CN103427354A - Early determination method for substation grounding grid - Google Patents

Early determination method for substation grounding grid Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103427354A
CN103427354A CN2013103588951A CN201310358895A CN103427354A CN 103427354 A CN103427354 A CN 103427354A CN 2013103588951 A CN2013103588951 A CN 2013103588951A CN 201310358895 A CN201310358895 A CN 201310358895A CN 103427354 A CN103427354 A CN 103427354A
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China
Prior art keywords
earth
ground
short circuit
grounding
electric current
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CN2013103588951A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
王楠
梁伟
毛华
李盛伟
程雅楠
王兆峰
冯殿珍
马力
耿芳
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State Grid Corp of China SGCC
State Grid Tianjin Electric Power Co Ltd
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State Grid Corp of China SGCC
State Grid Tianjin Electric Power Co Ltd
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Priority to CN2013103588951A priority Critical patent/CN103427354A/en
Publication of CN103427354A publication Critical patent/CN103427354A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Abstract

The invention relates to an early determination method for a substation grounding grid. The method includes the steps: acquiring total fault current and current divider coefficient of the grounding grid and calculating buried short-circuit current; acquiring the size of a station zone of a substation and calculating the total area of the station zone; calculating the minimum section of a grounding body and selecting the shape and the section of the grounding body; calculating and checking the grounding resistance of the grounding body; calculating and checking maximum contact potential and step voltage of the station zone; performing economic and technical comparison on the grounding body meeting requirements to determine the optimal grounding grid design scheme; generating a grounding grid design calculation sheet, an engineering quantity list and an estimation sheet or approximate estimation sheet. The optimal grounding grid design scheme can be early determined, the method effectively solves the problem that a detailed engineering structure and use materials cannot be accurately determined at researchable and preliminary design stages, and an early design method is provided for the substation grounding grid engineering.

Description

A kind of early stage definite method of substation grounding web frame
Technical field
The invention belongs to a kind of early stage definite method of the Substation Design technical field of electric power system, particularly substation grounding web frame.
Background technology
In order to work and security needs, some current-carrying part of the electric device in electric power system or building, facility is connected with earth electrode through earth connection, Here it is ground connection.Earth resistance is one of important technology index characterized the earthing device electric property, refer to when the electric current I voltage U on electrode and ratio of electric current I when grounding electrode flows into the earth, it comprises the contact resistance of resistance, earth electrode and soil of resistance, earth electrode body of ground lead and the electrode electric resistance of soil to infinite point.
Because the ground network of transformer station is being born the fault current of releasing, balanced ground potential and the task of stable reference current potential is provided, therefore its earth resistance must meet following requirement, when releasing fault current, the rising of ground potential can not surpass the limit value that the equipment operation allows, and can not form electrical impact to the person simultaneously.Therefore, in the design of grounding grid of substation process, should be in strict accordance with concerned countries, industry standard requirement, the thermally-stabilised etc. of earth resistance, Maximum Contact voltage, step voltage, conductor calculated and verification to choose reasonable earth electrode material and cross section.
In recent years, be accompanied by the development of new technology, new technology, power equipment reliability improves constantly, the electric equipment Main connection form is increasingly simple, meanwhile, along with the continuous maturation of intelligent substation technology, various power equipments are the future development of, device miniaturization integrated towards function also.These technical progress provide good condition for transformer station's industrialization construction mode, and the situation Xia,Zhan district floor space constant at Substation Capacity Scale constantly reduces.Under the new situation this, design of grounding grid of substation is when meeting specification requirement, also to constantly take into account the requirement of economy, compare by Technological Economy, in minimizing ground network area, control earth electrode cost and reduction, fall between resistance measure cost three and find balance point.
