CN103411958B - Dynamic testing device and method for ablation rate of material - Google Patents

Dynamic testing device and method for ablation rate of material Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103411958B
CN103411958B CN201310358793.XA CN201310358793A CN103411958B CN 103411958 B CN103411958 B CN 103411958B CN 201310358793 A CN201310358793 A CN 201310358793A CN 103411958 B CN103411958 B CN 103411958B
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ablator
measured
laser
ablation
filter
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CN201310358793.XA
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CN103411958A (en
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解维华
金华
骄利闯
易法军
许承海
孟松鹤
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哈尔滨工业大学
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Abstract

The invention relates to a dynamic testing device and method for the ablation rate of a material. The dynamic testing device comprises a CCD (Charge Coupled Device) camera, wherein a light filter group is mounted in front of a multi-focal-length camera lens and is used for blocking highlight emitted from a test piece and simultaneously allowing the transmission of lasers for demarcating a position; the position is demarcated by the positioning cross-shaped lasers; an electric arc heating spray gun is utilized to heat the end face of a to-be-tested ablative material; the whole device is positioned by a positioning bracket to enable the electric arc heating spray gun and the to-be-tested ablative material to be located on the same axis, and the point of intersection of the positioning cross-shaped lasers is throughout maintained on the center of the end face during a backward movement process of the end face; the CCD camera and the to-be-tested ablative material are located in the same horizontal position, a phase plane of the CCD camera is parallel with the axis of the to-be-tested ablative material, and the CCD camera is connected with a computer and is used for collecting and storing test images. According to the dynamic testing device, the dynamic ablation quantity test experiment of materials, such as graphite and vycor, can be implemented under an electric arc heating condition; the dynamic testing device has the advantages that the experiment cost is low, and that the experiment temperature is easy to control.

Description

Material ablation rate dynamic checkout unit and method

Technical field

What the present invention relates to is a kind of material ablation rate dynamic checkout unit and method.

Background technology

In the development course of anti-thermal technology, the most ripe solar heat protection mechanism is exactly ablative-type protective coating solar heat protection at present.Ablative-type protective coating heat insulation material is generally used for reentry vehicle outside surface.In reentry vehicle reentry process, under the effect of hot-fluid, reentry vehicle ablative thermal protection layer by decomposing, the physical and chemical changes of the multiple absorption heat energy such as thawing, evaporation, distillation, rely on the quality consumption of material self to take away a large amount of heat energy, prevent that to reach heat from importing the object of reentry vehicle inside into.

The ablation situation of material directly affects the aerodynamic configuration of aircraft, to carry out the basis of Thermal structures design and prerequisite to the accurate test of ablating rate, lack at present on-line testing technology and the method under this hot environment, therefore some advanced countries pay much attention to the ablation amount measuring technology research of ablation measuring technology, particularly high temperature, online.Grasp the technology that accurately characterizes ablating rate for heat structure analysis and design important in inhibiting.

Aspect dynamic ablating rate test experiments method, obtain greater advance abroad, developing the dynamically ablation experiments method such as ablation pot, thermocouple arrays, ultrasound wave.Ablation potentiometer device bury underground at heat insulation layer for the ablation characteristics utilization of real-time testing heat insulation layer thermopair method real-time testing the dynamic ablation process of space shuttle booster thermosphere.But this method need to be laid components and parts in heat insulation layer, and operation easier and test error are all larger, and be difficult to obtain continuous ablation data.Its principle of supercritical ultrasonics technology is to test the dynamic change of pattern in ablation process according to ultrasound wave travel-time and speed in measured object.

In domestic traditional material floor simulated experiment process, mostly adopt laser positioning method identification line of material ablation velocity.This method by installing generating laser and laser pickoff on perpendicular to ablation ablator ablated surface to be measured direction, ablator ablation end face to be measured is just blocked light path, in ablator ablation process to be measured, constantly reduce owing to there is its axial length of line ablation, receive laser signal and drive feed arrangement to send ablator to be measured to until light path is blocked again when ablator ablated surface to be measured retreats into can not block light path time laser pickoff, obtain line of material ablating rate data by real time record feed arrangement feeding curve.The affecting that ablator linear ablative rate to be measured that its test obtains is actually the aggregate-value of multistage average data and be not real time data of this method Stimulated Light-emission device hot spot yardstick, can not well characterize the situation of change of ablator line ablation amount to be measured with the ablation time, laser pickoff antijamming capability and stand stability and feed accuracy are required all quite highly simultaneously, have certain technical limitation.

