A kind of sower of the coarse cereals for no-tillage seeding
The present invention relates to a kind of agricultural machinery, refer in particular to the unit of the associating for the nonirrigated farmland drought-resistant seeding of farm work.
Implement conservation tillage and there is protecting the fields, reduce airborne dust, retain and conserve soil moisture, resisting drought saving water, culture fertility, the increase soil organic matter; promote to return crop stocks to the field utilization; reduce greenhouse gas emission; the multiple efficacies such as improve per unit area yield, reduce costs, increase income; be that an economic benefit and ecological benefits are synchronous, the revolutionary agro-farming measure of peasant and national doulbe-sides' victory, there is significant economy, ecology and social benefit.The outfitting tool no-tillage seeding machine of conservation tillage mode is the key that realizes this technology.
No-tillage seeding machine is at the facility without ploughing whole stub land upper seeding wheel.No-tillage seeding machine is along with various countries grow up to the attention of no tillage farming.It during operation, can reach and cut off the stubble cover layer on stub land, eases out a seeding belt suitable with crop requirement sowing depth; Row, spacing in the rows and the degree of depth by the crop requirement are sown into seed, and guarantee the good contact of seed and soil, appropriate compacting soil; Increase some workpiece, can once complete as fertilising, weed killer herbicide and agrochemical multi-mode operation.As U.S.'s no-tillage seeding machine mostly have large-scale, at a high speed, the characteristics such as wide cut, integration of operation, and have parts such as multiple seeding, trench digging, suppression, to meet the requirement of Different Crop and soil condition, the amount of executing adjusting range is large, precision is high for kind and fertile broadcasting, the critical component highly versatile, complete machine adapts to wide.Press the ground number of times for reducing machine, the sowing function is carried out the operations such as soil cultivation, fertilising, sowing, spray medicine simultaneously.
At present, the Chinese large-sized no-tillage seeding machine is mostly from external introduction.But agriculture requirement, soil regime etc. all there are differences both at home and abroad, there is certain inadaptability in application.For example, the JD1590 type wheat no-tillage planter that U.S. John deer company produces, adopted single-disc colter, and the breaking ability is strong, but plough can only seed manure is mixed executes, and fertilizing amount is little, can not meet the requirement that China's fertilizing amount is large.In addition, external large-scale facility manufacturing cost is high, expensive, far beyond the purchasing power of Chinese farmers, is not suitable for a large amount of imports and applies, and affects the enforcement of China peasant household and middle-size and small-size farm protective farming technique.
In recent years, in order to meet the requirement of protective farming technique, China designs and develops out multiple light-duty no-tillage seeding machine.These no-tillage seeding machines are compared with general sower, and its design feature is mainly on ditching device, in order to adapt to the surface conditions of stubble-field, can reach and cut off the stubble cover layer, and the commonly used batch plough of cutting has 3 types: (1) ripple cutting disc.Its peripheral ripple cutting knife has the good batch penetration performance of cutting.But its Tu Gou outputed is wider, unavoidable disturbed soil; (2) chisel teeth or narrow shovel formula plough, simple in structure, penetration performance is good, but easily stops up; (3) narrow rotation ridge buster.Have preferably loosen the soil, the hack performance, but need be driven by power take-off complex structure.So, deficiency due to these main working parts, while causing current no-tillage seeding machine to exist operation, can not directly cut off straw root stubble, effectively prevent winding and the obstruction of straw to facility, and, output kind of ditch many to land disturbance than wide, earthing makes the earth's surface out-of-flatness and can not broadcast the problems such as granule grass seed.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention is to provide a kind of sower of the coarse cereals for no-tillage seeding of farm work.