The substation project design generally is divided into several design phases such as feasibility study, Preliminary design, construction drawing design and as-built drawing design, in the different design phases, for design of grounding grid of substation, different depth requirements is arranged.General; in engineering, can grind and the concept phase; the designer only need to provide that transformer station's soil resistivity and corrosivity situation, earthing material are selected, the design of grounding engineering philosophy and contact potential and step voltage result of calculation, need to take resistance, anticorrosion, quarantine measures scheme etc. fall; and not needing to draw substation grounding protection floor plan, this has just caused in the quantities that can grind, just the stage of establishing can't accurately be adjusted ground network.But, being estimated, during budgetary estimate, need again the designer to provide the ground network bill of quantities to skill through personnel.In the face of this situation, in the actual engineering design process, the designer, often according to the construction scale of transformer station, relies on design experiences and roughly estimates the ground network quantities with reference to built engineering of going into operation, and this way is often brought very large error.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to for the deficiencies in the prior art, a kind of early stage definite method of substation grounding web frame is provided.
The present invention solves its technical problem and takes following technical scheme to realize:
A kind of grounding net of transformer substation Computer Aided Design and Analysis of Engineering Construction Cost method, method step is as follows:
The first step, obtain total failare electric current and the diverting coefficient of ground network, calculates into the ground short circuit electric current;
Second step, obtain Substation Station district size, the computer installation district gross area;
The 3rd step, the smallest cross-sectional of calculating unlike material earth electrode, incorporation engineering is commonly used the earth electrode material, selects earth electrode shape, cross section;
The 4th step, calculate the earth resistance of selected unlike material earth electrode, and require to carry out verification according to Regulations;
The 5th step, computer installation district Maximum Contact electromotive force, step voltage, and require to carry out verification according to Regulations; The Maximum Contact of ground network ground surface, the i.e. maximum potential difference of mesh center to the ground network earth polar;
The 6th step, carry out Technological Economy relatively to the unlike material earth electrode met the demands, and determines optimum ground grid design scheme;
The 7th step, generate ground grid design calculated description, ground network bill of quantities and ground network approximate of the cost or bill of approximate estimate.
And, total failare electric current and the diverting coefficient of the described first step, the concrete preparation method that enters the ground short circuit electric current is as follows;
(1) utilize two formula to calculate respectively into the ground short circuit electric current: the total failare electric current and the diverting coefficient that utilize the ground network of obtaining, calculate transformer station and enter the ground short circuit electric current through earthing device, while in transformer station or outside transformer station, ground short circuit occurring, the electric current of the earthing device of flowing through calculates by following two formula:
I=(I max-I n)(1-K e1) (a)
I=I n(1-K e2) (b)
In formula, I---enter the ground short circuit electric current, A;
I max---maximum earth short circuit current during ground short circuit, A;
I n---when maximum earth short circuit current occurs, the maximum earth short circuit current of the substation grounding neutral point of flowing through, A;
K E1, K E2---be respectively in station, while standing external short circuit, the working frequency current division factor of lightning conducter,
(2) the electric current that relatively two formula calculate is got higher value: calculate with entering the ground short circuit electric current, get (a), (b) larger I value in two formulas.
And the concrete grammar of the smallest cross-sectional of the calculating unlike material earth electrode of described the 3rd step is:
(1) according to thermally-stabilised condition, the smallest cross-sectional of earth electrode should meet:
Sg ≥ Ig C tg
In formula: Sg---the smallest cross-sectional of earth connection, mm 2
Ig---flow through the short circuit current stationary value of earth connection, A;
The equivalent time of tg---short circuit, s;
C---the thermal stability factor of earth connection material,
The equivalent diameter of the horizontal grounding utmost point is:
d = 2 Sg / π .
