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CN103398835B - Gun hypersonic wind tunnel film cooling heat transient testing system and method - Google Patents

Gun hypersonic wind tunnel film cooling heat transient testing system and method Download PDF

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CN103398835B
CN103398835B CN 201310366654 CN201310366654A CN103398835B CN 103398835 B CN103398835 B CN 103398835B CN 201310366654 CN201310366654 CN 201310366654 CN 201310366654 A CN201310366654 A CN 201310366654A CN 103398835 B CN103398835 B CN 103398835B
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CN 201310366654
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CN103398835A (en )
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易仕和
陈植
付佳
朱杨柱
何霖
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中国人民解放军国防科学技术大学
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Abstract

本发明公开了一种基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统及方法,该测试系统包括:用于检测风洞膜腔内压力的压力传感器;压力传感器经放大器连接有同步控制器,同步控制器根据经放大器放大后的压力信号生成触发信号,触发信号用于控制设于实验舱内气膜冷却模型表面生成气膜冷却喷流的时机;气膜冷却模型表面设有热流传感器,热流传感器的输出端经数字信号采集器连接计算机;数字信号采集器的控制端连接至同步控制器,数字信号采集器根据同步控制器的工作时序采集来自热流传感器的数据;计算机用于控制同步控制器的工作时序及存储数字信号采集器采集的热流数据。 The present invention discloses a film cooling heat transient test system and method for hypersonic wind tunnel gun, the test system comprising: a pressure detecting pressure sensor chamber film wind tunnel; synchronous amplifier is connected via the control pressure sensor , a synchronization controller generates a trigger signal based on the pressure signal amplified by the amplifier, a trigger signal for controlling the timing provided on the surface of the test film cooling compartment model generating film cooling jet; film-cooling heat flux sensor is provided with a surface model , heat flux sensor output terminal is connected via the digital signal acquisition computer; digital signal acquisition control terminal is connected to the synchronization controller, digital signal acquisition data acquired from the heat flux sensor according to the operating timing synchronization controller; a computer for controlling the synchronous working memory timing controller and a digital signal acquisition data acquired heat. 本发明为测量高超声速来流条件下气膜冷却的瞬态热流数据提供了条件。 The present invention is to measure the transient heat flow to hypersonic data under conditions of film cooling provided the conditions.

Description

基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统及方法 Gun hypersonic wind tunnel film cooling heat transient testing system and method

技术领域 FIELD

[0001] 本发明涉及气膜冷却测量领域,特别地,涉及一种基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统及方法。 [0001] The present invention relates to film cooling measurement field, in particular, film cooling systems and methods for testing the transient heat gun hypersonic wind tunnel relates based.

背景技术 Background technique

[0002] 气膜冷却是超声速/高超声速研究领域里的一种典型流动,尤其在光学成像方面具有较广的应用。 [0002] The film cooling is supersonic / hypersonic research in the field of a typical flow, in particular, has a wide application in optical imaging. 气膜冷却的效果通常是通过测量其热流分布进行评估。 The film cooling effect is typically assessed by measuring its heat flux distribution. 在常规大气环境下测量气膜冷却的热流分布较为简单,但如果要在超声速,甚至是高超声速气流中测量气膜冷却热流则难度较大。 Measuring film cooling in a conventional atmospheric heat flux distribution relatively easy, but if you want to supersonic, even hypersonic film cooling airflow measuring heat flow is difficult. 地面上进行高超声速气膜冷却的热流测量,需要有高超声速风洞设备,瞬态热流测量技术,以及相应的测试方法。 Heat flow measurements hypersonic film cooling on the ground, the need for hypersonic wind tunnel apparatus, the transient heat flow measurement techniques, and the corresponding test methods. 由于高超声速炮风洞运行时间为毫秒量级,瞬态热流测量除了要解决测试技术本身的问题以外,还要考虑风洞运行、气膜运行、热流测量三者的同步控制。 As the hypersonic wind tunnel gun running time of milliseconds, the transient heat flow measurements in addition to solve the problem other than to test the technology itself, but also consider the wind tunnel run, film running, the heat flow measurement synchronization control of the three. 由于气膜可以在不同的来流条件下工作,比如高超声速、超声速、 亚声速甚至无流动等情况,而研究高超声速条件下的气膜冷却在实际工程中意义重大,同时也是目前研究的难点之一。 As the gas film can work in different incoming flow conditions, such as hypersonic, supersonic, subsonic or no flow, etc., and study film cooling under hypersonic conditions in the actual project is of great significance, but also the study of the difficulties one. 由于大多数高超声速风洞是脉冲风洞,运行时间很短,所以很显然,在该条件下研究气膜冷却的热流分布,气膜和热流测试系统的运行必须提前于风洞流场的建立。 Since most hypersonic wind tunnel is the pulse wind tunnel, running time is very short, so it is clear, study film cooling under the conditions of heat flux distribution, operation of film and heat test system must be established in advance in wind tunnel flow field . 如果在风洞流场建立之前,气膜开启过早,气膜的冷却效应会使得布置在试验模型表面的热流传感器过度预冷却,从而增大风洞运行时的测量误差。 If prior to the establishment of the wind tunnel flow field, film prematurely open, the cooling effect of the air so that the film may be disposed over the pre-cooling heat flux sensor model test surface, thereby increasing the wind tunnel measurement error at runtime. 所以必须设计一套能够准确控制气膜开启、热流测量系统开启和风洞运行的同步控制及测量系统和方法。 It must be able to accurately control the design of a gas film on, heat flow control and measurement system on the synchronization systems and methods of operation of the wind tunnel. 目前,尚无可用于高超声速炮风洞中的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试方法及系统。 Currently, there can be used for film cooling method and system for testing the transient heat gun hypersonic wind tunnel.

