CN103385353B - Penaeus vannamei compound feed special for high salinity cultivation and preparation method of compound feed - Google Patents

Penaeus vannamei compound feed special for high salinity cultivation and preparation method of compound feed Download PDF

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CN103385353B
CN103385353B CN201310313240.2A CN201310313240A CN103385353B CN 103385353 B CN103385353 B CN 103385353B CN 201310313240 A CN201310313240 A CN 201310313240A CN 103385353 B CN103385353 B CN 103385353B
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parts
meal
feed
vitamin
compound feed
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CN201310313240.2A
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CN103385353A (en
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王胜
刘永坚
田丽霞
阳会军
梁桂英
薛华
钱雪桥
江谢武
齐振雄
陈中柱
王勇
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中山大学
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Abstract

The invention belongs to the field of feeds, relates to an aquiculture feed and particularly relates to a penaeus vannamei compound feed special for high salinity (over 3%) cultivation and a preparation method of the compound feed. The penaeus vannamei compound feed contains 3-6 parts of euphausiid meal, 20-35 parts of fish meal, 2-4 parts of fly maggot meal, 3-7 parts of chicken meal, 1-5 parts of silkworm chrysalis meal, 2-6 parts of squid liver paste, 2-5 parts of shrimp shell meal, 1-3 parts of algae powder, 3-8 parts of fermented soybean meal, 3-13 parts of soybean meal, 3-8 parts of peanut meal, 2-7 parts of corn gluten meal, 10-20 parts of wheat flour, 4-10 parts of monosaccharide and/or oligosaccharide, 2-6 parts of sleeve fish liver meal, 2-4 parts of fish oil, 1-2 parts of soybean oil, 1-3 parts of soybean phospholipid powder, 0.1-0.4 part of choline chloride and 1-3 parts of monocalcium phosphate. The penaeus vannamei compound feed is capable of meeting the growth requirement of penaeus vannamei for nutrition under high salinity (over 3%), good in stability in water, strong in anti-stress capability, high in survival rate and growth speed and low in feed coefficient.

Description

A kind of high salinity cultivates special litopenaeus vannamei compound feed and preparation method thereof

Technical field

The invention belongs to field of fodder, relate to a kind of aquaculture feed, particularly relate to a kind of high salinity (more than 30 ‰) and cultivate special litopenaeus vannamei compound feed and preparation method thereof.

Background technology

In recent years, Penaeus Vannmei expands rapidly at China's cultured area, and total output and total benefit also increase substantially.In China's culture of Penaeus vannamei region, seawater high salinity is mainly divided into cultivate (Zhanjiang, Hainan as Guangdong), fresh water low salinity stocking (Pearl River Delta as Guangdong) and brackish water aquaculture region.Under summer burning sun, along with the evaporation of moisture, salinity can be constantly soaring, water body environment changed comparatively large, especially very obvious in region, Hainan.

Prawn generally carries out osmotic pressure adjustment around its isotonic point to the adaptation of environment, and osmotic pressure adjustment is a physiology course needing consumes energy.Penaeus Vannmei is euryhalinous kind, there is stronger osmotic pressure regulating power, optimal salinity is 14--22 ‰, but be all can grow between 0--40 ‰ in salinity, by the adaptation of certain hour, the low salinity water that can survive in 1-2 ‰ is even in fresh water, also can adapt to the water environment of 40 ‰ or more high salinity.When salinity higher than 26 ‰ time because health is inside and outside, to there is larger osmotic pressure gradient poor, and Penaeus Vannmei is the osmotic equilibrium maintaining self, needs to expend more energy, thus can affect it to a certain extent and grow.

Meanwhile, under high salinity, the harmful microbe breedings such as vibrios are very fast, and Penaeus Vannmei physique declines, and easily falls ill.Simultaneously, under high salinity is coerced, the ingesting of Penaeus Vannmei is slowed down and is caused feed a part molten mistake waste in water, prawn body endoenzyme activity decrease causes feed coefficient to raise, water nutrition is enriched, the raising of intensive degree makes Cultivated water pollution be on the rise thus cause the frequent generation of disease, and these all seriously annoying the sound development of shrimp culture industry.

Summary of the invention

For above deficiency, the invention provides the preparation method that one can meet the nutritional need of Penaeus Vannmei growth under high salinity (more than 30 ‰), water stability is good, anti-stress ability is strong, survival rate is high, growth is fast, feed coefficient is low, economical and practical litopenaeus vannamei compound feed and this feed.

The present invention is achieved the above object by following scheme:

Invention provides a kind of high salinity and cultivates special litopenaeus vannamei compound feed, comprise the component of following parts by weight: krill meal 3-6 part, fish meal 20-35 part, fly maggot powder 2-4 part, chicken meal 3-7 part, dried silkworm chrysalis meal 1-5 part, cuttlefish cream 2-6 part, shrimp shell meal 2-5 part, seawood meal 1-3 part, fermented bean dregs 3-8 part, dregs of beans 3-13 part, peanut meal 3-8 part, corn protein powder 2-7 part, wheat flour 10-20 part, monose and/or oligosaccharides 4-10 part, squid viscera powder 2-6 part, fish oil 2-4 part, soya-bean oil 1-2 part, soybean lecithin powder 1-3 part, Choline Chloride 0.1-0.4 part, calcium dihydrogen phosphate 1-3 part.