At present domestic lacking in the dynamically research of ablation experiments, be badly in need of the breakthrough aspect dynamic ablation experiments.The invention provides one and realize ablation weight testing method in dynamic ablation experiments process with non-contact method.Fully fill up the domestic research blank in this area.

Summary of the invention

Based on above weak point, the invention provides a kind of based on structured light the method for testing of the contactless dynamic ablating rate to ablator ablation end face to be measured location and image processing, utilize structured light end face localization method and flame optical filtering technique to obtain how much patterns in material ablation process, calculate material ablation rate dynamic checkout unit and method of testing by collection image is carried out to geometry.

The object of the present invention is achieved like this:

A kind of material ablation rate dynamic checkout unit, described proving installation includes horizontal shifting platform (1), on horizontal shifting platform (1), fix a bench vice (2), bench vice (2) clamps ablator to be measured (3), be characterized in, apart from horizontal shifting platform (1) a distance, locating support (6) is being installed, on locating support (6), be fixed with arc heated spray gun (7), on locating support (6), fix two word line laser instruments (5), described two word line laser instruments (5) can form positioning cross structure laser at the axial end of ablator to be measured (3), nozzle place at arc heated spray gun (7) connects water collar (4), water collar (4) is connected with cooling-cycle device by water pipe (8), the nozzle of arc heated spray gun (7) keeps at a certain distance away facing to ablator to be measured (3), ablator to be measured (3) is installed ccd video camera (13) with a side of arc heated spray gun (7) axis, at ccd video camera leading portion, multiple focal length camera lens (12) is installed, contain filter set at the front installation kit of multiple focal length camera lens (12), ccd video camera (13) is connected with computing machine (16), also there is following feature fume extractor the present invention being installed from ablator to be measured a distance and ccd video camera the same side:

1, described ablator to be measured or put into zirconia ceramics sleeve.

2, described filter set is made up of successively narrow band pass filter (10), two polaroids (11) and glass for bonding.

3, described filter set is less than 0.01% to the transmitance of cut-off wave band, for the transmitance of laser higher than 50%.

4, the heat flow density of described arc heated spray gun is 2MW to 3MW.

What 5, described word line laser instrument sent is violet laser.

6, described narrow band pass filter is 405nm narrow band pass filter.

7, described violet laser wavelength is 405nm.

The invention still further relates to a kind of material ablation rate dynamic testing method, first according to the requirement of the requirement of ground ablation simulation system and image acquisition and processing method, ablator to be measured (3) is seated, ablator to be measured (3) coaxially keeps a segment distance with arc heated spray gun (7) outlet nozzle, filter set is arranged on the multiple focal length camera lens (12) of ccd video camera (13), described filter set ensure to filter high light that under flame and hot environment, ablator to be measured (3) sends and and can see through laser, and the polaroid that filter set comprises (11) can filter the reflection of the narrow band pass filter (10) that comprised by filter set and multiple focal length camera lens (12) and the stray light that causes, ccd video camera (13) is arranged on platform, a word line laser instrument of each installation on two supports of locating support (6), two positioning cross structure laser of laser composition that word line laser instrument sends, horizontal word line laser instrument and ablator to be measured (3) are in same level position, vertically word line laser instrument is positioned at identical vertical position with ablator to be measured (3), described in the process of retiring at ablator to be measured (3) end face, positioning cross structure laser intersection point is positioned at ablator to be measured (3) axial end center all the time, adjusts laser rays thick, ccd video camera (13) is connected with computing machine (16), prepare real time record process of the test, adjust multiple focal length camera lens (12) depth of field and focal length, ccd video camera (13) focuses in the plane at ablator to be measured (3) axis place, demarcates the relation between coordinate and the space true coordinate of pixel cross structure laser intersection point in focussing plane, adjust the angle of filter set, guarantee ccd video camera (13) is adopted positioning cross structure laser clearly, open the circulating water cooling system for reducing arc heated spray gun (7) nozzle place temperature, start arc heated spray gun (7) ablator to be measured (3) is simulated to ablation experiments, fume extractor is used for preventing that smog from affecting positioning cross structure laser collection effect, finally on computing machine (16), can clearly observe the positioning cross structure laser that ccd video camera (13) gathers, in ablation experiments process ablator to be measured (3) end face constantly retire and positioning cross structure laser intersection point along with ablator to be measured (3) end face retreats together, according to the pixel coordinate of positioning cross structure laser intersection point and the known geometric relationship of volume coordinate in the phase plane of demarcating in advance, obtain the volume coordinate of positioning cross structure laser intersection point, thereby the ablation amount and the ablation that obtain ablator to be measured (3) end face center retreat rate.