And, the earth resistance of the selected unlike material earth electrode of described four-step calculation, and require the concrete grammar that carries out verification to be according to Regulations:
(1) earth resistance calculates: grounding net of transformer substation generally adopts the compound earth electrode of the very main edge closure of horizontal grounding, and its earth resistance can utilize following formula to calculate:
R n1R e
α 1 = ( 3 ln L 0 S - 0.2 ) S L 0
R e = 0.213 ρ S ( 1 + B ) + ρ 2 πL ( ln S 9 hd - 5 B )
B = 1 1 + 4.6 h S
In formula, R n---the earth resistance of arbitrary shape edge closure ground network, Ω;
R e---the earth resistance of equivalent (be homalographic, etc. horizontal grounding utmost point total length) square ground network, Ω;
The gross area of S---ground network, m 2
The diameter of d---horizontal grounding objects or equivalent diameter, m;
The depth of burying of h---horizontal grounding objects, m;
L 0---the outer rim sideline total length of ground network, m;
The total length of L---horizontal grounding objects, m;
(2) earth resistance carries out verification: after calculating the earth resistance of unlike material earth electrode, according to the Regulations requirement, earth resistance is carried out to verification, reservation can meet the scheme of Regulations requirement.
And, the Maximum Contact of ground network ground surface in described the 5th step, i.e. the maximum potential difference of mesh center to the ground network earth polar can be calculated as follows:
U tmax=K tmaxIR n
In formula: U Tmax---Maximum Contact, V;
K Tmax---the Maximum Contact coefficient;
I---calculate with entering ground short circuit electric current, A;
R n---the earth resistance of earthing device, Ω;
The outer ground surface maximum stride potential difference of ground network can be calculated as follows:
U smax=K smaxIR n
In formula: U Smax---maximum stride potential difference, V;
K Smax---maximum stride potential difference coefficient.
Advantage of the present invention and good effect are
1, incorporation engineering of the present invention earth electrode material commonly used is selected satisfactory optimum earth electrode, meets engineering requirements, and engineering practicability is strong.
2, the present invention, by different ground grid design schemes are carried out to Economic Comparison Analysis, determines optimum ground grid design scheme, when meeting specification requirement, has guaranteed the economy of engineering.
3, the present invention efficiently solves the phenomenon that can't accurately determine the concrete engineering structure with the concept phase and use material grinding, determining early stage method for designing is provided as early as possible the grounding net of transformer substation engineering structure.
Embodiment
Below the embodiment of the present invention is further described, following examples are descriptive, are not determinate, can not limit protection scope of the present invention with this.
A kind of early stage definite method of substation grounding web frame, method step is as follows:
The first step, obtain total failare electric current and the diverting coefficient of ground network, calculates into the ground short circuit electric current;
(1) utilize two formula to calculate respectively into the ground short circuit electric current: the total failare electric current and the diverting coefficient that utilize the ground network of obtaining, calculate transformer station and enter the ground short circuit electric current through earthing device, while in transformer station or outside transformer station, ground short circuit occurring, the electric current of the earthing device of flowing through calculates by following two formula:
I=(I max-I n)(1-K e1) (a)
I=I n(1-K e2) (b)
In formula, I---enter the ground short circuit electric current, A;
I max---maximum earth short circuit current during ground short circuit, A;
I n---when maximum earth short circuit current occurs, the maximum earth short circuit current of the substation grounding neutral point of flowing through, A;
K E1, K E2---be respectively in station, while standing external short circuit, the working frequency current division factor of lightning conducter,
(2) the electric current that relatively two formula calculate is got higher value: calculate with entering the ground short circuit electric current, get (a), (b) larger I value in two formulas;
Second step, obtain Substation Station district size, the computer installation district gross area;
The 3rd step, the smallest cross-sectional of calculating unlike material earth electrode, incorporation engineering is commonly used the earth electrode material, selects earth electrode shape, cross section;
(1) according to thermally-stabilised condition, the smallest cross-sectional of earth electrode should meet:
Sg ≥ Ig C tg
In formula: Sg---the smallest cross-sectional of earth connection, mm 2
Ig---flow through the short circuit current stationary value of earth connection, A;
The equivalent time of tg---short circuit, s;
C---the thermal stability factor of earth connection material,
The equivalent diameter of the horizontal grounding utmost point is:
d = 2 Sg / π
(2) the Anti-corrosion design time limit calculates; When incorporation engineering earth electrode commonly used is selected earth electrode, should take into account corrosion impact, the Anti-corrosion design time limit of earthing device, should carry out according to local corrosion data;
The 4th step, calculate the earth resistance of selected unlike material earth electrode, and require to carry out verification according to Regulations.
