CN103374899A - Serial technology designing scheme for silt discharging system of reservoir - Google Patents

Serial technology designing scheme for silt discharging system of reservoir Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103374899A
CN103374899A CN2012101203201A CN201210120320A CN103374899A CN 103374899 A CN103374899 A CN 103374899A CN 2012101203201 A CN2012101203201 A CN 2012101203201A CN 201210120320 A CN201210120320 A CN 201210120320A CN 103374899 A CN103374899 A CN 103374899A
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China
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silt
valve
reservoir
row
control
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CN2012101203201A
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Chinese (zh)
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陈学生
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陈学生
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Abstract

A serial technology designing scheme for a silt discharging system of a reservoir is mainly composed of designing schemes for a silt discharging pipe network, silt discharging valves, working platforms, siltation thickness measuring instruments, a control room, operation technologies and methods and the like. A reservoir bottom discharging mode is adopted, the silt discharging system taking care of longitudinal and transverse directions is formed by fanning out from a point to an area with minimum devices and pipelines and the drastic effect is really achieved. The designing scheme integrates silt discharging, irrigation and flood discharging, the safety factor of the reservoir is improved, and the designing scheme has the good energy-saving and environment-friendly comprehensive benefit.

Description

A kind of reservoir is arranged silt system series technique design scheme
The invention belongs to the hydraulic engineering technical field, particularly a kind of reservoir is removed the series technique design scheme of shoal materials system.
Reservoir sedimentation is a unsolved difficult problem of all times, even if vegetation is regional preferably, a reservoir is after having used many decades, and Sediment Siltation is still serious, usually loses the water storage space more than 60%.If Loess Plateau is built reservoir in China, addressing causes considerable trouble, and maximum problem is exactly a large amount of silts that come with water, builds a reservoir and does not often use 10 years and just scrapped, and there is no lack of precedents for this.External most typical example is exactly Egypt " the large reservoir in Aswan " (Na Saier lake) that the former Soviet Union helps build, former expectation was just scrapped in 500 years, reality only used for two more than ten years, and just alluvial is serious, and produced a series of ecological problem, its main cause exactly effectively the row of discharging water become silted up, these problems are because the limitation of technology or thinking aspect at that time certainly.
Solve reservoir (lake) alluvial problem, popular way is exactly mechanical desilting always, and it is better that this method is applicable to vegetation, and traffic (particularly water transportation) is area preferably also, although expense is higher, does and once can protect for ten several years and have not big harm.The dredging method of " hold arrange clearly muddy " of China's research experiment it is reported and implement for many years at the Sanmenxia Reservoir that effect is fine in recent years, and this may be one of the best way for solving the existing and potential alluvial problem of Three Gorges Reservoir.But do not have in the world perfection or absolute thing, the dredging method of " hold arrange clearly muddy " also has a scope of application, and specific condition is exactly the super-huge reservoir that can retaining can open the navigation or air flight again and navigate that the interception great rivers are built.Wideless for the basin, come water not bery abundant, " the large trick of belly is short " mainly by the reservoir of retaining in flood season, can not discharge water to arrange at large throttle valve in flood season and become silted up, if will solve its alluvial problem, then need look for another way.
Purpose of the present invention is exactly for the problems referred to above, takes brand-new scheme, and design and installation one row's silt system solves a Sediment Siltation difficult problem from foundation when building reservoir.
This design scheme is more succinct, mainly by the desilting tube net, and desilting valve, working platform, the design schemes such as deposition thickness measuring instrument and operation control technology and control method form.