Test result shows, the present invention can realize the material such as graphite, high silica dynamic ablation amount test experiments under arc heated environment; Record the time dependent curve of ablation amount, obtain material by rate of curve and retreat rate in the ablation in each stage of ablation.Have advantages of that experimentation cost is low, security good, test temperature is easy to control.

Brief description of the drawings

Fig. 1 is image handling principle figure;

Fig. 2 is device schematic diagram of the present invention;

Fig. 3 is ablation amount temporal evolution curve;

Fig. 4 is that in ablation process, ablation retreats rate curve.

Embodiment

For example the present invention is described in more detail below in conjunction with accompanying drawing:

Embodiment 1

The present embodiment is a kind of material ablation rate dynamic checkout unit, mainly comprises: horizontal shifting platform 1; On horizontal shifting platform 1, fix a bench vice 2 with bolt; Clamp ablator 3 to be measured with bench vice 2; Apart from horizontal shifting platform 1 a distance, locating support 6 is being installed; U-shaped folder clamping arc heated spray gun 7 on locating support 6; Fix two word line laser instruments 5 with the sleeve on locating support 6 and jackscrew, described two word line laser instruments 5 can form positioning cross structure laser at the axial end of ablator 3 to be measured; At the water collar 4 that is threaded for nozzle place of arc heated spray gun 7; Water collar 4 is connected with cyclic water tank 9 by water pipe 8; The nozzle of arc heated spray gun 7 keeps at a certain distance away facing to ablator 3 to be measured; One side of ablator to be measured and arc heated spray gun axis is installed ccd video camera 13; At ccd video camera leading portion, multiple focal length camera lens 12 is installed; Before multiple focal length camera lens, filter set is installed, on the collar that filter set is arranged on, collar is enclosed within on the camera lens of ccd video camera, a swing arm is installed on collar, regulate the angle of two polaroids by swing arm; By video line 14, video camera 13 is connected with computing machine 16; Near ablator to be measured and ccd video camera the same side, a hair dryer 15 being installed, aim at ablator to be measured.

Below for one can, in superhigh temperature, oxy-acetylene flame or arc heated ablation environment, retreat contactless and dynamic checkout unit and the method for testing of rate to ablative-type protective coating heat proof material ablation.