Preferably, described fish meal, the content of its thick protein reaches more than 64 parts; Described dregs of beans, the content of its thick protein reaches more than 46 parts.The preferred Kelp Powder of described seawood meal.

Above-mentioned formula, by multiple protein source raw material, fat source raw material, sugared source raw material, forms trophic structure reasonable.The nutritional labeling composition that this high salinity cultivates special litopenaeus vannamei compound feed is by weight percentage: crude protein 43-45 part, crude fat 6-8 part, total reducing sugar 19-30 part, crude fibre 3-6 part, ash 9-13 part, salinity 1-3 part, total phosphorus 1-2 part, moisture 9-12 part.Its trophic structure feature is especially adapted to the physilogical characteristics of Penaeus Vannmei under high salinity environment, the high-quality and efficient protein sources that content is higher can provide sufficient protein, the consumption of lower energy is coerced for replenishing high salinity, fat content/content of cellulose on the low side and phagostimulant are conducive to promoting to ingest the decline of ingesting under avoiding high salinity to coerce simultaneously, and rational aliphatic acid composition is beneficial to raising anti-stress ability.

In invention, indication high salinity cultivates special Penaeus Vannmei, refers to the prawn being grown on salinity more than 30 ‰.The normally prawn of seashore cultivation.

Described monose and/or oligosaccharides can be one or more in glucose, sucrose, manna oligosacchride, FOS.Such as can be preferably glucose 2-5 part, sucrose 2-5 part.

As preferred formula, above-mentioned feed also can contain vitamin 0.1-0.2 part, such as, be one or more in vitamin A, vitamine D3, vitamin E, Vitamin K3, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, biotin, nicotinic acid, calcium pantothenate, folic acid, inositol, VC monophosphate fat.

As preferred formula, above-mentioned feed also can contain mineral matter, such as, be one or more in calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, cobalt, iodine, selenium.

As the preferred embodiment of one, the B B-complex content in feed per ton is: vitamin A 400-600 ten thousand IU, vitamine D3 200-400 ten thousand IU, vitamin E 100-200g, Vitamin K3 6-15g, vitamin B1 4-8 g, vitamin B2 10-20g, vitamin B6 10-15g, vitamin B12 20-30mg, biotin 70-90mg, nicotinic acid 40-50g, calcium pantothenate 25-35g, folic acid 1-4g, inositol 100-200g, VC monophosphate fat 800-1200g; Also can containing the person's of having a surplus defatted rice bran.Or more preferably: vitamin A 5,000,000 IU, vitamine D3 3,000,000 IU, vitamin E 155g, Vitamin K3 10g, vitamin B1 6 g, vitamin B2 17g, vitamin B6 13g, vitamin B12 25mg, biotin 88mg, nicotinic acid 45g, calcium pantothenate 28g, folic acid 2.8g, inositol 160g, VC monophosphate fat 1150g, the rest is defatted rice bran.

As the preferred embodiment of one, the composite mineral matter content in feed per ton is: calcium 60-80g, phosphorus 80-100g, potassium 70-90g, magnesium 10-20g, iron 1-3g, zinc 15-20g, copper 2-5g, cobalt 150-180mg, iodine 40-60mg, selenium 3-5mg, also can containing the person's of having a surplus zeolite powder.Or more preferably: calcium 70g, phosphorus 90g, potassium 80g, magnesium 15g, iron 1.5g, zinc 18g, copper 3.8g, cobalt 170mg, iodine 50mg, selenium 3. 9mg, the rest is zeolite powder.

Preferably, feed of the present invention is also containing polysaccharide 0.1-0.3 part, antibacterial peptide 0.02-1 part, probiotics preparation 0.01-0.05 part, non-starch polysaccharide enzyme 0.02-0.06 part.

Described polysaccharide is two or more mixtures of a kind of or arbitrary proportion in B-glucan, shitosan, oligoisomaltose.

Described probio is one or more in bacillus, lactic acid bacteria, saccharomycete.As the preferred scheme of one, adoptable probiotics preparation is the mixture of bacillus 0.02 part, lactic acid bacteria 0.02 part, 0.01 part, saccharomycete.

Described non-starch polysaccharide enzyme can be selected from cellulase, zytase, 1,4 beta-glucanase one or more, effectively can be difficult to the SNSP utilized by prawn in the raw material such as enzymolysis seawood meal, improve the utilization rate of its nutritional labeling.

Preferred antibacterial peptide can be Antibacterial Peptide or fly maggot antibacterial peptide or both mixtures.