发明内容 SUMMARY

[0003] 本发明目的在于提供一种基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统及方法,以解决高超声速炮风洞环境中气膜冷却瞬态热流难以测试的技术问题。 [0003] The object of the present invention is that the film cooling heat transient test system and method to provide a gun for hypersonic wind tunnel, in order to solve the technical problem gun hypersonic wind tunnel film cooling environment Transient Heat difficult to test.

[0004] 为实现上述目的,本发明采用的技术方案如下: [0004] To achieve the above object, the present invention employs the following technical solutions:

[0005] -种基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统,该高超声速炮风洞包括依次连接的高压段、膜腔、低压段、喷管及实验舱,该测试系统包括: [0005] - seed film cooling transient heat gun test system based hypersonic wind tunnel, the tunnel hypersonic gun comprises a high pressure section connected in sequence, the film chamber, the low pressure section, and the nozzle JEM, the test system comprising :

[0006] 用于检测膜腔内压力的压力传感器; [0006] a pressure sensor for detecting pressure in the membrane chamber;

[0007] 压力传感器经放大器连接有同步控制器,同步控制器根据经放大器放大后的压力信号生成触发信号,触发信号用于控制设于实验舱内气膜冷却模型表面生成气膜冷却喷流的时机; [0007] The pressure sensor is connected to a synchronous amplifier controller, the controller generates a trigger signal in accordance with the synchronization signal after the pressure amplifier, a trigger signal for controlling the jet disposed on the surface of the test film cooling compartment model generating film cooling opportunity;

[0008] 气膜冷却模型表面设有热流传感器,热流传感器的输出端经数字信号采集器连接计算机; [0008] The cooling air film is provided with a surface model of heat sensors, heat flux sensor output terminal is connected via the digital signal acquisition computer;

[0009] 数字信号采集器的控制端连接至同步控制器,数字信号采集器根据同步控制器的工作时序采集来自热流传感器的数据; Control terminal [0009] The digital signal is connected to the synchronization acquisition controller, digital signal acquisition data acquired from the heat flux sensor according to the synchronous operation timing of the controller;

[0010] 计算机用于控制同步控制器的工作时序及存储数字信号采集器采集的热流数据。 [0010] Computer heat flow data for controlling operation timing and synchronization controller stores the digital signal acquisition acquisition.

[0011] 进一步地,同步控制器的输出端连接有放大触发信号的固态继电器,固态继电器连接有用于开启或者关闭气膜冷却喷流的电磁阀。 [0011] Further, the output of the synchronization controller is connected to the trigger signal amplifying solid-state relay, solid state relay connected to the solenoid valve for opening or closing the film cooling jet.

[0012] 进一步地,热流传感器包括恒压源电路及设于恒压源电路两端用于输出电压值的电桥电路,电桥电路的至少一个桥臂上设有薄膜热敏电阻。 [0012] Further, at least one heat flow sensor comprises a bridge circuit and a constant voltage source provided at both ends of a bridge circuit for outputting a constant voltage source circuit voltage value, the bridge circuit is provided with a thin film thermistor arm.

[0013] 进一步地,热流传感器为多个,在气膜冷却模型表面形成热流传感器阵列。 [0013] Further, a plurality of heat sensors, heat flux sensor array is formed in the surface of film cooling model.

[0014] 根据本发明的另一方面,还提供一种基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试方法,包括以下步骤: [0014] According to another aspect of the present invention, there is provided a film cooling transient heat flux testing methods gun hypersonic wind tunnel, comprising the steps of:

[0015] 开启高超声速炮风洞; [0015] opened cannon hypersonic wind tunnel;

[0016] 检测高超声速炮风洞膜腔内的压力值; [0016] Blasting pressure value detected hypersonic wind tunnel film chamber;

[0017] 当膜腔内的压力值瞬间升高时,开启气膜冷却喷流以使得位于实验舱内的气膜冷却模型表面形成的冷却气膜不晚于高超声速炮风洞的建立; [0017] When the instantaneous value of the pressure membrane chamber increases, the opening film cooling air jet so that the surface of the film cooling model experiment compartment cooling air film is formed no later than hypersonic wind tunnel establishment gun;

[0018] 测量气膜冷却模型表面的热流数据。 [0018] The model of the surface heat flow data measured cooling air film.

[0019] 进一步地,热流数据为经热流传感器测量并存储至计算机内。 [0019] Further, the data measured by the heat flux sensor and stored in the computer.

[0020] 进一步地,热流传感器在执行开启高超声速炮风洞的步骤之前已处于工作状态。 [0020] Further, a heat flux sensor is turned on in the operating state has been performed prior to the step gun hypersonic wind tunnel.

[0021] 进一步地,热流传感器包括恒压源电路及设于恒压源电路两端用于输出电压值的电桥电路,电桥电路的至少一个桥臂上设有薄膜热敏电阻。 [0021] Further, at least one heat flow sensor comprises a bridge circuit and a constant voltage source provided at both ends of a bridge circuit for outputting a constant voltage source circuit voltage value, the bridge circuit is provided with a thin film thermistor arm.

[0022] 进一步地,热流传感器为多个,在气膜冷却模型表面形成热流传感器阵列,用于测量同一时刻气膜冷却模型表面多个位置的热流数据。 [0022] Further, a plurality of heat sensors, heat flux sensor array is formed in the surface of film cooling model for measuring positions of a plurality of heat flow data model surface film cooling the same time.