First according to the requirement of ground ablation experimental system for simulating, arc heated spray gun 7 is in place; Package the water collar 4 of designed, designed at the nozzle place of spray gun, water collar is connected with the water-cooled reserve tank 9 that water pump is installed by conduit 8, opening power, water-cooling system starts, and can not produce because of too high temperature distortion equal loss for the protection of nozzle place in experimentation; Laser instrument locating support 6 is across to arc heated spray gun 7 to be in place in the side near spray tip; Horizontal shifting platform 1 is installed before arc heated spray gun, on horizontal shifting platform l, place a bench vice 2 for clamping ablator 3 to be measured, by horizontal shifting platform 1, ablator 3 to be measured can be moved freely in surface level, by whole position regulator, ablator 3 to be measured is adjusted to locating in a distance of the arc heated spray gun same axial location of 7 nozzle; Two word line laser instruments 5 are arranged on above locating support 6, make two word laser become positioning cross structure laser at the axial end of ablator 3 to be measured by adjusting level height with the angle of lateral attitude and two word laser line generators, described positioning cross structure laser intersection point is in the center of ablator end face to be measured; The filter set that narrow band pass filter 10 and two polaroids 11 are formed is arranged on the front end of multiple focal length camera lens 12; Adjust the position of multiple focal length camera lens 12, make video camera phase plane be parallel to the axis of ablator 3 to be measured perpendicular to surface level; Multiple focal length camera lens 12 is connected with ccd video camera 13, and ccd video camera 13 is wanted to be connected with computing machine 16 by video line 14, opens monitoring software, to experimentation Real-time Collection; Adjust multiple focal length camera lens focal length, make video camera in the focusing of the axis place of ablator 3 to be measured; A side at arc heated spray gun is installed a hair dryer 15, prevents in experimentation, and smog affects the effect of image acquisition.Open the power supply of arc heated spray gun 7 and start, ablator to be measured is carried out to ablation experiments; Filter with filter set the high light that under flame and hot environment, material sends, and selectivity sees through the cross structure laser of locating laser composition, thereby gather the pixel coordinate of ablation end face centralized positioning cross structure laser intersection point, demarcation by experiment, obtain in real time the locus of ablation end face central point with known geometric relationship, thereby ablation amount and the ablation of calculating each moment material retreat rate.

Multiple focal length camera lens adopts multiple focal length Seiko camera lens, can be according to requirement of experiment manual adjustments focal length, and in experimentation, keep focal length constant; Ccd video camera acquisition resolution is 704 × 576,25 frames per second; Filter set is less than 0.01% to the transmitance of cut-off wave band, for the transmitance of locating laser higher than 50%, can in the situation that high temperature is highlighted, ensure to obtain the laser image that will gather, the combination of the narrow band pass filter of two polaroids and an OD4 has finally been selected in the screening of mating plate combination after filtration, narrow band pass filter bandwidth is 15nm, can effectively filter veiling glare while polaroid and can effectively eliminate because multiple focal length camera lens reflects the virtual image causing; Locating laser adopts the violet lasers of wavelength 405nm, and it is wavelength 405nm that the narrow band pass filter in filter set sees through wave band, can effectively ensure that positioning cross structure laser image can be collected; Position is adjusted assembly and is made up of horizontal shifting platform, laser instrument locating support (grooved hole and bolt are laser instrument location), and ablator to be measured, laser instrument and video camera are fixed on platform; Horizontal shifting platform is by control desk automatic feed, and locating support is by manual adjustments; Word line laser instrument is arranged on locating support, and the positioning cross structure laser intersection point that adjustment angle makes word line laser instrument send word line laser composition is on ablator axis to be measured; Arc heated spray gun is fixed by U-shaped folder and four M6 screws, be fixed on platform by a jackscrew and pillar, by adjusting the position of U-shaped folder clamping, adjust arc heated spray gun height and position, by adjusting the angle of angular setting arc heated spray gun of U-shaped folder pillar; Fine position assembly is made up of horizontal shifting platform, laser instrument locating support (having 100mm long slot bore and bolt is laser instrument location); Horizontal shifting platform displacement range 220mm, adjusts precision 0.0lmm; The thermal source of this experiment is provided by arc heated spray gun, and experimental cost low-security is good, and experimental temperature is easy to control, and heat flow density is 2MW to 3MW; Water-cooling circulating system is made up of water storage cabin, water circulating pump, water pipe and water collar, can in experimentation, reduce the temperature of arc heated gun nozzle; Smoke discharging function is provided by hair dryer, avoids in ablation process because a large amount of flue dust affects the image effect that ccd video camera gathers; This experiment can accurately obtain the coordinate of each moment gauge point, thereby calculates ablation amount, and dynamically ablation amount resolution is higher than 0.1mm.