(1) earth resistance calculates: grounding net of transformer substation generally adopts the compound earth electrode (ground network) of the very main edge closure of horizontal grounding, and its earth resistance can utilize following formula to calculate:
R n1R e
α 1 = ( 3 ln L 0 S - 0.2 ) S L 0
R e = 0.213 ρ S ( 1 + B ) + ρ 2 πL ( ln S 9 hd - 5 B )
B = 1 1 + 4.6 h S
In formula, R n---the earth resistance of arbitrary shape edge closure ground network, Ω;
R e---the earth resistance of equivalent (be homalographic, etc. horizontal grounding utmost point total length) square ground network, Ω;
The gross area of S---ground network, m 2
The diameter of d---horizontal grounding objects or equivalent diameter, m;
The depth of burying of h---horizontal grounding objects, m;
L 0---the outer rim sideline total length of ground network, m;
The total length of L---horizontal grounding objects, m.
(2) earth resistance carries out verification: after calculating the earth resistance of unlike material earth electrode, according to the Regulations requirement, earth resistance is carried out to verification, reservation can meet the scheme of Regulations requirement.
Wherein, the specific requirement of earth resistance verification is as follows:
In effective grounding and low resistance earthing system, the earth resistance of power plant, transformer station's electric device protective earthing meets the following requirements:
1. generally, the earth resistance of earthing device meets R≤2000/I, I be flow through earthing device enter ground short circuit electric current, A;
2. when the earth resistance of earthing device does not meet above-mentioned requirements, earth resistance can be increased, but 5 Europe must not be greater than;
In earth-free, grounding through arc and high resistance grounding system, power plant, transformer station's electric device should meet the following requirements:
1. the earth resistance of high pressure and power plant, the converting station electric power production earthing device diligent with low-voltage electrical appliance meets R≤120/I, but should not be greater than 4 Europe;
2. the earthing device of high-voltage electric device, should meet R≤250/I, but not in 10 Europe;
3. the earth resistance of high soil resistivity is not more than 30 Europe;
The 5th step, computer installation district Maximum Contact electromotive force, step voltage, and require to carry out verification according to Regulations; The Maximum Contact of ground network ground surface, i.e. the maximum potential difference of mesh center to the ground network earth polar can be calculated as follows:
U tmax=K tmaxIR n
In formula: U Tmax---Maximum Contact, V;
K Tmax---the Maximum Contact coefficient;
I---calculate with entering ground short circuit electric current, A;
R n---the earth resistance of earthing device, Ω;
The outer ground surface maximum stride potential difference of ground network can be calculated as follows:
U smax=K smaxIR n
In formula: U Smax---maximum stride potential difference, V;
K Smax---maximum stride potential difference coefficient;
The 6th step, carry out Technological Economy relatively to the unlike material earth electrode met the demands, and determines optimum ground grid design scheme;
(1) the content of concrete Technological Economy comparison comprises:
1. technical indicator: the actual earth resistance of selected unlike material earth electrode, maximum stride voltage, Maximum Contact voltage, maximum age;
2. economic index: the fee of material of selected unlike material earth electrode, labour cost, working measure take, traffic expense;
(2) the decision condition of determining optimum ground network is:
Set up unlike material earth electrode Technological Economy Comparative indices system, scheme is comprehensively given a mark according to index system, score soprano is optimal case.
Index system establishment is as follows:
The expense that other do not relate to, can increase corresponding index according to the method described above.