The desilting tube net is comprised of trunk line and branch pipe(tube), can cast by the field by using reinforced concrete, also can adopt iron and steel casting, or adopts other material to make.The trunk line internal diameter generally is not less than 2 meters, and the branch pipe(tube) internal diameter is not less than 1.4 meters, can do more to large-scale, super-huge reservoir, and pipe thickness is generally from tens of millimeters to thousands of millimeters.Certainly these data should be according to different materials and the size that is implemented reservoir, and particularly the degree of depth of storehouse water is adjusted, and total requirement is that the row of being beneficial to becomes silted up, and can permanently sustain immense pressure and the water erosion of storehouse water.The reinforced concrete casting also divides two kinds of methods: the one, and on-the-spot integral cast, the 2nd, prefabricated component.Here take on-the-spot integral cast as example, if new reservoir, dam foundation put in order with the storehouse in, under the prerequisite that particularly bottom of the reservior has been put in order, begin inwardly to excavate irrigation canals and ditches (trunk canal and branch canal) from the storehouse mouth.Irrigation canals and ditches excavate the good concrete casting of just using of compacting, then good reinforced iron cage is placed in it just will to tie up the weldering knot, inside concrete casting one time, again with arc formwork in the iron cage to the upper support jail, can cast, make it become a tight integral body, the rear surface of having cast is not higher than the earth's surface, bottom of the reservior substantially, requires every section (individual) reinforced iron cage junction to weld.Will the row of reservation silt hole when wiretie iron cage, and in the process of casting with desilting valve valve pocket (see below and chat) fixed installation therein, external annulus one end is up.Trunk line will be poured into the reservoir center, also can extend forward as the case may be.Pay special attention to: supervisor (canal) road must tilt to the storehouse mouth, and arm (canal) road must tilt to trunk line, and all is to go and return without undue delay not turn round.Can set up 1 for the horizontal super-huge reservoir of wider (the storehouse mouth is also wider)---2 trunk lines, and supporting branch pipe(tube) and relevant device.For the ease of the total lock of the row's of installation silt, inside about 15 meters from the storehouse mouth, available steel cast tube road.The major function of this lock is to prevent that the inoperative personnel from entering, to guarantee reservoir safety.
Trunk line from the storehouse mouth begin 500 meters, then make diameter by about 1000 meters at interval and be not less than 1 meter the row hole of becoming silted up, row's silt hole ask apart from principle it is that storehouse water is darker, its interval is longer, otherwise just suitably shortens.Branch pipe(tube) did not meet at right angles with being connected of trunk line, and both sides do not become symmetrical connection (hundreds of rice stagger).The length of branch pipe(tube) reaches with the spacing that is connected of trunk line decides on the reservoir size, connects about 600 meters of spacing reference numbers.If iron and steel casting or precast reinforced concrete spare can be accepted or rejected according to above-mentioned parameter.
Desilting valve is by valve pocket, and valve gap and elevating lever form, and require certain fineness, and chromium plating.This desilting valve is " plug formula diving valve " (if there are substitute products in market, that is just better).Valve pocket is the circular steel bushing that an end has external annulus, and take trunk line row silt hole as example, the valve pocket external diameter is slightly less than 1000 millimeters, 800 millimeters of internal diameters, and high (deeply) about 500 millimeters, about 60 millimeters of circumscribed circle ring width, thick about 150 millimeters,
Valve gap is comprised of spool and elevating lever, the valve gap appearance is circular, 1060 millimeters of diameters, thick about 100 millimeters, there is cylindrical spool in the centre down, valve core diameter is about 300 millimeters less than 800 millimeters, the cushion pad that 1060 millimeters of one diameters of suit, thick about 150 millimeters materials such as water-fast plastic cement are made on it (also can).There is dark about 250 millimeters screwed hole in the valve cover surfaces centre.
Elevating lever is the steel pole, 200 millimeters of diameters are about 4060 millimeters, and one about 250 millimeters have screw thread, from a threaded end up about 2 meters and 3.75 meters respectively have 20 millimeters of diameters to wearing circular hole, on the distance about 80 millimeters places, top have 60 millimeters of diameters to wearing circular hole.First elevating lever is pierced into (see below and chat) during installation from the circular hole of second layer platform, from the circular hole of first floor platform, pass, precession screws in the screwed hole that is fastened in advance the valve gap on the valve pocket again, then wire rope is pierced into up in the circular hole on nearly top (fasten on working platform in advance the other end of wire rope), then will tangle end to end and together after upwards moving it to working platform with ready rope, be fixed on again on the electric capstan finally by the Hanging roller of installing in advance, adjust central point, vertical with elevating lever up and down to guarantee wire rope.