[0023] 本发明具有以下有益效果: [0023] The present invention has the following advantages:

[0024] 本发明基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统及方法,通过测量高超声速炮风洞膜腔内的压力值,使得气膜冷却喷流的开启时刻稍微提前于风洞流场建立,以保证在风洞流场建立的同时,冷却喷流流场亦同时建立,且由于通过检测风洞模腔内的压力值来触发冷却喷流流场的建立,避免了冷却喷流流场提前提前开启过早导致的热流传感器的工作过载,从而为测量高超声速来流条件下气膜冷却的瞬态热流数据提供了条件,且通过同步控制器的工作时序的控制,保证了风洞运行、气膜运行、及热流测量三者的同步。 [0024] Transient film cooling heat gun wind tunnel test system and method of the present invention hypersonic, tunnel blasting chamber by measuring the film hypersonic pressure value, so that the opening timing jet film cooling slightly before the wind hole flow field is established, while the wind tunnel in order to ensure the establishment of the flow field, the flow field of the jet cooling while also established, and because the pressure value by detecting the tunnel mold cavity to establish a flow field of a trigger spray cooling, cooling to avoid jet flow field ahead of advance opening prematurely due to heat flux sensor work overload, thus providing the conditions for measurement of transient heat flow to hypersonic data under conditions of film cooling, by controlling the operation timing and synchronization controller, to ensure synchronous running wind tunnel, film operation, and measurement of the three heat.

[0025] 除了上面所描述的目的、特征和优点之外,本发明还有其它的目的、特征和优点。 [0025] In addition to the above-described objects, features and advantages of the present invention as well as other objects, features and advantages. 下面将参照图,对本发明作进一步详细的说明。 Referring to FIG below, the present invention will be further described in detail.

附图说明 BRIEF DESCRIPTION

[0026] 构成本申请的一部分的附图用来提供对本发明的进一步理解,本发明的示意性实施例及其说明用于解释本发明,并不构成对本发明的不当限定。 [0026] The drawings constitute a part of this application are intended to provide further understanding of the invention, exemplary embodiments of the present invention are used to explain the present invention without unduly limiting the present invention. 在附图中: In the drawings:

[0027] 图1是本发明优选实施例基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统的三维结构示意图; [0027] FIG. 1 is a schematic diagram based on the three dimensional structure gun hypersonic wind tunnel film cooling heat transient testing system embodiment of the present invention, a preferred embodiment;

[0028] 图2是本发明优选实施例中尚超声速炮风洞的原理不意图; [0028] FIG. 2 is a principle of this embodiment is not intended gun supersonic wind tunnel still preferred embodiment of the present invention;

[0029] 图3是图1的平面结构示意图; [0029] FIG. 3 is a plan schematic view of Figure 1;

[0030] 图4是本发明气膜冷却喷流在高超声速喷流的环境下形成冷却气膜的原理示意图; [0030] FIG. 4 is a film cooling principles of the present invention discharge a schematic flow cooling air film is formed at ambient hypersonic jet;

[0031] 图5是本发明优选实施例热流传感器的电路原理图; [0031] FIG. 5 is a schematic circuit diagram of a preferred embodiment of the present invention, heat flux sensor of the embodiment;

[0032] 图6是本发明优选实施例基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试方法的步骤流程图; [0032] FIG. 6 is a flowchart illustrating steps of a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the test method for film cooling transient heat gun hypersonic wind tunnel-based;

[0033] 图7是本发明优选实施例基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试方法的工作时序示意图。 [0033] FIG. 7 is a preferred embodiment of the present invention based on a schematic view of an operation timing of the test method gun hypersonic wind tunnel film cooling transient heat flux.

具体实施方式 detailed description

[0034] 以下结合附图对本发明的实施例进行详细说明,但是本发明可以由权利要求限定和覆盖的多种不同方式实施。 [0034] The following embodiments in conjunction with the accompanying drawings of embodiments of the present invention will be described in detail, but the present invention can be defined by the claims, and many different embodiments of cover.

[0035] 参照图1及图3,本发明的优选实施例提供了一种基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统,该高超声速炮风洞包括依次连接的高压段1、膜腔7、低压段2、喷管6 及实验舱9。 [0035] Referring to FIGS. 1 and 3, a preferred embodiment of the present invention provides a film cooling test system based on the transient heat gun hypersonic wind tunnel, the tunnel hypersonic gun comprises a high pressure section 1 sequentially connected, film chamber 7, the low-pressure section 2, the nozzle 6 and 9 JEM. 该测试系统包括: The test system includes:

[0036] 用于检测膜腔7内压力的压力传感器17 ; [0036] a pressure sensor for detecting inner pressure of the film chamber 17, 7;

[0037] 压力传感器17经放大器15连接有同步控制器14,同步控制器14根据经放大器15放大后的压力信号生成触发信号,触发信号用于控制设于实验舱9内气膜冷却模型100 表面生成气膜冷却喷流的时机; [0037] The pressure sensor 15 is connected to the synchronization controller 14, the controller 14 generates a sync trigger signal based on the pressure signal after the amplifier 15 amplifies the trigger signal for controlling the JEM 9 provided film cooling surface 17 through an amplifier model 100 film cooling jets generated timing;

[0038] 气膜冷却模型100表面设有热流传感器11,热流传感器11的输出端经数字信号采集器12连接计算机16 ; [0038] Model 100 surface provided with film cooling heat flux sensor 11, the heat flow sensor output terminal 11 via a digital acquisition device 12 connected to computer 16;

[0039] 数字信号采集器12的控制端连接至同步控制器14,数字信号采集器12根据同步控制器14的工作时序采集来自热流传感器11的数据; The control terminal of [0039] digital signal collector 12 is connected to the synchronization controller 14, the digital signal data collected from the collector 12 of the heat flow sensor 11 in accordance with an operation timing of the synchronization controller 14;

[0040] 计算机16用于控制同步控制器14的工作时序及存储数字信号采集器12采集的热流数据。 [0040] Computer 16 for controlling the operation timing of the heat flow data memory 14 and the digital signal acquisition controller 12 acquired synchronization.

