CN103349067A - Method for anti-browning and color protecting preservation of litchi - Google Patents

Method for anti-browning and color protecting preservation of litchi Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103349067A
CN103349067A CN2013102773245A CN201310277324A CN103349067A CN 103349067 A CN103349067 A CN 103349067A CN 2013102773245 A CN2013102773245 A CN 2013102773245A CN 201310277324 A CN201310277324 A CN 201310277324A CN 103349067 A CN103349067 A CN 103349067A
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China
Prior art keywords
lichee
litchi
fresh
keeping
fruit
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Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
CN2013102773245A
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Chinese (zh)
Inventor
屈红霞
蒋跃明
黄梓辉
王慧
张正科
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South China Botanical Garden of CAS
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South China Botanical Garden of CAS
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Priority to CN2013102773245A priority Critical patent/CN103349067A/en
Publication of CN103349067A publication Critical patent/CN103349067A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

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Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23BPRESERVING, e.g. BY CANNING, MEAT, FISH, EGGS, FRUIT, VEGETABLES, EDIBLE SEEDS; CHEMICAL RIPENING OF FRUIT OR VEGETABLES; THE PRESERVED, RIPENED, OR CANNED PRODUCTS
    • A23B7/00Preservation or chemical ripening of fruit or vegetables
    • A23B7/14Preserving or ripening with chemicals not covered by groups A23B7/08 or A23B7/10
    • A23B7/153Preserving or ripening with chemicals not covered by groups A23B7/08 or A23B7/10 in the form of liquids or solids
    • A23B7/154Organic compounds; Microorganisms; Enzymes
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23LFOODS, FOODSTUFFS, OR NON-ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES A23B - A23J; THEIR PREPARATION OR TREATMENT, e.g. COOKING, MODIFICATION OF NUTRITIVE QUALITIES, PHYSICAL TREATMENT; PRESERVATION OF FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS, IN GENERAL
    • A23L5/00Preparation or treatment of foods or foodstuffs, in general; Food or foodstuffs obtained thereby; Materials therefor
    • A23L5/40Colouring or decolouring of foods
    • A23L5/41Retaining or modifying natural colour by use of additives, e.g. optical brighteners

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for anti-browning and color protecting preservation of litchi. The method comprises the following steps: picking the litchi fruits which are 80 to 90 percent mature and have no mechanical damages and insect diseases on sunny days; soaking the litchi fruits in a litchi preservation solution for 0.5 to 10 minutes; taking out the litchi fruits from the solution; and packing the litchi fruits with fresh-keeping bags for storage after the litchi preservation solution on the surface of the litchi fruits is dried. The litchi preservation solution is an apple polyphenol aqueous solution with a mass fraction of 0.05 to 5%. With the treatment of the method provided by the invention, the commodity rate of the litchi may be improved by 15 to 45%.