Working platform, the first scheme are the whole-steel structure.Three root posts are striden desilting valve and are built (accomplishing fluently first pedestal), be equidistant between the three, all inwardly slightly tilt with same angle, draw fixing (cross section herein is exactly an equilateral triangle) every several meters with steel bar (rod) is horizontal between every root post.The top layer platform can be made the pavilion formula building of better appearance, and the energy sunshade rain-proof can be protected indoor equipment, and be furnished with iron stairs for about the administrative staff.The platform centre has the circular steel cover plate of 1.35 meters of diameters (to be called for short closing disk, together lower), cover the circular hole of 1.30 meters of diameters, there is the circular hole of 0.25 meter of a diameter at the closing disk center, welds symmetrically two arc-shaped limit sheets (lower with) down on the about 0.645 meter circumference of an identity distance centre point.About 1.6 meters is the first floor platform apart from the bottom of the reservior, there is the about 1.15 meters closing disk of diameter one in the centre, cover the circular hole of 1.10 meters of diameters, the center has a diameter to be slightly larger than 0.2 meter circular hole (together lower), after installing, elevating lever is about 0.3 meter, slightly larger in diameter in 20 millimeters cylindrical peg is thrown the circular hole of elevating lever into (lower with) with one, can add first packing ring makes itself and landing slab face compress (together lower), make progress again about 1.6 meters and be second layer platform, there is about 1.25 a meters closing disk in the centre, covers the circular hole of 1.20 meters of diameters.Banking stop and the platform circular hole ring Zhou Peihe of closing disk that is noted that first, second two-layer platform is tighter, requires laterally to move non-displacement.Three layers of platform all will keep same level, the centre point vertical alignment of three circular holes of upper, middle and lower, finally will with the centre point vertical alignment of valve gap threaded hole.The height of working platform designs by the height that is higher than spillway, and total requirement is that maximum flood also floods less than the top layer working platform.Alternative plan is that reinforced concrete adds steel structure, and horizontal the drawing between namely three root posts reach is the reinforced concrete structure, and all the other structures are identical with the first scheme.
The deposition thickness measuring instrument is comprised of A, B two parts and closes, and adopts alloy material to make.The shape of A sees from the back side such as a very flat very long rectangular cylinder (up and down without sealing), and is wide about 200 millimeters, thick about 15 millimeters of ring wall, interior sky: about 170 millimeters, 20 millimeters of front and back, sky is exactly the chute that B is installed in this, and its front is cut 75 millimeters from top to bottom open, then the left side (is not cutd open, lower with) wide 90 millimeters, the right is wide 35 millimeters, metric size (0.5 meter one data plate is carved with on the limit of keeping right, the left side from the bottom up, 1 meter one sign, lower same); B is thick in 20 millimeters, wide less than 170 millimeters, basic configuration is just as a very long ruler, metric size is carved with on the left side (from about 95 millimeters beginnings of the right side amount of turning left) from the bottom up, top down (forward), the centre that is broken away with respect to the A front have one to be about 50 millimeters, wide about 70 millimeters spy silt plate (two jiaos fall stupefied one-tenth fillet), closely going up the top has a circular perforations.During installation B down injected from the top of A and get final product.Control but B is connected just automation with electric device, mix again the scanning sensing device, just can control the technology coupling with computer simulation.It is installed in working platform by the column of stair other (Lai Shui is kept away in the front, and is lower same), and the bottom of the reservior must be touched in the lower end of A, when not using B is lifted from the water surface.During measurement B slided downwards to visiting the silt plate and contacts silt and end, contrast this moment A, B both by water logging and scale just known the thickness of Sediment Siltation, namely the difference of both readings of A, B is exactly deposition thickness.In order to monitor silting-discharging effect, can several be installed in the waters branch away from working platform.
The control room can be built on the platform placed in the middle, also can build on the bank.Operation control can be adopted conventional control technology or computer simulation control technology.Here mainly for conventional control technology in conjunction with row's silt relevant issues, do briefly to set forth.