Step 7, generate ground grid design calculated description, ground network bill of quantities and ground network approximate of the cost or bill of approximate estimate, and what specifically comprise thes contents are as follows:
1. provide the calculated value of thermally-stabilised check results, earth resistance, maximum stride voltage and the Maximum Contact voltage of selected ground grid design scheme, and compare with setting respectively, the feasibility of optimal case is described;
2. according to obtaining the parameters such as De Zhan district area, shape, and in conjunction with selected ground grid design scheme, list model, the quantity of the ground connection master materials such as ground network horizontal grounding objects, Grounding Grids, and the quantity of the auxiliary material such as chamotte fusion point, form the main grounding grid bill of quantities, when statistics ground connection master's material and auxiliary material quantity, should consider the loss of site operation, consider certain nargin on the quantity of calculating gained;
3. add up the fee of main materials such as fee of material of main grounding grid according to the quantities of calculating, and the overhead costs such as the flat cost such as the incorporation engineering amount is calculated constructor's expenses of labour, working measure takes, construction tool usage charges and administration fee, dangerous operation accident/injury insurance expense, formation ground network approximate of the cost or bill of approximate estimate.

Claims (5)

1. a substation grounding web frame early stage determined method, and it is characterized in that: method step is as follows:
The first step, obtain total failare electric current and the diverting coefficient of ground network, calculates into the ground short circuit electric current;
Second step, obtain Substation Station district size, the computer installation district gross area;
The 3rd step, the smallest cross-sectional of calculating unlike material earth electrode, incorporation engineering is commonly used the earth electrode material, selects earth electrode shape, cross section;
The 4th step, calculate the earth resistance of selected unlike material earth electrode, and require to carry out verification according to Regulations;
The 5th step, computer installation district Maximum Contact electromotive force, step voltage, and require to carry out verification according to Regulations; The Maximum Contact of ground network ground surface, the i.e. maximum potential difference of mesh center to the ground network earth polar;
The 6th step, carry out Technological Economy relatively to the unlike material earth electrode met the demands, and determines optimum ground grid design scheme;
The 7th step, generate ground grid design calculated description, ground network bill of quantities and ground network approximate of the cost or bill of approximate estimate.
2. substation grounding web frame according to claim 1 early stage determined and be it is characterized in that method: total failare electric current and the diverting coefficient of the described first step, and the concrete preparation method that enters the ground short circuit electric current is as follows;
(1) utilize two formula to calculate respectively into the ground short circuit electric current: the total failare electric current and the diverting coefficient that utilize the ground network of obtaining, calculate transformer station and enter the ground short circuit electric current through earthing device, while in transformer station or outside transformer station, ground short circuit occurring, the electric current of the earthing device of flowing through calculates by following two formula:
I=(I max-I n)(1-K e1) (a)
I=I n(1-K e2) (b)
In formula, I---enter the ground short circuit electric current, A;
I max---maximum earth short circuit current during ground short circuit, A;
I n---when maximum earth short circuit current occurs, the maximum earth short circuit current of the substation grounding neutral point of flowing through, A;
K E1, K E2---be respectively in station, while standing external short circuit, the working frequency current division factor of lightning conducter,
(2) the electric current that relatively two formula calculate is got higher value: calculate with entering the ground short circuit electric current, get (a), (b) larger I value in two formulas.
3. substation grounding web frame according to claim 1 early stage determined method, and it is characterized in that: the concrete grammar of the smallest cross-sectional of the calculating unlike material earth electrode of described the 3rd step is:
(1) according to thermally-stabilised condition, the smallest cross-sectional of earth electrode should meet:
Sg ≥ Ig C tg
In formula: Sg---the smallest cross-sectional of earth connection, mm 2
Ig---flow through the short circuit current stationary value of earth connection, A;
The equivalent time of tg---short circuit, s;
C---the thermal stability factor of earth connection material,
The equivalent diameter of the horizontal grounding utmost point is:
d = 2 Sg / π .