[0041] 本发明实施例基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统,通过测量高超声速炮风洞膜腔内的压力值,使得气膜冷却喷流的开启时刻稍微提前于风洞流场建立,以保证在风洞流场建立的同时,冷却喷流流场亦同时建立,同时通过检测模腔7内的压力值来触发气膜建立的开启时刻,避免了气膜的开启时刻过早导致的热流传感器工作过载,而导致在高超声速气流来到模型表面时,热流传感器无法准确测量的故障。 [0041] Example embodiments of the present invention is based on gun hypersonic wind tunnel film cooling transient heat test system, by measuring the pressure gun hypersonic wind tunnel film chamber, the opening timing such that the film cooling jets slightly before the wind hole flow field is established, while the wind tunnel in order to ensure the establishment of the flow field, the flow field of the jet cooling while also establishing, while the opening timing is triggered by the air film established 7 detects the pressure value in the cavity, to avoid the opening of the air film time cause premature heat flux sensor work overload, resulting in hypersonic airflow to the mold surface, the heat flux sensor can not accurately measure the fault. 本发明实施例通过检测风洞的模腔7内的压力并根据检测的压力触发气膜的建立时机,既保证了气膜冷却流场早于或者同步于超声速气流流场的建立,又避免气膜的过早建立以保证热流传感器不过载,从而为精准测量高超声速来流条件下气膜冷却的瞬态热流数据提供了条件,且通过同步控制器的工作时序的控制,保证了风洞运行、气膜运行、及热流测量三者的同步。 The pressure in the 7 cases of the cavity by detecting the tunnel of the embodiment of the present invention and to trigger the establishment of the timing of the gas film according to the detected pressure, both to ensure the film cooling flow field prior to or synchronized to establish the gas flow a supersonic, avoiding gas premature build heat flux sensor to ensure that the film carrier, however, such as precision measurement hypersonic flow to transient heat flow data under conditions of film cooling provided the conditions, by controlling the operation timing and synchronization controller, to ensure the operation of the wind tunnel synchronous operation gas film, and three heat flow.

[0042] 参照图2及图3,在本实施例中,高超声速炮风洞包括依次连接的高压段1、膜腔7、 低压段2、喷管6及实验舱9,其中膜腔7由夹膜机3夹紧两个高压段膜片4形成,在低压段2与喷管6之间经夹膜机3设有用于阻挡低压段2与喷管6的低压段膜片5,在低压段2内设有轻质量活塞8。 [0042] Referring to FIGS. 2 and 3, in the present embodiment, hypersonic wind tunnels gun comprises a high pressure section connected in sequence, the film chamber 7, the low-pressure section 2, the nozzle 6 and JEM 9, wherein the membrane 7 from the chamber capsular two clamping unit 3 diaphragm 4 is formed a high pressure section, the low pressure section between the nozzle 2 and the film 6 via the clip unit 3 is provided for blocking the low pressure section of the low pressure section of the diaphragm 5 and the nozzle 6 is 2, the low pressure section 2 of the piston 8 equipped with a light weight. 高超声速炮风洞主要用于产生高超声气流以进行风洞实验,具体的工作原理如下:试验时,高压段1和低压段2内的气体充至试验所需的压力,在膜腔7内也充气至一定压力,确保高压段1和膜腔7之间的高压段膜片4不破裂,膜腔7与低压段2之间的高压段膜片4不破裂,膜腔7起到了平衡高压段1与低压段2高低压气体的压力差;快速释放膜腔7的气体,位于膜腔7两侧的两个高压段膜片4在高压段1与低压段2之间的压力差作用下先后破裂。 Hypersonic wind tunnels gun mainly used to produce high supersonic gas flow for wind tunnel experiments, specifically works as follows: the test gas in the high pressure section and a low pressure section 2 to the desired filling pressure of the test, the film in the chamber 7 also inflated to a certain pressure, to ensure that the high-pressure section of the high pressure section between the membrane 1 and the film does not rupture chamber 74, the diaphragm membrane chamber 7 between the high pressure section 24 with the low pressure section does not break, the film plays a balanced high-pressure chamber 7 1 and 2 the high pressure section of the low pressure difference between the low pressure section of the gas; fast release film 7, a gas chamber, the two high-pressure stage diaphragm chamber 7 located on both sides of the membrane 4 between the high pressure and the low pressure section of section 2 1 heterodyning He has broken. 此时,高压气体迅速进入到低压段2并推动轻质量活塞8向右推进,在高压的作用下,轻质量活塞8运动速度很快,会在轻质量活塞8前形成正激波。 In this case, high pressure gas to quickly enter into the low-pressure section 2 and the piston 8 is pushed lightweight propulsion right, under the action of pressure, light weight piston 8 moving fast, normal shock will form lightweight front piston 8. 正激波到达低压段膜片5时发生发射,遇到前进的轻质量活塞8,激波反射反复进行,对低压段2管道内气体不断压缩,使其压力、温度提高,压力提高到一定程度,低压段膜片5破裂,高温高压气体进入喷管6膨胀,达到所需的高超声速气流进入实验舱9,气膜冷却模型100即可在实验舱9内即可以进行高超声速气动实验。 Emission occurs when a normal shock wave reaches the low pressure section of the diaphragm 5, the forward face of the piston 8 light weight, shock wave reflection is repeated, the low pressure section of the gas duct 2 continues compressed to a pressure, temperature increase, pressure increase to a certain extent , the low-pressure section of rupture membrane 5, high temperature high pressure gas into the expansion nozzle 6, the gas flow required to achieve hypersonic JEM 9 into the film cooling to the model 100 which can be pneumatically hypersonic experiments in laboratory modules 9.