The lifting distance of setting elevating lever is 1 meter, and the impulse stroke that is to say it is 1 meter.We just respectively install a reverse limit switch (working platform is done an installing rack that can turn 90 degrees) in the upper and lower limit position of stroke so, fix an iron hoop in the relevant position of wire rope, and its width is just in time can push down reverse limit switch.We are scheduled to reservoir when row is not become silted up, and then desilting valve is in closed condition, and at this moment the iron hoop on the wire rope has just been pushed down the reverse limit switch of lower limit, and the circuit that has namely cut off downward work has been connected the upwards circuit of work of motor simultaneously.Although upwards the circuit of work is connected, the valve button (key) of opening in control room is not pressed, and motor will not be worked.Become silted up if arrange, the person on duty open valve button one by, motor start-up upwards promotes valve gap, run to the reverse limit switch that the upper limit has just been pushed down the upper limit, motor quits work, and has connected simultaneously the motor circuit of work downwards.Will stop row after some minutes and become silted up, just by closing the valve button, motor is work downwards just for the person on duty, and desilting valve has been closed again.Several groups of control buttons of meeting on the console in common control room are because a more than working platform in the reservoir, in other words a more than desilting valve.Also has the become silted up button of total lock of a switch pair.Do not reach the reservoir of grade for little (two) type, can not establish the control room yet, just control at working platform, even electricity consumption can not controlled yet.Usual farmland () irrigation water, also use this system.
Fig. 1 is desilting tube net schematic diagram, and Fig. 2 is plug formula diving valve schematic diagram, and Fig. 3 is deposition thickness measuring instrument schematic diagram.
Average wide 2 kilometers with one, long 4 kilometers, 15 meters dark accurate large reservoirs of retaining are example, only need to lay 2500 meters long trunk lines, 3 row's silt holes are arranged on the trunk line, respectively lay asymmetrically 2 branch pipe(tube)s to both sides by 600 meters spacing again, every is extended 600 meters (not necessarily isometric), proximal end has a row silt hole, then amounts to and will do 7 working platformes and be equipped with relevant device, and working platform will be by as far as numbering closely one by one (1---7).Build a control room, adopt routine to control technology, the numbering of 7 groups of control buttons on the console, numbering that must corresponding working platform, also must indicate dried, (available phonetic alphabet abbreviation is such as GN, ZI), as be foreign country's design, that is just abridged with foreign letter.If adopt computer simulation to control technology, must follow this principle during programming.The water reservoir management personnel monitor reservoir sedimentation and (relate to management rules at ordinary times, together lower), suppose that alluvial reaches 0.5 meter rice and need arrange once silt, the person on duty just starts first the total lock of row's silt, and again according to 7 group # buttons on the console, time sharing segment is opened or closed, namely row is become silted up from far near, this method is that " gesture " converted to " energy ", because under the pressure of storehouse water, the longer suction force that produces of the route that fluid moves in pipeline is just larger; Can open 1 " doing " 2 at every turn and " prop up ", or 2 " doing ", or 3 " propping up ", this combination is not only the flow that control enters trunk line, and best row's silt scheme is that silt is arranged in the combination of successively " propping up " with three 1 " doing " 2 in the present embodiment, row is become silted up complete, closes at last Zong Zha.So far, a working programme just is through with.If meet the flood that rises, it is husky to start row's silt system flood discharge spoil disposal, the effect of spillway, and the one, play safety effect (when rising by flood, lower with), the 2nd, allow floating thing flow away.In case flood stops, spillway does not have water to diffuse out substantially, and it is husky just to stop the flood discharge spoil disposal.Until silt after a period of time of clear shallow lake, carry out again next time the row work of becoming silted up.
Yes illustrate that above design scheme is relatively guarded, safety factor is larger in other words.Because of original two: one, it is the root of drawing deposit that bottom of the reservior row is become silted up, and cooperate the row the draw near method of becoming silted up, as long as valve one is opened, silt is just poured into valve as snowslide under the pressure of storehouse water, the silt that this collapse can drive the upper km distance of circumference springs up, herein a void, the other side is filled out, and must cause " domino effect ".Its two, in case the new reservoir retaining is just become silted up by management rules row, can not form " old old cellar for storing things ", the operational effect of system is extraordinary so this row is become silted up.
About maintenance or change the problem of part of appliance, the maintenance of equipment on the water surface or change has not simple and conveniently just been given unnecessary details.The equipment that is not had by water logging also only relates to cushion pad and wire rope.If the exchange buffering pad turn 90 degrees the limit switch installing rack first, to restart motor and upwards promote valve gap and to working platform, change, thing finishes the downward valve-off of actuating motor; If change steel rope more, only need wire rope is taken off from electric capstan, iron hoop is untied and taken down to strand fag end together, again one of new wire rope with old wire rope one is tangled, then the other end with old wire rope still is fixed on the electric capstan, last actuating motor ..., the program of back has not just repeated.