4. substation grounding web frame according to claim 1 early stage determined and be it is characterized in that method: the earth resistance of the selected unlike material earth electrode of described four-step calculation, and require the concrete grammar that carries out verification to be according to Regulations:
(1) earth resistance calculates: grounding net of transformer substation generally adopts the compound earth electrode of the very main edge closure of horizontal grounding, and its earth resistance can utilize following formula to calculate:
R n1R e
α 1 = ( 3 ln L 0 S - 0.2 ) S L 0
R e = 0.213 ρ S ( 1 + B ) + ρ 2 πL ( ln S 9 hd - 5 B )
B = 1 1 + 4.6 h S
In formula, R n---the earth resistance of arbitrary shape edge closure ground network, Ω;
R e---the earth resistance of equivalent (be homalographic, etc. horizontal grounding utmost point total length) square ground network, Ω;
The gross area of S---ground network, m 2
The diameter of d---horizontal grounding objects or equivalent diameter, m;
The depth of burying of h---horizontal grounding objects, m;
L 0---the outer rim sideline total length of ground network, m;
The total length of L---horizontal grounding objects, m;
(2) earth resistance carries out verification: after calculating the earth resistance of unlike material earth electrode, according to the Regulations requirement, earth resistance is carried out to verification, reservation can meet the scheme of Regulations requirement.
5. substation grounding web frame according to claim 1 early stage determined and be it is characterized in that method: the Maximum Contact of ground network ground surface in described the 5th step, i.e. and the maximum potential difference of mesh center to the ground network earth polar can be calculated as follows:
U tmax=K tmaxIR n
In formula: U Tmax---Maximum Contact, V;
K Tmax---the Maximum Contact coefficient;
I---calculate with entering ground short circuit electric current, A;
R n---the earth resistance of earthing device, Ω;
The outer ground surface maximum stride potential difference of ground network can be calculated as follows:
U smax=K smaxIR n
In formula: U Smax---maximum stride potential difference, V;
K Smax---maximum stride potential difference coefficient.
CN2013103588951A 2013-08-15 2013-08-15 Early determination method for substation grounding grid Pending CN103427354A (en)

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Cited By (5)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104568719A (en) * 2015-01-12 2015-04-29 国家电网公司 Evaluation method of transformer substation grounding grids
CN104868339A (en) * 2015-04-13 2015-08-26 浙江理工大学 Method for establishing grounding grid based on BIM (building information modeling)
WO2016124014A1 (en) * 2015-02-05 2016-08-11 国家电网公司 Method of calculating step voltage and maximum contact voltage in gas-insulated substation
CN106950456A (en) * 2017-05-26 2017-07-14 云南电网有限责任公司电力科学研究院 A kind of grounding net of transformer substation performance estimating method tested based on man-made short-circuit
CN107132455A (en) * 2017-05-26 2017-09-05 云南电网有限责任公司电力科学研究院 A kind of grounding net of transformer substation performance estimating method injected based on ground line current

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Cited By (9)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104568719A (en) * 2015-01-12 2015-04-29 国家电网公司 Evaluation method of transformer substation grounding grids
CN104568719B (en) * 2015-01-12 2017-06-30 国家电网公司 A kind of appraisal procedure of grounding net of transformer substation
WO2016124014A1 (en) * 2015-02-05 2016-08-11 国家电网公司 Method of calculating step voltage and maximum contact voltage in gas-insulated substation
CN104868339A (en) * 2015-04-13 2015-08-26 浙江理工大学 Method for establishing grounding grid based on BIM (building information modeling)
CN104868339B (en) * 2015-04-13 2017-05-31 浙江理工大学 A kind of grounded screen method for building up based on BIM models
CN106950456A (en) * 2017-05-26 2017-07-14 云南电网有限责任公司电力科学研究院 A kind of grounding net of transformer substation performance estimating method tested based on man-made short-circuit
CN107132455A (en) * 2017-05-26 2017-09-05 云南电网有限责任公司电力科学研究院 A kind of grounding net of transformer substation performance estimating method injected based on ground line current
CN107132455B (en) * 2017-05-26 2019-07-05 云南电网有限责任公司电力科学研究院 A kind of grounding net of transformer substation performance estimating method based on ground line current injection
CN106950456B (en) * 2017-05-26 2019-07-26 云南电网有限责任公司电力科学研究院 A kind of grounding net of transformer substation performance estimating method based on man-made short-circuit's experiment

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Application publication date: 20131204