Description

A kind of lichee is prevented brown keeping fresh and protecting color method
Technical field:
The invention belongs to field of fruit freshness keeping, be specifically related to the anti-brown keeping fresh and protecting color method of a kind of lichee.
Background technology:
Lichee another name separated branch, formal name used at school Litchi chinensis Sonn., English name Litchi or Lychee.Lichee is nutritious, in every 100g pulp, and moisture content 84g, carbohydrate 14g, fatty 0.6g, protein 0.7g, vitamin C 36mg, riboflavin 0.04mg, niacin 0.4mg; Commodity value is high, is citrus, banana 4-10 times.They are good in color, smell and taste, are subject to through the ages liking of people always, but storage tolerance not, have saying of " a day and look becomes, two days and fragrant the change, three days and flavor becomes, color, smell and taste were gone on four, five ".The lichee maturation very easily rotted the summer of high temperature, was one of least long keeping fruit.Lichee is the Subtropic of China characteristic fruit, mainly plants in Guangdong, the provinces such as Guangxi, Fujian and Hainan, and sold inside the country was main, showed China's lichee cultivated area 55.56 ten thousand hm according to statistics in 2011 2, total output 175.8 ten thousand t, account for respectively 80% and 75% of world's lichee cultivated area and total output.Annual China accounts for more than 20% of total output because of the loss of rotting to cause.Along with improving constantly of cultivated area expansion and output, lichee, the status of longan in world's Fruit industry are more and more important, it is also more and more outstanding to adopt rear anticorrosion anti-brown problem, and do the fresh-keeping work of lichee well, to ensureing the market supply, increase orchard worker's income and exporting goods and earning foreign currency all significant.
Bubble chamber method on the rocks is mainly adopted in the at present domestic short distance transportation and sales of lichee.When amount on the rocks reached 50%, the fruit lowest temperature was down to 6 ℃, went up to 27 ℃ after 72 hours, was lower than room temperature, therefore, this method can make lichee transportation and sales 3 under normal temperature condition keep original cerise round the clock, local flavor is constant, and good fruit rate reaches 93%, and moisture loss is no more than 3%.But freshness date is shorter, and along with the thawing of ice cube, foam the temperature inside the box rises rapidly in transportation, very easily causes lichee to rot.And the fresh-keeping mode of this kind can cause lichee transport to the market take apart the packing after brown stain rapid, shelf life is very short, affects selling price.And the lichee haulage time that north fortune (transporting the provinces such as Heilungkiang, Liaoning to) and sea-freight export is long, must adopt refrigeration (3-5 ℃, relative humidity be 90%-95%) method fresh-keeping.Cold storing and fresh-keeping temperature in transportation is evenly constant, and the lichee fresh-keeping effect is better.The temperature of regulating in the refrigerating box in the transportation is 3-5 ℃.The refrigeration lichee needs before warehouse-in through soaking the Preservation Treatment such as medicine, packing.Some countries in the world, such as states such as South Africa, Australia, Israel, lichee outlet fresh-keeping adopt sulfur dioxide gas stifling, after the watery hydrochloric acid azaleine method of cold chain storing again, this method can keep preferably color of lichee, and the lychee storage phase can be extended to 1 month.Brown stain occurs after breaking away from cold storage environment in lichee easily.Than general haulage vehicle, the buying expenses of refrigerator car is higher, and refrigeration unit work increased fuel consumption, thus the cold storing and fresh-keeping transportation investment relatively high (Yang Songxia etc., guangdong agricultural science, 2012,16:196-199)
In recent years, the application of advanced technology, equipment makes litchi preserving technology obtain some gratifying progress, the root problem of the lichee fresh-keepings such as but China's litchi preserving technology lags behind at present, and it is fast that the lichee transportation loss that the equipment deficiency causes is large, quality descends not yet solves.Moreover, chemical preservative (such as Prochloraz, carbendazim, iprodione, probenazole, sulfur dioxide) is processed the environment and the food pollution that cause has become sensitive issue of consumer, and in some developed countries, chemical bactericide has been forbidden using in postharvest fruit and vegetable is processed; In addition, chemical preservative not yet can fundamentally be controlled the generation of fruit postharvest diseases, and resistance to the action of a drug problem is also so that Techniques For Chemical Control faces serious challenge.The lichee outlet of current China faces the dual puzzlement of residues of pesticides and disease and pest problem.Therefore, the New Cut Flower Fresh Keeping of development of new, environmental protection, green, safety and fresh-keeping technology during storage and transportation are to developing China's fruit industry and exporting goods and earning foreign currency significant.
Apple polyphenol (Apple Polyphenols, AP) is the secondary metabolite that apple produces in growth course, mainly comprises catechin, OPC class, hydroxycinnamic acid class, dihydrochalcone-like, flavonols, anthocyanin class etc.Apple polyphenol is the very strong antioxidant of a class, has to remove free radical, anti-oxidant, pre-anti-cancer, hypotensive, prevention of cardiac, anti-carious tooth, antiallergy, the functional characteristic such as antiviral.The ability of apple polyphenol removing ultra-oxygen anion free radical is 10-30 times of vitamin E oxidation resistance; Compare with other common polyphenol, not only the polyphenol kind is very abundant in the apple, and has more effective functionally, and apple polyphenol has better oxidation resistance and anti-carious tooth effect than Tea Polyphenols.In addition, apple polyphenol has better local flavor and dissolubility, is beneficial to the interpolation of food and medicine.Apple polyphenol is under average meals absorption level, routine pathology phenomenon on the clinical medicine can not appear, so apple polyphenol is very safe food additives and nutritious supplementary pharmaceutical, (Yang Wei etc. have broad application prospects in fields such as food, medicine, daily-use chemical industries, food research and development, 2012,33(1): 193-196).Patent 101810697A has announced the application of apple polyphenol in preparation liver-protecting medicine, health food or food.
Summary of the invention:
The purpose of this invention is to provide a kind of rotting rate that can reduce lichee, prevent that thereby denaturation from keeping its primary colors, keeping fruit quality and prolong storage period, using method is simple, the anti-brown keeping fresh and protecting color method of the lichee of green safety.