Preferably, described mixed feed, also containing moulting hormone 0.1 ~ 0.2 part.Can preferred plant moulting hormone, such as extract from the plants such as the pteridophyte wall fern and ginkgo, podocarpus, amaranth, mountain, river knee, Japanese yew and mulberry and the similar material of a kind of and moulting hormone that obtains, also have exuviation to crustacean.There is the hormone of decorticating to be added in feed with certain dosage to A prime animal these, suitably can promote the growth of Penaeus Vannmei.Phytoecdysone can derive from retrievable conventional crustacean feed moulting hormone on market.

Preferably, feed of the present invention can add antioxidant 0.02-0. 04 part, mould inhibitor 0.03-0.05 part further.Conventional antioxidant and anticorrisive agent can be selected.Preferred antioxidant is if dibutyl is through both mixtures of base toluene or ethoxyquinoline or arbitrary proportion; Mould inhibitor is as both mixtures of Sodium Benzoate or formic acid or arbitrary proportion.

As the preferred embodiment of one, on the basis of above-mentioned main formula (formula containing adequate nutrition structure), the present invention with the addition of immunopotentiator, probiotics preparation, enzyme preparation, B B-complex and composite mineral salt etc. further, improves cultivation output further.

Such as, in a kind of preferred scheme, high salinity cultivates special litopenaeus vannamei compound feed, following component is comprised: krill meal 3-6 part with air-dry thing weight percent meter, fish meal 20-35 part, fly maggot powder 2-4 part, chicken meal 3-7 part, dried silkworm chrysalis meal 1-5 part, cuttlefish cream 2-6 part, shrimp shell meal 2-5 part, Kelp Powder 1-3 part, fermented bean dregs 3-8 part, dregs of beans 3-13 part, peanut meal 3-8 part, corn protein powder 2-7 part, wheat flour 10-20 part, glucose 2-5 part, sucrose 2-5 part, squid viscera powder 2-6 part, fish oil 2-4 part, soya-bean oil 1-2 part, soybean lecithin powder 1-3 part, Choline Chloride 0.1-0.4 part, B B-complex 0.1-0.2 part, composite mineral matter 1-3 part, calcium dihydrogen phosphate 1-3 part, immune polysaccharide 0.1-0.3 part, antibacterial peptide 0.02-1 part, probiotics preparation 0.01-0.05 part, non-starch polysaccharide enzyme 0.02-0.06 part, antioxidant 0. 02-0. 04 part, mould inhibitor 0.03-0.05 part, phytoecdysone 0.1-0.2 part.

Preferred, with air-dry thing weight percent meter, this feed is made up of following component: krill meal 3 parts, fish meal 25 parts, fly maggot powder 3 parts, chicken meal 3 parts, dried silkworm chrysalis meal 2 parts, cuttlefish cream 5 parts, shrimp shell meal 5 parts, Kelp Powder 2 parts, fermented bean dregs 3 parts, dregs of beans 4.88 parts, peanut meal 3 parts, corn protein powder 3 parts, wheat flour strength flour 2 parts, wheat flour 10 parts, glucose 3 parts, sucrose 3 parts, 3 parts, squid viscera powder, 3 parts, fish oil, 1.5 parts, soya-bean oil, 2 parts, soybean lecithin powder, Choline Chloride 0.3 part, B B-complex 0.2 part, composite mineral matter 2 parts, calcium dihydrogen phosphate 2 parts, shelling element 0.12 part, immune polysaccharide 0.3 part, antibacterial peptide 0.5 part, probiotics preparation 0.05 part, non-starch polysaccharide enzyme 0.05 part, antioxidant 0. 03 parts, mould inhibitor 0.05 part.

Present invention also offers a kind of high salinity of preparing and cultivate special litopenaeus vannamei compound feed, comprise the steps:

1) Choline Chloride of corresponding weight is taken by litopenaeus vannamei compound feed formula, B B-complex, composite mineral matter, immune polysaccharide, antioxidant, mould inhibitor carry out premixed;

2) except fish oil, other raw materials of corresponding weight are taken by litopenaeus vannamei compound feed formula;

3) by step 1) and step 2) mixing of materials that obtains, mixture is pulverized;

4) material after pulverizing is sent into micronizer to pulverize;

5) material after pulverizing is added the fish oil of corresponding weight and the water of 30-50 kg/tonne of feed, then mix;

6) mixed material is sent into treat granulation storehouse, through double-deck quality controling machine, and add steam, with granulator, mixture is made feed granules;

7) feed granules to be remained in stable ager in 100-105 DEG C 45 minutes;

8) with cold wind dehydration, cooling, particle temperature is made to be down to room temperature;

9) particle is passed through disintegrating machine, then riddler classification is revolved in inflow, the particle material between standard screen 32 order and 22 orders is mixed feed.

The invention has the advantages that:

1) owing to adding the immunopotentiator such as immune polysaccharide, antibacterial peptide in feed of the present invention, such that Penaeus Vannmei premunition is strong, survival rate is high, good, the resistance to long-distance transport of vigor