Technical problem of the present invention is solved by following scheme: a kind of sower of the coarse cereals for no-tillage seeding comprises hanger bracket, land wheel, breaking plough, suppression mechanism, sowing depth adjustable plate, grain tube, press wheel pressure regulating mechanism, frame, seeding unit, seed-fertilizer box, row fat sprocket, fertilizer apparatus, regulating wheel, fertilizer delivering pipe, transmission system, amount of seed metering governor motion, defertilizing amount governor motion, the earth wheel sprocket, little ground wheel sprocket, large seeding sprocket wheel, float kind sprocket wheel;
Described breaking plough is arranged on the front and back crossbeam of frame by male steel sleeve-board and bolt and nut, and described fertilizer delivering pipe is welded on the back of described breaking plough; The quantity of described breaking plough can be adjusted, and its arrangement can be after front 1 after 2 or front 32, and straggly being arranged on the crossbeam of two of frame front and back ends, to adapt to different sowing demands;
Described grain tube is connected to the fertilizer delivering pipe rear end by screw bolt and nut, can, by adjusting screw bolt and nut, change distance and sowing depth between fertilizer, kind, to realize the purpose of seed manure layer distributing;
Described suppression mechanism is fixed on the frame rear end crossbeam, and aligns arrangement with breaking plough noted earlier, and press wheel adopts the hollow zero-pressure rubber wheel with disc unshakable in one's determination;
Described seeding unit adopts external feed and two kinds of forms of cell-seed distributor, and the regulating handle of the amount of seed metering governor motion by mobile seed-fertilizer box right side can exchange nest eye and external recessing, to adapt to the requirement of broadcasting different seeds;
Described transmission system is comprised of land wheel, the earth wheel sprocket, little ground wheel sprocket, large seeding sprocket wheel, float kind sprocket wheel, driving chain.Its effect is that power is passed to respectively to seeding unit and fertilizer apparatus, and the earth wheel sprocket coaxially is connected with land wheel with little ground wheel sprocket, and large seeding sprocket wheel coaxially is connected with the seeding unit axle with float kind sprocket wheel.During sowing, can adjust transmission adopted the earth wheel sprocket and the combination of float kind sprocket wheel or little ground wheel sprocket and large seeding sprocket wheel combination, to obtain different speed of drilling.
Wherein also comprise the stepped-wheel type gearbox, it is arranged between ground wheel sprocket and seeding sprocket wheel, by adjusting described stepped-wheel type gearbox, can obtain different speed of drilling, reaches the semi-accuracy seeding requirement.
Wherein said breaking plough is wedge angle wing shovel, and spear cutting edge angle is 38 °, and the spear penetrating angle is 52 °.
Wherein said breaking plough both sides shovels wing width is 33mm, guarantees that plough outputs narrow kind ditch (about 35-40mm), by regulating the relative altitude of breaking plough and land wheel, can regulate breaking plough working depth, and its adjustable range is 80～100mm.
Wherein, by adjusting up and down the position of described breaking plough spade at the convex cover, can regulate fertilization depth, adjustable range is between 80～100mm.
Before and after wherein said frame, the crossbeam spacing arranges, and before and after guaranteeing, breaking plough spacing is 600mm; Described ground wheel diameter is 515mm.Therefore, realize wide spacing high-clearance, the straw winding agriculture requirement of hilling not while meeting the facility operation.
Wherein said grain tube is leg of a boot formula.
The invention has the advantages that: (1) implement structure is simple, easy and simple to handle.The ground wheel diameter is 515mm, makes the frame road clearance large.The front and rear beam spacing strengthens (600mm), can effectively prevent that the straw stubble is wound around obstruction, can not produce and twine grass and hilling phenomenon, and facility are good by performance.(2) adopt wedge angle wing shovel type stubble-cutting plough, penetrating angle is 52 °, and penetration performance is good; Be 8 ° of inclination angles at the bottom of spear and furrow, spear is downward, improves the plough penetration performance, makes the facility tractive resistance little; Spear cutting edge angle is 38 °, sharp stubble and the hard straw of being convenient to cut off earth's surface of cutting edge; Plough two flank shovel width are 33mm only, can output narrow ditch as kind of a bed, and little to soil disturbance, time native ability is strong.(3) this sower a tractor serves several purposes.After changing corresponding seeding unit, but both seeding corns can be sowed the coarse cereals such as wheat, millet again.After also the stepped-wheel type gearbox can being set up in transmission system, also can realize semi-accuracy seeding, for sowing the granule grass seed, for grassland rejuvenation renewal, the after-culture etc. of loosening the soil.As while sowing clover, the every mu of amount of broadcasting can be controlled in 0.5kg/ mu left and right, improves the availability of facility.(4) can realize that seed manure is with the upper and lower layered sowing of ditch.Adopt boots formula discharging tube, seed can be stablized and entered exactly in kind of bed, and form wider loose seedling band, be convenient to seed and absorb soil nutrient and growth.(5) press wheel adopts the hollow zero-pressure rubber wheel with disc unshakable in one's determination, and it is arranged on by support on the crossbeam of frame back, and the press wheel of individual profiling has the double effects of suppression of soil and depth stop.Both can guarantee normal rotation, and can make again seedling band earthing smooth good.(6) under the traction of tractor, sower can disposablely complete all sowing technique of trench digging, layer by layer manuring sowing, suppression, reduces input cost, simplifies flow chart.Apply suitable specialist, medium and small agriculture and animal husbandry field.
The accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the sower of the coarse cereals for no-tillage seeding front view of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is the sower of the coarse cereals for no-tillage seeding vertical view of the present invention;
Fig. 3 a is that no-tillage seeding machine breaking plough master of the present invention looks schematic diagram;
Fig. 3 b is no-tillage seeding machine breaking plough schematic top plan view of the present invention;
Fig. 4 is the drive system of seeder of the coarse cereals for no-tillage seeding schematic diagram of the present invention.
Description of reference numerals:
Hanger bracket 1, land wheel 2, breaking plough 3, suppression mechanism 4, sowing depth adjustable plate 5, grain tube 6, press wheel pressure regulating mechanism 7, frame 8, seeding unit 9, seed-fertilizer box 10, row fat sprocket 11, fertilizer apparatus 12, regulating wheel 13, fertilizer delivering pipe 14, transmission system 15, amount of seed metering governor motion 16, defertilizing amount governor motion 17, the earth wheel sprocket 18, little ground wheel sprocket 19, large seeding sprocket wheel 20, float kind sprocket wheel 21, stepped-wheel type gearbox 22.
As shown in Figure 1, 2, the sower of the coarse cereals for no-tillage seeding of the present invention is comprised of parts such as hanger bracket 1, land wheel 2, breaking plough 3, suppression mechanism 4, sowing depth adjustable plate 5, grain tube 6, press wheel pressure regulating mechanism 7, frame 8, seeding unit 9, seed-fertilizer box 10, row fat sprocket 11, fertilizer apparatus 12, regulating wheel 13, fertilizer delivering pipe 14, transmission system 15, amount of seed metering governor motion 16, defertilizing amount governor motion 17, the earth wheel sprocket 18, little ground wheel sprocket 19, large seeding sprocket wheel 20, float kind sprocket wheel 21, stepped-wheel type gearboxes 22.
Described breaking plough 3 is arranged on the front and back crossbeam of frame 8 by convex steel bushing and bolt and nut.Its effect is to cut off the stubble on earth's surface and hard straw, and outputs narrow ditch as kind of a bed, and then sows seed and fertilizer by the grain tube 6 and the fertilizer delivering pipe 14 that are contained in described breaking plough 3 back.As shown in Figure 3, described breaking plough 3 is designed to wedge angle wing shovel.Spear cutting edge angle is 38 °, and sharp stubble and the hard straw of being convenient to cut off earth's surface of cutting edge, guarantee not hilling of facility straw winding; The spear penetrating angle is designed to 52 °, and spear is downward, is convenient to bury, and reduces the facility tractive resistance; Described breaking plough 3 both sides shovel wing width are 33mm, guarantee that plough outputs narrow kind ditch (about 35-40mm), and disturbed soil, do not make to broadcast rear ground straw coverage rate and be greater than 30%.By regulating the relative altitude of breaking plough 3 and land wheel 2, can regulate breaking plough 3 working depth, its adjustable range is 80～100mm.By the requirement of sowing crop, also capable of regulating plough 3 quantity.During as seeding corn, breaking plough 3 is arranged as after front 12, straggly being arranged on the crossbeam of two of 2 front and back ends of frame, and suppression mechanism 4 correspondences are arranged on the rear end floor beam of frame 8.When the coarse cereals such as sowing wheat, millet, rotten broomcorn millet, flax, plough 3 is arranged as front 3 rear 2, straggly being arranged on the crossbeam of two of 2 front and back ends of frame, increase the spacing between adjacent plough 3 on same crossbeam, can improve facility by performance, suppression mechanism 4 correspondences are arranged on the rear end floor beam of frame 8.By adjusting up and down breaking plough 3 spades in the position of convex steel bushing, get final product the regulated fertilization degree of depth, adjustable range is between 80～100mm.
The spade of described breaking plough 3 be by manganese steel through forging and molding, Rigidity and strength is high.Wear-resistant, easy fracture not.
