standby controller, the another Ethernet by a road special use carries out data communication, realize the mutual of information and data between active and standby controller, simultaneously also as the standby mode of hardware exchange circuit, bear the passage of active and standby arbitration when the hardware exchange fault, the information such as active/standby, normal/fault that the packets of information of data channel exchange contains the machine, program loop redundancy check crc value, logic engineering crc value, configuration crc value;
(5) activestandby state of the controller detected according to step (3) and step (4) and the fault of controller, normal and off-position, by the running status of controller A and/or controller B be summarized as that main frame is normal, hostdown, standby host are normal, standby host fault, five kinds of states of opposite end outage, correspondence 0,1,2,3,4 five kind of state encoding, the state encoding of controller A and controller B forms a two-dimensional state matrix.
(6) by described two-dimensional state matrix, the method by state machine realizes active and standby arbitration process, and the switching of active and standby controller abides by the principle: the master controller of normal condition can not switch to the spare controller of malfunction; The master controller fault, and preparation controller is unavailable, i.e. when outage or fault, current master controller continues operation; The master controller fault, and preparation controller is normal, preparation controller is switched to master controller; When controller A and controller B show, it is preparation controller and all normally or all during fault, selection control A is master controller simultaneously; When controller A and controller B are master controller and all normally or all during fault, the controller that is introduced into current master controller state continues as master controller simultaneously, another switches to preparation controller.
(7) when this controller is master controller, the pulse signal of the DO1 of this controller output fixed frequency, when this controller is preparation controller, the DO1 output low level of this controller; When this controller normal operation, the pulse signal of the DO2 of this controller output fixed frequency, during this controller failure, the DO2 output low level of this controller.
2. controller redundancy according to claim 1 and changing method is characterized in that:
In described step (2), also further comprise: when controller A and controller B startup, 4 the GPIO travel directions used to commutation circuit according to AB machine state arrange, if the machine is controller A, 4 GPIO are initialized as to DO, DI, DO, DI successively, if the machine is controller B, 4 IO are initialized as to DI, DO, DI, DO successively.
3. controller redundancy according to claim 1 and changing method is characterized in that:
In step (2), IO corresponding between controller A and controller B links together by backboard or external cabling.
4. controller redundancy according to claim 1 and changing method is characterized in that:
In step (3), when DI1 and DI2 judgement opposite terminal controller outage during simultaneously for off-position, when DI1 or D2 only have one to be judged to be the hardware exchange fault during in off-position.
5. controller redundancy according to claim 1 and changing method is characterized in that:
In step (4), Ethernet is undertaken by physical layer protocol, without the parsing of carrying out ICP/IP protocol.
6. controller redundancy according to claim 1 and changing method is characterized in that:
In step (4), when the hardware exchange circuit working is normal, redundant data paths is only carried out the comparison of program crc value, logic engineering crc value, configuration crc value, and the controller main frame is synchronous to the service data of controller standby host, when the hardware exchange fault, controller generates the state encoding of opposite terminal controller according to the active/standby sign of opposite terminal controller received and normal/Reflector, form a two-dimensional state matrix with the state encoding of self, the method by state machine realizes active and standby arbitration process.
7. controller redundancy according to claim 1 and changing method is characterized in that:
In step (5), in state matrix, the row subscript means the local state coding, the row subscript means the opposite end state encoding, the function pointer of entry of a matrix element for according to 25 kinds of combinations, carrying out active and standby arbitration, carry out active and standby arbitration in the processing function of state machine, result is for being upgraded to main frame, reducing to standby host, maintaining current state.
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