[0043] 需要说明的是,高超声速炮风洞的运行时间是由低压段2内的气体决定的。 [0043] Incidentally, hypersonic wind tunnel gun running time is determined by the gas in the second low-pressure section. 因为这部分气体作为流动的介质进入喷管6、实验舱9。 Because this part of gas into the nozzle 6, 9 as JEM medium flows. 当这些气体用完后,风洞即运行结束。 When these gases are exhausted, the end of the tunnel that is running. 通常而言这类风洞设备的运行时间在毫秒量级,本方案中的高超声速炮风洞的运行时间为20ms。 Generally such equipment tunnel running time of milliseconds, in this scenario gun hypersonic wind tunnel run time was 20ms. 宏观上虽然风洞的运行时间非常短,但是对于高超声速流动而言已经足够了。 Although the macro wind tunnel running time is very short, but for the purposes of hypersonic flow is sufficient. 通常高超声速流场的建立时间是3~5ms。 Establishing usually hypersonic flow field is 3 ~ 5ms. 这里需要明确几个概念,风洞运行时间是指在高超声速流场建立后风洞稳定运行的时间。 It should be clear a few concepts, wind tunnel running time is the time after the hypersonic wind tunnel flow field to establish stable operation. 而高超声速流场的建立是指风洞气流从开始运动到达到风洞流场的设计状态的这段时间,建立之后才能稳定运行。 The establishment of hypersonic flow field refers to the stable operation after wind tunnel airflow from the beginning of the movement to achieve the design state wind tunnel flow field this time to establish. 另外,风洞的启动时刻是指人为地促使风洞开启的时刻(通俗地说就是膜腔放气的那一瞬间),而从风洞启动到风洞稳定运行结束其时间总长也仅为200ms左右。 Further, the start timing of the tunnel means to artificially induce tunnel open time (layman's terms is deflated membrane chamber that moment), and the tunnel from the tunnel start to the end of its stable operation total time of only 200ms about. 那么如此短的时间对于测试设备提出了较高的要求,必须足够的灵敏、而且测量的时序是可控可调的。 Then such a short time for test equipment put forward higher requirements must be sufficiently sensitive and controllable measurement timing is adjustable. 否则可能测量还未开始,风洞就已经运行结束,那么就无法测量真实流场的参数。 Doing so may measure has not yet begun, the wind tunnel has been run over, then the real parameters of the flow field can not be measured. 所以测试设备的测量时刻必须刚好是在风洞运行的时间内或是稍微提前于风洞运行。 Therefore, measurement time test equipment must be exactly in the wind tunnel time is running slightly ahead or running in the wind tunnel. 另外高超声速炮风洞设备一般很难做长时间运行。 In addition hypersonic wind tunnel equipment gun is very difficult to do a long run. 因此,为了保证在高超声速流场建立的同时在气膜冷却模型100的表面形成冷却气膜, 则气膜冷却喷流的开启时刻要稍早于风洞流场的建立。 Accordingly, in order to ensure a cooling air film established simultaneously in hypersonic flow field is formed on the surface of film cooling model 100, the film cooling jet opening timing earlier to establish a tunnel to the flow field. 在本实施例中,参照图3,同步控制器14的输出端连接有放大触发信号的固态继电器13,固态继电器13连接有用于开启或者关闭气膜冷却喷流的电磁阀。 In the present embodiment, with reference to FIG. 3, the output of the synchronous controller 14 is connected to the trigger signal amplifying solid-state relay 13, solid state relay 13 is connected with a solenoid valve for opening or closing the film cooling jet. 当用于检测膜腔7内的压力值的压力传感器17检测到膜腔7 内压力突然升高时,压力传感器17的输出信号经放大器15放大后输入同步控制器14,同步控制器14按照预先设置的时序输出一个低电平触发信号,该触发信号再经固态继电器13 升压后触发电磁阀开启冷却喷流,从触发信号到开启冷却喷流,通常需要50ms,从而保证了高超声速流场与冷却喷流的同步。 When a sudden increase in the pressure sensor 7 detects the pressure value in the chamber 17 detected by the film membrane pressure chamber 7, the pressure sensor 17 output signal amplifier 15 inputs the amplified synchronous controller 14, the controller 14 according to a predetermined synchronization output timing setting a low level trigger signal, the trigger signal after a solid state relay 13 triggered boost solenoid ON cooling spray from the trigger signal to turn on the cooling jets, usually 50ms, thus ensuring the hypersonic flow field synchronized with the cooling jet.

[0044] 参照图4,在本实施例中,气膜冷却模型100的上游设计有气膜冷却喷口10,该气膜冷却喷口10具有先收缩后扩张的型面,能将气流加速至超声速。 [0044] Referring to FIG 4, in the present embodiment, the upstream design film cooling model 100 have film cooling nozzle 10, the film cooling nozzle 10 having a profile expansion after the first contraction, can gas stream is accelerated to supersonic speed. 而气流的来源由气瓶经气路管道进入喷口前的驻室再通过该气膜冷却喷口10加速喷出。 And the source of the gas flow from the gas cylinder through the air conduit into the chamber in front of the nozzle through the film cooling orifices 10 accelerate the discharge. 为了控制气流的开关,在气路上设置了电磁阀,并将电磁阀的控制信号线经固态继电器13连接至同步控制器14。 For controlling the switching of the gas flow in the gas path is provided an electromagnetic valve, and the solenoid valve control signal line 14 is connected to the synchronization controller 13 via the solid state relay. 当同步控制器14输出触发信号时,电磁阀打开,形成冷却喷流B,与此同时,经高超声速炮风洞建立了高超声速流场A,在高超声速流场A与冷却喷流B之间形成薄薄的冷却气膜,设置在气膜冷却模型100表面的热流传感器11用于检测在高超声速流场A作用下的冷却喷流B的瞬态热流数据。 When the synchronous controller 14 outputs a trigger signal, the solenoid valve is opened, a cooling jet B, at the same time, the gun hypersonic wind tunnel established A hypersonic flow field, the flow field in the hypersonic jet flow A and B of the cooling cooling air is formed between the thin film, heat flux sensor 100 is provided in the surface of the film cooling model 11 for detecting a cooling effect in the a hypersonic jet flow field transient heat flow data B.