Lichee of the present invention is prevented brown keeping fresh and protecting color method, it is characterized in that, may further comprise the steps:
(a) select finely to gather, eight to ninety percent ripe, have no mechanical damage and the litchi fruits of disease and pest;
(b) litchi fruits is soaked in 0.5~10min in the lichee fresh-keeping liquid, takes out after the lichee fresh-keeping liquid of fruit surface dries, storage after packing with freshness protection package;
Described lichee fresh-keeping liquid is that mass fraction is 0.05~5% the apple polyphenol aqueous solution.
Describedly litchi fruits is soaked in the preferred soak time of 0.5~10min is 1~3min in the lichee fresh-keeping liquid.
Described lichee fresh-keeping liquid is that mass fraction is 0.05~5% the apple polyphenol aqueous solution, and it is preferably mass fraction is 0.2~0.5% the apple polyphenol aqueous solution.
Described to pack preferred with freshness protection package be that the bag film covering of 0.01~0.03mm is packed with thickness, and bag film mainly is to prevent the lichee dehydration.
Described storage can according to transportation range distance and the suitable reserve temperature of storing selection of time, be carried out normal temperature or cryopreservation.Better in conjunction with (1-4 ℃) storage in the freezer and refrigerator car shipment fresh-keeping effect.
Preservation method of the present invention not only can be used for the anti-brown look that protects of lichee, can also be used for the fresh-keeping of longan, banana and mango.
According to circumstances, the traditional chemical bactericide such as apple polyphenol of the present invention and TBZ can be mixed use, to strengthen fresh-keeping effect and to enlarge its scope of application.
After litchi fruits is processed through the anti-brown keeping fresh and protecting color method of lichee of the present invention, can improve the commodity rate 15-45% of lichee.
Description of drawings:
Fig. 1 is that the apple polyphenol of embodiment 1 is on the impact of Litchi fruit browning index;
Fig. 2 is that the apple polyphenol of embodiment 1 is on the impact of litchi fruits commodity rate;
Fig. 3 is that the anti-brown keeping fresh and protecting color method of the lichee of embodiment 1 is to the fresh-keeping effect of lichee.
The specific embodiment:
Following examples are to further specify of the present invention, rather than limitation of the present invention.
Embodiment 1:
1, material: lichee (Litchi chinenis, Sonn.) picks up from Gaozhou area, and kind is " Chinese wax ".
2, processing mode: fine fresh gather, eight to ninety percent ripe litchi fruits, carry out sorting, in order to reject disease wormed fruit, cull fruit, obtain having no mechanical damage and the litchi fruits of disease and pest.Contrast and processing fruit use respectively the apple polyphenol aqueous solution of clear water and freshly prepared variable concentrations (that apple polyphenol is soluble in water, concrete concentration is as shown in Table 1 and Table 2) immersion 3min, taking-up is after the apple polyphenol aqueous solution of fruit surface dries, with the thick Packing treatment of 0.015mm, 20 fruit/bags, 5 bags of fruits of every processing, 25 ℃ of storage 6d.
3, brown stain grade scale and browning index
Be divided into 5 grades from low to high by browning degree: 0 grade, without brown stain; 1 grade, the slight brown stain of brown stain area≤25%(); 2 grades, 25%<brown stain area≤50%; 3 grades, 50%<brown stain area≤75%; 4 grades, the brown stain area〉more than 75%.Browning index=Σ (brown stain progression * fruit number)/total fruit number.
4, commodity fruit rate
According to above brown stain classification results, statistics commodity fruit rate, 0 grade and 1 grade of fruit that fruit is considered as having commodity value, 2 grades-4 grades are considered as dogberry, do not possess commercial value.Commodity fruit rate computing formula is as follows:
Commodity rate %=(0 level fruit+1 grade of brown stain fruit number) * 100/ total fruit number
5, experimental result and analysis
Experimental result can find out from Fig. 1, Fig. 2 that as depicted in figs. 1 and 2 apple polyphenol has remarkable result to reducing denaturation exponential sum raising commodity rate aspect.And anti-brown effect is followed successively by mass fraction 0.5%, 0.2% and 0.1% the apple polyphenol aqueous solution by good to differing from.Room temperature storage 6d, browning index are followed successively by 26.25%, 30.45% and 31.63%, and contrast (67.93%) reduces by 41.68%, 37.48% and 36.3% respectively; Commodity rate (brown stain of 0+1 level really accounts for the percentage of total fruit number) is followed successively by 69.0%, 63.37% and 63.27% from high to low, and contrast (24.24%) improves 44.76%, 39.12% and 39.02% respectively.
The result shows that apple polyphenol has significant anti-brown color-protecting function (Fig. 3), can significantly improve lichee commodity fruit rate; And have concentration effect, higher anti-brown to protect chromatic effect better for concentration in scope of experiment.
Embodiment 2:
Material: lichee (Litchi chinenis, Sonn.) picks up from Gaozhou area, and kind is " beautiful pocket ".
Processing mode: fine fresh gather, eight to ninety percent ripe litchi fruits, carry out sorting, in order to reject disease wormed fruit, cull fruit, obtain having no mechanical damage and the litchi fruits of disease and pest.Contrast and processing fruit are respectively 0.05% the apple polyphenol aqueous solution (apple polyphenol of 0.05g is dissolved in the water of 100ml) immersion 10min with clear water and freshly prepared mass fraction, taking-up is after the apple polyphenol aqueous solution of fruit surface dries, with the thick Packing treatment of 0.01mm, 20 fruit/bags, 5 bags of fruits of every processing, 25 ℃ of storage 5d.Compared with the control, after the apple polyphenol aqueous solution through 0.05% was processed, the Litchi fruit browning index reduced 10-23%, and commodity rate improves 15-30%.
Embodiment 3:
Material: lichee (Litchi chinenis, Sonn.) picks up from In Guangzhou Area, and kind is " osmanthus flavor ".
Processing mode: fine fresh gather, eight to ninety percent ripe litchi fruits, carry out sorting, in order to reject disease wormed fruit, cull fruit, obtain having no mechanical damage and the litchi fruits of disease and pest.Contrast and processing fruit are respectively 5% the apple polyphenol aqueous solution (apple polyphenol of 5g is dissolved in the water of 100ml) immersion 0.5min with clear water and freshly prepared mass fraction, taking-up is after the apple polyphenol aqueous solution of fruit surface dries, with the thick Packing treatment of 0.03mm, 20 fruit/bags, 5 bags of fruits of every processing, 25 ℃ of storage 6d.
Compared with the control, after the apple polyphenol aqueous solution through 5% was processed, the Litchi fruit browning index reduced 35-79%, and commodity rate improves 32-45%.