Embodiment 2

The principle of image processing:

Ablator central axis to be measured is identical with flame injection direction, is made as X-axis, and vertical direction is set up Y-axis, is made as Z axis, as shown in Figure 1 perpendicular to the direction of XOY plane; Z axis is placed video camera, makes the phase plane of video camera be parallel to X-axis, is convenient to like this image processing; Filter set is arranged on before many kinds of focal length camera lens of CCD; At Z axis and 405nm purple light word line generating laser of the last installation of Y direction, laser projection plane lays respectively in XOZ and XOY plane, makes two bundle laser on ablator end face to be measured, form a positioning cross structure laser; What in fact two generating lasers sent is two sector regions, and its intersection is positioned in X-axis, and therefore, in the process retreating because of ablation at end face, the positioning cross structure laser intersection point on end face is all the time on the end face center of circle of cylinder ablator to be measured; In ablation experiments process, the ablation amount maximum of end face circle centre position, will judge that ablation retreats rate with cross structure laser position of intersecting point while gathering image; Phase plane center o ', by Z axis, crosses o ' and makes phase plane coordinate xo ' y; In phase plane, x, y axle overlap with X, Y-axis in XOY face; The pixel coordinate that the actual coordinate of orderring by P and p are ordered, determines the position of some o, obtains putting in coordinate in X-axis of some P in space X OY plane and phase plane the relation of p coordinate on x axle according to geometric relationship; In the time that flame ablation ablator to be measured surface makes it to retreat, laser labelling point is from P 1move to P 2, in the phase plane obtaining at video camera, displacement is from p 1to p 2, utilize known geometric relationship to change the actual displacement that obtains free token point according to the coordinate of pixel in phase plane, thereby in test ablation experiments process, the ablation on each moment ablator to be measured surface retreats rate.

Experiment test shows, the present invention can carry out Validity Test by the dynamic ablating rate in ablation process to ablator ablator to be measured.As shown in Figure 3,4, for ablator to be measured ablation amount and ablation in each moment in experimentation retreats rate.

Principal feature of the present invention is:

1, camera lens adopts multiple focal length Seiko camera lens, and manual focusing can be according to requirement of experiment manual adjustments focal length, and in experimentation, keeps focal length constant.CCD acquisition resolution is 704 × 576,25 frames per second.

2, filter set is less than 0.01% to the transmitance of cut-off wave band, for the transmitance of locating laser higher than 50%.Can in the situation that high temperature is highlighted, ensure to obtain the laser that will gather.The combination of the narrow band pass filter of two polaroids and an OD4 has finally been selected in the screening of mating plate combination after filtration, and narrow band pass filter bandwidth is 15nm, can effectively filter veiling glare while polaroid and can effectively eliminate because camera lens reflects the virtual image causing.

3, locating laser adopts the violet lasers of 405nm, and it is 405nm that the narrow band pass filter in filter set sees through wave band, can effectively ensure that locating laser can gather.

4, fine position assembly is made up of horizontal shifting platform, laser instrument locating support (having 100mm long slot bore and bolt is laser instrument location).Horizontal shifting platform displacement range 220mm, adjusts precision 0.0lmm.

5, the thermal source of this experiment is provided by Electric Arc firing equipment, and experimentation cost low-security is good, and test temperature is easy to control.Heat flow density is 2MW to 3MW.

6, water-cooling system, water-cooling system is by water storage cabin, water circulating pump, water pipe and water collar composition can reduce the temperature at arc pistol nozzle place in process of the test.

7, smoke discharging function is provided by small electrical blowing, avoids in ablation process because a large amount of flue dust affects the image effect that ccd video camera gathers.

8, this experiment can accurately obtain the coordinate of each moment gauge point, thereby calculates ablation amount.Dynamically ablation amount resolution is higher than 0.1mm.