Described fertilizer delivering pipe 14 is welded on described plough 3 side wing rear ends, and its effect is to carry sowing fertilizers.Described grain tube 14 use screw bolt and nut are connected to the rear end of grain tube 6.In order to realize the seed manure layered sowing, first fertilising, rear sowing, the purpose that seed manure vertically gives, fertile, kind vertical interval is about 30～50mm.Can, by adjusting screw bolt and nut, change the distance between fertilizer, kind.
Described grain tube 6 is connected to fertilizer delivering pipe 14 rear ends by screw bolt and nut, and the sowing depth of sower is to realize with the position of two connecting plates of fertilizer delivering pipe 14 by adjusting grain tube 6, and the sowing depth adjustable range is between 30～50mm.
Described frame 8 front and back crossbeam spacings are wider, and before and after making, breaking plough 3 spacings can reach 600mm.Because described land wheel 2 diameters are larger, described frame 8 terrain clearances have been raised.While guaranteeing the facility operation, can not produce and twine grass and hilling phenomenon.
Described suppression mechanism 4 is fixed on the rear end floor beam of frame 8, and aligns arrangement with breaking plough 3 noted earlier.Press wheel is arranged on travel(l)ing rest, and travel(l)ing rest is connected with the fixed support hinge joint, makes to suppress mechanism 4 and has the individual profiling effect.Press wheel adopts the hollow zero-pressure rubber wheel with disc unshakable in one's determination, and the press wheel of individual profiling has the double effects of suppression of soil and depth stop.Its diameter is designed to 350mm, and wide 60mm both can guarantee normal rotation, can make again seedling band earthing smooth good.
Described pressure regulating mechanism 7 is connected with travel(l)ing rest with described suppression mechanism fixed support respectively, and its effect is earthing and the pressure of restriction press wheel.Its earthing pressure can be realized by the compression spring of regulating on pressure regulating mechanism 7, thereby adapt to the compacting to different soils.
Described fertilizer apparatus 12 adopts the outer groove-wheel fertilizer mechanism.Defertilizing amount can be adjusted by the defertilizing amount regulating handle 17 in seed-fertilizer box 10 left sides.The active section length of outer groove-wheel in fertilizer apparatus 12 is controlled the defertilizing amount size, and the interior outer groove-wheel active section of fertilizer apparatus 12 is longer, and defertilizing amount is larger, otherwise less.
Described seeding unit 9 adopts external recessing and two kinds of forms of cell-seed distributor.The regulating handle of amount of seed metering governor motion 16 that can be by moving left and right seed-fertilizer box 10 both sides can exchange nest eye and external recessing.Adopt the external recessing sowing when sowing wheat coarse cereals, change little ground of transmission adopted wheel sprocket 18,19 combinations of large seeding sprocket wheel simultaneously, to reduce the rotating speed of seed wheel, improve seeding accuracy.When seeding corn, adopt cell-seed distributor, change transmission adopted the earth wheel sprocket 19 and 20 combinations of float kind sprocket wheel simultaneously.
Described transmission system 15 is comprised of land wheel 2, the earth wheel sprocket 19, little ground wheel sprocket 18, large seeding sprocket wheel 19, float kind sprocket wheel 20, driving chain and stepped-wheel type gearbox 22.Its effect is that power is passed to respectively to seeding unit 9 and fertilizer apparatus 12, so that discharge is planted quantitatively, fertilizer.The earth wheel sprocket 19 coaxially is connected with land wheel 2 with little ground wheel sprocket 18, and large seeding sprocket wheel 21 coaxially is connected with seeding unit 9 axles with float kind sprocket wheel 20.When seeding corn, change transmission adopted the earth wheel sprocket 19 and 18 combinations of float kind sprocket wheel.When the sowing coarse cereals, adopt little ground wheel sprocket 18 and 21 combinations of large seeding sprocket wheel, in order to reduce the rotating speed of seed wheel, improve seeding accuracy.Or stepped-wheel type gearbox 22 is installed between ground wheel sprocket and seeding sprocket wheel, as shown in Figure 4, it is arranged between ground wheel sprocket and seeding sprocket wheel, realize that various crop concentrates speed change, make sower become half-precision seeding machine, both can suitablely broadcast sowing various coarse cereals seeds, also can broadcast sowing the granule grass seed, as clover etc.