Claims (4)

1. the anti-brown keeping fresh and protecting color method of lichee is characterized in that, may further comprise the steps:
(a) select finely to gather, eight to ninety percent ripe, have no mechanical damage and the litchi fruits of disease and pest;
(b) litchi fruits is soaked in 0.5~10min in the lichee fresh-keeping liquid, takes out after the lichee fresh-keeping liquid of fruit surface dries, storage after packing with freshness protection package;
Described lichee fresh-keeping liquid is that mass fraction is 0.05~5% the apple polyphenol aqueous solution.
2. the anti-brown keeping fresh and protecting color method of lichee according to claim 1 is characterized in that, described litchi fruits is soaked in the lichee fresh-keeping liquid, and its soak time is 1~3min.
3. the anti-brown keeping fresh and protecting color method of lichee according to claim 1 is characterized in that described lichee fresh-keeping liquid is that mass fraction is 0.2~0.5% the apple polyphenol aqueous solution.
4. the anti-brown keeping fresh and protecting color method of lichee according to claim 1 is characterized in that, the described packing with freshness protection package is to be that the bag film covering of 0.01~0.03mm is packed with thickness.
CN2013102773245A 2013-07-03 2013-07-03 Method for anti-browning and color protecting preservation of litchi Pending CN103349067A (en)

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Cited By (6)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN103947740A (en) * 2014-04-16 2014-07-30 中国科学院华南植物园 Novel antiseptic method of litchi chinensis
WO2015000330A1 (en) * 2013-07-03 2015-01-08 中国科学院华南植物园 Method for anti-browning and color protecting preservation of litchi
CN105166028A (en) * 2015-08-28 2015-12-23 周建卿 Preserving agent for litchi and preparation method of the preserving agent for litchi
CN106819082A (en) * 2016-12-30 2017-06-13 福建省亚热带园艺植物研究中心有限公司 A kind of fresh-keeping method for storage and transportation of lichee
CN106819089A (en) * 2017-01-06 2017-06-13 广东海洋大学 A kind of method for carrying out lichee fresh-keeping using dragon fruit pericarp anthocyanin
CN107744012A (en) * 2017-10-11 2018-03-02 广西超盛网络科技有限责任公司 A kind of preservation method of fresh potato flakes

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CN1097934A (en) * 1993-07-29 1995-02-01 曹愫 Fruit antistaling agents such as lichee
CN101253883A (en) * 2008-04-02 2008-09-03 叶贤忠 Fresh-keeping material of lichee, preparing and use method thereof
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Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
WO2015000330A1 (en) * 2013-07-03 2015-01-08 中国科学院华南植物园 Method for anti-browning and color protecting preservation of litchi
CN103947740A (en) * 2014-04-16 2014-07-30 中国科学院华南植物园 Novel antiseptic method of litchi chinensis
CN103947740B (en) * 2014-04-16 2015-10-28 中国科学院华南植物园 A kind of method of novel lichee
CN105166028A (en) * 2015-08-28 2015-12-23 周建卿 Preserving agent for litchi and preparation method of the preserving agent for litchi
CN106819082A (en) * 2016-12-30 2017-06-13 福建省亚热带园艺植物研究中心有限公司 A kind of fresh-keeping method for storage and transportation of lichee
CN106819089A (en) * 2017-01-06 2017-06-13 广东海洋大学 A kind of method for carrying out lichee fresh-keeping using dragon fruit pericarp anthocyanin
CN107744012A (en) * 2017-10-11 2018-03-02 广西超盛网络科技有限责任公司 A kind of preservation method of fresh potato flakes

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