The present invention adopts when being specially adapted to loess plateau and similar area or nation-building reservoir.The present invention is the applicable transformation of severe siltation reservoir also, is selected in dry season opportunity, area or national just better enforcement of drought.Method is to take burst segmentation cofferdam construction, concentrates crack strength and sophisticated equipment, first the storehouse mouth is got straight, invigorates a slice, and cooperative mechanical is dredged and become silted up again, just can invigorate a sheet of.Can bring back to life Egyptian " Na Saier lake " with the present invention.
The present invention has the following advantages:
One, the pattern of draining with lakebed, the row who takes into account in length and breadth with minimum e-quipment and pipe, the composition that the fans out from point to area system of becoming silted up has really realized the effect of taking away the firewood under the cauldron,,
Its two, good energy-conservation and environment protecting, only opening and closing electricity consumption, row is become silted up and then to be utilized the pressure of storehouse water, deposit is drained from the bottom of the reservior can not stir and make muddy storehouse water, does not affect and drinks water intaking, can keep the long-term sanitation and hygiene of storehouse water.
Its three, comprehensive benefit is good, integrates row, fills with, lets out, and has improved the safety guarantee coefficient of reservoir.
Its four, facility is succinct, controls easyly, can adopt tradition to control technology, also can adopt computer simulation to control technology.
Its five, invest lessly, the effectiveness phase is very long, is the meter of long-term stability in fact.

Claims (10)

1. a reservoir is arranged silt system series technique design scheme, and its principal character comprises the desilting tube net, plug formula diving valve, working platform, series technique and the design scheme of deposition thickness measuring instrument and operation control technology and control method.
2. desilting tube net according to claim 1 is characterized in that being comprised of trunk line and branch pipe(tube), all is installed in the bottom of the reservior, and row's silt hole is arranged on trunk line and the branch pipe(tube), and row's silt is equipped with plug formula diving valve on the hole.
3. plug formula diving valve according to claim 2 is characterized in that by valve pocket, and valve gap and elevating lever form, and the row that valve pocket is installed in trunk line and branch pipe(tube) is become silted up on the hole, and valve gap and elevating lever are installed together.
4. plug formula diving valve according to claim 3, it is characterized in that valve pocket up an end external annulus is arranged, there is cylindrical spool in valve gap one side centre down, valve core upper sleeve is equipped with cushion pad, elevating lever is installed in one side centre up.
5. working platform according to claim 1 is characterized in that the row of striding silt Kong Erjian, and top layer has the service depot, and indoor location has electrical equipment, and some working platformes are pressed serial number from far near.
6. deposition thickness measuring instrument according to claim 1, it is characterized in that being formed by A, B two parts, chute for communicating up and down in the A, a part is cutd open in the front from top to bottom, and metric system people size is carved with on the limit of keeping right, the left side of not cuing open from the bottom up, and B is carved with metric size from the bottom up at the limit that keeps left, lower top is manufactured with visits the silt plate, during combination B is injected chute from the top of A, it is installed in by the working platform column, the bottom of the reservior must be touched in the lower end of A.
7. deposition thickness measuring instrument according to claim 6 when it is characterized in that using slides B to visiting the silt plate and contacts silt and end, contrast this moment see A, B both by water logging and the difference of reading be exactly deposition thickness, when not using B is lifted from the water surface.
8. technology and the control method controlled according to claim 1 is primarily characterized in that and can adopts routine to control technology, also can adopt computer simulation to control technology.
9. technology and the control method controlled according to claim 8, when it is characterized in that adopting routine to control technology, control button numbering on the console must be corresponding with the numbering of working platform, and must indicate " doing " and " propping up ", adopt computer simulation to control technology, when programming, also must follow this principle.
10. technology and the control method controlled according to claim 9 will be by number from far near when it is characterized in that row is become silted up, time sharing segment opens or shut-off plug formula diving valve, and can open 1 " doing " 2 at every turn and " prop up ".Or 2 " doing " or 3 " propping up ".
CN2012101203201A 2012-04-13 2012-04-13 Serial technology designing scheme for silt discharging system of reservoir CN103374899A (en)

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104250960A (en) * 2014-09-11 2014-12-31 河海大学 Reservoir silt-preventing laying method

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Application publication date: 20131030