[0045] 现有的模型表面热流测量技术可分为两类:一类是进行大面积测量的热图技术; 另一类是基于传感器的热流测量技术。 [0045] The prior art heat flow surface of the mold can be divided into two categories: one is a large area heat FIG measurement technique; Another measurement technique is based on the heat flux sensor. 其中,热图技术包括红外热图、色变热图、相变热图和荧光热图等。 Wherein the thermal infrared image of FIG techniques include, FIG heat discoloration, and the phase change heat FIGS fluorescent thermal FIG like. 这类技术一次实验就可得到全场范围的热流分布,无需在模型上打孔,且显示比较直观,是一种基于光学测量技术的热流测量方法。 Such techniques experiment heat flux distribution can be obtained in the whole range, without puncturing on the model, and more intuitive display, is a measure of heat flow based on optical measurement techniques. 但这类方法测量系统复杂,价格高;受成像系统影响,曲率变化较大处会失真;作为指示剂的色变、相变材料喷涂工艺较严。 However, such methods measuring system complicated, expensive; imaging system affected, the larger curvature is distorted; discoloration as an indicator, the phase change material spraying more stringent. 一般来说,现有的热图技术响应时间相对较长,适合于运行时间较长的风洞,而炮风洞的热图技术仍处于研究阶段。 In general, conventional thermal response time is relatively long FIG art, suitable for long-running wind tunnel, the tunnel heat gun technology is still in the research stage of FIG. 基于传感器的热流测量技术利用传热传感器(如薄膜传热传感器,薄壁或厚壁量热计等)测量局部点的热流。 Heat flow sensor technology using heat sensors (e.g., a thin film heat sensors, thin-walled or thick-walled calorimeter, etc.) based on local points measured heat flow. 这类技术发展历史较长,比较成熟,属于经典测量技术一类,虽然其测试空间精度有限,且要在模型上打传感器安装孔,多少改变了局部几何形状,从而引进测量误差,但由于其精度高、响应快,测试设备简单,仍然作为主要测试手段被广泛采用。 Such a long history of technological development, mature, belongs to a class of classical measurement techniques, although the accuracy of the test space is limited, and playing to the sensor mounting hole on the model, how the local geometry changes, thereby introducing measurement errors, but because of its high precision, fast response, simple test equipment, still as a major means of testing is widely used.

[0046]在本实施例中,采用基于传感器的热流测量技术,参照图5,热流传感器11的测热电路包括恒压源UO及多个相互并联的电桥电路。 [0046] In the present embodiment, based heat flow sensor technology, with reference to FIG. 5, the thermal heat flux sensor sensing circuit 11 includes a constant voltage source and a plurality of UO bridge circuits connected in parallel. 电桥电路的为惠斯通电桥电路,其中桥臂电阻R、Rf、Rs均为精密电阻,桥臂电阻Rs与薄膜热敏电阻Rd串联。 The bridge circuit is a Wheatstone bridge circuit, wherein the bridge arm resistance R, Rf, Rs are precision resistors, in series with resistance Rs arm film thermistor Rd. 桥臂电阻Rf、Rs均按照薄膜热敏电阻Rd在室温下的阻值进行搭配,以使得电桥电路在室温下的初始输出尽量小,避免实验中输出电压超过数据采集系统的量程。 Bridge arm resistance Rf, Rs are in accordance with the thin film thermistor resistance Rd at room temperature to match, so that the initial output bridge circuit as small as possible at room temperature, to avoid exceeding the output voltage range of the experiment data acquisition system. 其中,薄膜热敏电阻Rd与电桥电路的输出电压值Ui之间的关系为: Wherein the output voltage of the thin film thermistor bridge circuit Rd and the relationship between the values ​​Ui:

Figure CN103398835BD00071

[0048] 通过输出电压值Ui即可换算出薄膜热敏电阻Rd的阻值,而薄膜热敏电阻Rd的电阻温度关系在一定范围内具有良好的线形性,其关系可以用表示: [0048] Ui to the output voltage in terms of the thin film thermistor resistance Rd, and Rd thermistor thin film resistance temperature relationship with good linearity within a certain range, which relationship can be expressed by:

Figure CN103398835BD00072

[0050] 上式中,RO为薄膜热敏电阻在0°C时的阻值,Ct为电阻温度系数,AR为电阻变化量,AT为温度变化量。 [0050] In the above formula, RO is a thermistor resistance at a film at 0 ° C, Ct is the temperature coefficient of resistance, AR is the resistance change amount, AT is a temperature variation.

[0051] 较佳地,热流传感器11为多个,在气膜冷却模型100表面形成热流传感器阵列。 [0051] Preferably, a plurality of heat flow sensors 11, 100 are formed in the surface of the heat flux sensor array film cooling model. 由于各个热流传感器11的阻值不同,需要针对各个热流传感器11分别设置电桥电路。 Since the resistance of each of the different heat flux sensor 11, we need to be set for each bridge circuit heat flux sensor 11.

[0052] 根据本发明的另一方面,还提供一种基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试方法,参照图6,包括以下步骤: [0052] According to another aspect of the present invention further provides film cooling test method based on transient heat gun hypersonic wind tunnel, with reference to FIG. 6, comprising the steps of:

[0053] 步骤SlO:开启高超声速炮风洞; [0053] Step SlO: Open gun hypersonic wind tunnel;

[0054] 本实施例中,将高超声速炮风洞的高压段1、低压段2及膜腔7内充入不同压力的气体,并人为促使膜腔7快速放气,风洞启动。 [0054] In this embodiment, the high-pressure stage hypersonic wind tunnel gun 1, the inflation gas at different pressures and the low-pressure stage 2 film chamber 7, and in order to induce rapid deflation film chamber 7, tunnel starts. 由于压差升高导致靠近高压段1 一侧的高压段膜片4破裂,高压段1内的高压气体进入膜腔7,使膜腔7内压力瞬间升高。 Since the increase in pressure results in a high pressure section of the side close to the high-pressure section of rupture of the membrane 4, a high-pressure gas in the high pressure section of the chamber 7 into the membrane, the membrane pressure chamber 7 rises instantaneously.