Claims (9)

1. a material ablation rate dynamic checkout unit, described proving installation includes horizontal shifting platform (1), on horizontal shifting platform (1), fix a bench vice (2), bench vice (2) clamps ablator to be measured (3), it is characterized in that: apart from horizontal shifting platform (1) a distance, locating support (6) is being installed, on locating support (6), be fixed with arc heated spray gun (7), on locating support (6), fix two word line laser instruments (5), described two word line laser instruments (5) can form positioning cross structure laser at the axial end of ablator to be measured (3), nozzle place at arc heated spray gun (7) connects water collar (4), water collar (4) is connected with cooling-cycle device by water pipe (8), the nozzle of arc heated spray gun (7) keeps at a certain distance away facing to ablator to be measured (3), ablator to be measured (3) is installed ccd video camera (13) with a side of arc heated spray gun (7) axis, at ccd video camera leading portion, multiple focal length camera lens (12) is installed, in the front filter set that is provided with of multiple focal length camera lens (12), ccd video camera (13) is connected with computing machine (16), from ablator to be measured a distance and ccd video camera the same side, fume extractor is being installed.
2. material ablation rate dynamic checkout unit according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described ablator to be measured is put into zirconia ceramics sleeve.
3. according to the material ablation rate dynamic checkout unit described in claim l, it is characterized in that: described filter set is made up of successively narrow band pass filter (10), two polaroids (11) and glass for bonding.
4. according to the material ablation rate dynamic checkout unit described in claim 1 or 3, it is characterized in that: described filter set is less than 0.01% to the transmitance of cut-off wave band, for the transmitance of laser higher than 50%.
5. material ablation rate dynamic checkout unit according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the heat flow density of described arc heated spray gun is 2MW to 3MW.
6. material ablation rate dynamic checkout unit according to claim 1, is characterized in that: what described word line laser instrument sent is violet laser.
7. material ablation rate dynamic checkout unit according to claim 3, is characterized in that: described narrow band pass filter is 405nm narrow band pass filter.
8. material ablation rate dynamic checkout unit according to claim 6, is characterized in that: described violet laser wavelength is 405nm.
9. the material ablation rate dynamic testing method installing as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that: first according to the requirement of the requirement of ground ablation simulation system and image acquisition and processing method, ablator to be measured (3) is seated, ablator to be measured (3) coaxially keeps a segment distance with arc heated spray gun (7) outlet nozzle, filter set is arranged on the multiple focal length camera lens (12) of ccd video camera (13), described filter set ensures filter the high light that under flame and hot environment, ablator to be measured (3) sends and can see through laser, and the polaroid that filter set comprises (11) can filter the reflection of the narrow band pass filter (10) that comprised by filter set and multiple focal length camera lens (12) and the stray light that causes, ccd video camera (13) is arranged on platform, a word line laser instrument of each installation on two supports of locating support (6), two positioning cross structure laser of laser composition that word line laser instrument sends, horizontal word line laser instrument and ablator to be measured (3) are in same level position, vertically word line laser instrument is positioned at identical vertical position with ablator to be measured (3), described in the process of retiring at ablator to be measured (3) end face, positioning cross structure laser intersection point is positioned at ablator to be measured (3) axial end center all the time, adjusts laser rays thick, ccd video camera (13) is connected with computing machine (16), prepare real time record process of the test, adjust multiple focal length camera lens (12) depth of field and focal length, ccd video camera (13) focuses in the plane at ablator to be measured (3) axis place, demarcates the relation between coordinate and the space true coordinate of pixel cross structure laser intersection point in focussing plane, adjust the angle of filter set, guarantee ccd video camera (13) is adopted positioning cross structure laser clearly, open the circulating water cooling system for reducing arc heated spray gun (7) nozzle place temperature, start arc heated spray gun (7) ablator to be measured (3) is simulated to ablation experiments, fume extractor is used for preventing that smog from affecting positioning cross structure laser collection effect, finally on computing machine (16), can clearly observe the positioning cross structure laser that ccd video camera (13) gathers, in ablation experiments process ablator to be measured (3) end face constantly retire and positioning cross structure laser intersection point along with ablator to be measured (3) end face retreats together, according to the pixel coordinate of positioning cross structure laser intersection point and the known geometric relationship of volume coordinate in the phase plane of demarcating in advance, obtain the volume coordinate of positioning cross structure laser intersection point, thereby the ablation amount and the ablation that obtain ablator to be measured (3) end face center retreat rate.
CN201310358793.XA 2013-08-08 2013-08-08 Dynamic testing device and method for ablation rate of material CN103411958B (en)

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