[0055] 步骤S20 :检测高超声速炮风洞膜腔7内的压力值; [0055] Step S20: detecting a pressure value in the hypersonic wind tunnel film gun chamber 7;

[0056] 膜腔7设有用于检测膜腔7内压力值的压力传感器17,当膜腔7的压力值瞬间升高时,压力传感器17生成阶跃信号。 [0056] The film chamber 7 is provided with a pressure sensor for detecting a pressure value 7 of the membrane chamber 17, the membrane when the pressure chamber 7 increases the value of the moment, pressure sensor 17 generates a step signal.

[0057] 步骤S30 :当膜腔7内的压力值瞬间升高时,开启气膜冷却喷流以使得位于实验舱9内的气膜冷却模型100表面形成的冷却气膜不晚于高超声速炮风洞的建立; [0057] Step S30: when the pressure in the membrane chamber 7 instantaneous value increases, the opening jet film cooling JEM 100 positioned so that the surface of the film cooling within the model 9 a cooling air film is formed no later than the gun hypersonic the establishment of wind tunnel;

[0058] 在本实施例中,压力传感器17经放大器15连接同步控制器14,同步控制器14的输出端经固态继电器13连接电磁阀,电磁阀位于给气膜冷却喷口10提供气源的气路上,电磁阀用于控制气路的导通或者关闭。 [0058] In the present embodiment, the pressure sensor 17 through the amplifier 15 is connected to the synchronization controller 14, the output of synchronous controller 14 via the solid state relay 13 is connected to the solenoid valve, the solenoid valve is provided to the air film cooling air jets 10 way solenoid valve for controlling the passage of gas is turned on or off. 当膜腔7内的压力值瞬间升高时,压力传感器17输出的阶跃信号经放大器15放大后输出给同步控制器14,同步控制器14按照预设的工作时序生成触发信号。 When the momentary pressure in the membrane chamber 7 rises, the output of the pressure sensor 17 after step signal 15 amplified by the amplifier output to the synchronization controller 14, the controller 14 according to a preset synchronous operation timing of a trigger signal. 本发明实施例通过检测风洞的模腔7内的压力并根据检测的压力触发气膜的建立时机,既保证了气膜冷却流场早于或者同步于超声速气流流场的建立,又避免气膜的过早建立以保证热流传感器不过载,从而为精准测量高超声速来流条件下气膜冷却的瞬态热流数据提供了条件,且通过同步控制器的工作时序的控制,保证了风洞运行、气膜运行、及热流测量三者的同步。 The pressure in the 7 cases of the cavity by detecting the tunnel of the embodiment of the present invention and to trigger the establishment of the timing of the gas film according to the detected pressure, both to ensure the film cooling flow field prior to or synchronized to establish the gas flow a supersonic, avoiding gas premature build heat flux sensor to ensure that the film carrier, however, such as precision measurement hypersonic flow to transient heat flow data under conditions of film cooling provided the conditions, by controlling the operation timing and synchronization controller, to ensure the operation of the wind tunnel synchronous operation gas film, and three heat flow. 本实施例中,同步控制器14输出的触发信号电压只有5V,经过固态继电器13将触发信号的电压提升至24V,以触发电磁阀打开,从而在气膜冷却喷口10 处形成冷却喷流B,冷却喷流B覆盖气膜冷却模型100的表面。 In this embodiment, the trigger signal voltage output from the synchronization controller 14 is only 5V, solid state relay 13 through the trigger voltage signal is raised to 24V, in order to trigger the solenoid valve is opened, thereby forming the cooling jet flow B at the film cooling orifices 10, B spray cooling surface covering film cooling flow model 100.

[0059] 步骤S40 :测量气膜冷却模型100表面的热流数据。 [0059] Step S40: measuring the heat flow data 100 film cooling the surface of the model.

[0060] 气膜冷却模型100的表面设置热流传感器11,热流传感器11检测气膜冷却模型100表面的热流数据。 [0060] Model 100 surface film cooling heat flux sensor 11 is provided, the data 100 heat flux sensor 11 detects the surface of the film cooling model. 优选地,本实施例中个,在在气膜冷却模型100表面分别有多个热流传感器11,以形成热流传感器阵列,用于测量同一时刻气膜冷却模型100表面多个位置的热流数据。 Preferably, in one embodiment of the present embodiment, a plurality of heat flow sensors 11 respectively on the surface of film cooling model 100, heat flow to form a sensor array, for measuring the heat flow data 100 positions the plurality of film cooling surface model of the same time. 热流传感器阵列的输出数据经数字信号采集器12存储至计算机16内以供后续的分析。 Subsequent analysis flux sensor array output data via the digital data acquisition device 12 to the computer 16 for storage.

[0061] 优选地,热流传感器11在执行步骤SlO之前已处于工作状态,这样,当高超声速流场A与冷却喷流B形成时,热流传感器11能准确测量高超声速来流条件下气膜冷却的瞬态热流数据,其中,气膜的开启时刻不过比超声速炮风洞的建立时刻提前过多,仅需比风洞运行早20ms左右,避免热流传感器11过载。 [0061] Preferably, the heat flux sensor 11 before performing step SlO is in working condition, so that, when the hypersonic flow field A and the cooling jet B is formed, heat flow sensor 11 can accurately measure the hypersonic to flow under conditions of film cooling transient heat flow data, wherein, however, the opening timing of the air film established time gun than supersonic wind tunnel too early, early run only the wind tunnel than about 20ms, heat flow sensor 11 to avoid overload.

[0062] 优选地,本实施例中的热流传感器11包括恒压源电路及设于恒压源电路两端用于输出电压值的电桥电路,电桥电路的至少一个桥臂上设有薄膜热敏电阻。 [0062] Preferably, in the embodiment of the heat flux sensor 11 of the present embodiment includes a constant voltage power supply circuit and at least one bridge circuit is provided at both ends of the constant voltage source for the bridge circuit output voltage value, the bridge circuit is provided with a thin film of arm thermistor.

[0063] 图7示出了本发明优选实施例基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试方法的工作时序示意图。 [0063] FIG. 7 shows a schematic view of the present invention is preferably based on the operation timing of the test method hypersonic film cooling tunnel transient heat gun embodiment. 本发明基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统及方法, 通过测量高超声速炮风洞膜腔7内的压力值,使得气膜冷却喷流的开启时刻稍微提前于风洞流场建立,以保证在风洞流场建立的同时,冷却喷流流场亦同时建立,从而为测量高超声速来流条件下气膜冷却的瞬态热流数据提供了条件,且保证了热流传感器11不过载,精确测量在高超声速来流条件下气膜冷却的瞬态热流数据。 Transient film cooling heat gun wind tunnel test system and method of the present invention hypersonic, by measuring the pressure value in the hypersonic wind tunnel film gun chamber 7, the opening timing such that the film cooling of the jet stream slightly ahead of tunnel field established to ensure that while the wind tunnel flow field established jet cooling flow field is also established at the same time, so as to measure the transient heat flow to hypersonic data under conditions of film cooling provided the conditions, and to ensure that the heat flux sensor 11 However carrier, accurate measurement of the incoming flow hypersonic transient heat flow data under conditions of film cooling. 本发明实施例通过同步控制器14 的工作时序的控制,保证了风洞运行、气膜运行、及热流测量三者的同步。 Embodiments of the present invention by controlling the operation timing of synchronous controller 14, to ensure the operation of the wind tunnel, air film synchronous operation, and the three measured heat flow.

[0064] 以上仅为本发明的优选实施例而已,并不用于限制本发明,对于本领域的技术人员来说,本发明可以有各种更改和变化。 [0064] The above is merely illustrate the preferred embodiments of the present invention, not intended to limit the present invention, those skilled in the art, the present invention may have various changes and variations. 凡在本发明的精神和原则之内,所作的任何修改、 等同替换、改进等,均应包含在本发明的保护范围之内。 Any modification within the spirit and principle of the present invention, made, equivalent substitutions, improvements, etc., should be included within the scope of the present invention.

Claims (4)

  1. 1. 一种基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统,所述高超声速炮风洞包括依次连接的高压段(1)、膜腔(7)、低压段(2)、喷管(6)及实验舱(9),其特征在于, 包括用于检测所述膜腔(7)内压力的压力传感器(17); 所述压力传感器(17)经放大器(15)连接有同步控制器(14),所述同步控制器(14)根据经所述放大器(15)放大后的压力信号生成触发信号,所述触发信号用于控制设于所述实验舱(9)内气膜冷却模型(100)表面生成气膜冷却喷流的时机; 所述气膜冷却模型(100)表面设有热流传感器(11),所述热流传感器(11)的输出端经数字信号采集器(12)连接计算机(16); 所述数字信号采集器(12)的控制端连接至所述同步控制器(14),所述数字信号采集器(12)根据所述同步控制器(14)的工作时序采集来自所述热流传感器(11)的数据; 所述计算机(16) A gun hypersonic wind tunnel film cooling transient heat test system, a high pressure stage hypersonic gun (1), a membrane chamber (7) connected in sequence comprises a wind tunnel, the low pressure section (2), spraying tube (6) and JEM (9), characterized in that it comprises a pressure sensor for detecting the membrane chamber (7) of the pressure (17); said pressure sensor (17) via an amplifier (15) connected with the synchronization the controller (14), said synchronous controller (14) (15) generates a pressure signal amplified by the amplifier according to a trigger signal, the trigger signal is provided for controlling the JEM (9) within the gas film cooling model (100) generates a timing surface film cooling jet; the film cooling model (100) is provided with a surface heat flux sensor (11), said heat flux sensor (11) via the digital output terminal of the data acquisition device (12 ) connected to a computer (16); a control terminal of the digital signal collector (12) connected to the synchronous controller (14), said digital data acquisition device (12) operates according to said synchronous controller (14) collecting data from the timing of the heat flux sensor (11); said computer (16) 于控制所述同步控制器(14)的工作时序及存储所述数字信号采集器(12)采集的热流数据。 Controlling said synchronous controller (14) and operation timing storing said digital signal collector (12) collecting a heat flow data.
  2. 2. 根据权利要求1所述的基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统,其特征在于, 所述同步控制器(14)的输出端连接有放大所述触发信号的固态继电器(13),所述固态继电器(13)连接有用于开启或者关闭气膜冷却喷流的电磁阀。 The film cooling transient heat gun wind tunnel test system hypersonic according to claim 1, wherein said synchronous controller (14) connected to the output terminal of the amplifying solid-state relay trigger signal (13), said solid state relay (13) connected to the solenoid valve for opening or closing the film cooling jet.
  3. 3. 根据权利要求1所述的基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统,其特征在于, 所述热流传感器(11)包括恒压源电路及设于所述恒压源电路两端用于输出电压值的电桥电路,所述电桥电路的至少一个桥臂上设有薄膜热敏电阻。 The film cooling transient heat gun wind tunnel test system hypersonic according to claim 1, wherein said heat flux sensor (11) comprises a constant voltage source circuit and the constant voltage power supply circuit provided in both ends of the bridge circuit for the output voltage value of the bridge circuit, at least one bridge arm is provided with a thin film thermistor.
  4. 4. 根据权利要求3所述的基于高超声速炮风洞的气膜冷却瞬态热流测试系统,其特征在于, 所述热流传感器(11)为多个,在所述气膜冷却模型(100)表面形成热流传感器阵列。 4. The film cooling transient heat gun test system based on hypersonic wind tunnel according to claim 3, wherein said heat flux sensor (11) is a plurality of film cooling in the model (100) surface heat flux sensor array.
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CN102928189A (en) * 2012-05-25 2013-02-13 中国科学院力学研究所 Experimental device for reducing heat flow rate by applying local reverse overflow of aircraft

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