CN103343498A - Track irregularity detecting system and method based on INS/GNSS - Google Patents

Track irregularity detecting system and method based on INS/GNSS Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103343498A
CN103343498A CN2013103124603A CN201310312460A CN103343498A CN 103343498 A CN103343498 A CN 103343498A CN 2013103124603 A CN2013103124603 A CN 2013103124603A CN 201310312460 A CN201310312460 A CN 201310312460A CN 103343498 A CN103343498 A CN 103343498A
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track
gnss
irregularity
ins
sequence
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CN103343498B (en
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牛小骥
陈起金
张全
章红平
刘经南
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Wuhan University WHU
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Wuhan University WHU
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Abstract

The invention discloses a track irregularity detecting system and method based on an INS/GNSS. According to the method, an INS/GNSS combined measurement system is taken as a core measurement device, is fixed and arranged on a moving support and moves along with the moving support on a track, and a three-dimensional position coordinate sequence of the track and an attitude angle sequence of the track are obtained through measurement. Track irregularity is evaluated through a track irregularity evaluation method based on the coordinate method according to the combination of tack design curve parameters, the three-dimensional position coordinate sequence of the track, the attitude angle sequence of the track and a gauge measured value. According to the track irregularity detecting system and method, high-accuracy and high-efficiency dynamic measurement of the track irregularity is achieved, the track irregularity is evaluated on the basis of the coordinate method, and the evaluation method is simpler and more convenient to conduct, intuitive and easy to understand.

Description

A kind of track irregularity detection system and method based on INS/GNSS
Technical field
The invention belongs to the railway track measurement field, relate to a kind of track irregularity detection system and method based on inertial navigation system (INS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurement in a closed series technology.
Background technology
Dynamically track checking car, light-duty track detection car, the string of a musical instrument and track forces are to measure the capital equipment of track irregularity and method (can referring to Chinese patent CN102337710A) at present, and existing measureing equipment and method are in certainty of measurement and measure the detection requirement that all is difficult to satisfy simultaneously high ferro non-fragment orbit irregularity on the efficient.
1, dynamic track checking car
Dynamically track checking car adopts the inertial reference measuring principle, the integrated numerous measureing equipments that comprise inertial sensor, have and measure advantages such as efficient height, comprehensive strong and measurement project be complete, can detect the integral status of assessment circuit, provide the power spectrum of whole highway section track irregularity, but be difficult to local highway section and emphasis detection highway section are provided careful accurate measurement information.Dynamically wavelength and the certainty of measurement of track checking car detection track irregularity are limited simultaneously, still can not satisfy the required precision of instructing track to adjust, the few and technical sophistication of number of devices.
2, light-duty track detection car
At present, light-duty track detection car development is widely used rapidly.Be to be the light-duty accurate track detection car of core measureing equipment with the high precision total station than mature technique wherein.Light-duty accurate track detection car based on total powerstation adopts method of absolute coordinate system to measure track geometry shape and detection track irregularity.High precision total station is surveyed the three-dimensional coordinate at prism center on the accurate track detection car, in conjunction with geometric parameter, orientation parameter, cross dip and the actual measurement gauge of the prior strict track detection car of demarcating, can converse midline position and the height above rail surface at corresponding mileage place then.And then compare with the track design load at this mileage place, by calculate given chord length check point between the difference of rise difference detect track irregularity.Be equipped with to use the track detection car of highest ranking total powerstation (0.5 " level total powerstation) and full accuracy grade, can reach the absolute positional accuracy of 1.5mm.
Carrying out track irregularity based on the light-duty accurate track detection car of total powerstation detects and has following defective: 1) inefficiency, the static measurement of total powerstation palpus, the a plurality of control points of backsight, adopt the work pattern of " loitering ", expectation efficient is 150m/h, is difficult to finish fast in the time in the skylight measurement task; 2) strong to track control net (CPIII) control point dependence, total powerstation is freely established the station needs backsight 6-8 CPIII control point, and in fact there is the maintenance cost height in the CPIII control point, destroys problems such as serious, brings inconvenience to actual measurement; 3) be unfavorable for that long wave detects, be subjected to the total station survey capabilities limits, once establish the about 60m of station measuring distance, need to carry out overlay segment between the survey station and measure in order to realize the unification of coordinate system; Controlled some precision influence of overlay segment certainty of measurement, thereby have " edge fit error ", also be that the position coordinates of each survey station is difficult to be converted to accurately under the unified coordinate system, this is with the accuracy of detection of grievous injury long-wave band irregularity; 4) do not possess ultrashort wave track irregularity detectability; 5) ambient conditions requires harshness, and it is bigger that total powerstation is influenced by extraneous measurement environment, as temperature, humidity, light, visibility etc., and substantially can not operation under the mal-condition.
Though exist above not enough, but be uniquely can satisfy the measurement scheme that high ferro track irregularity accuracy of detection requires at present based on the light-duty accurate track detection car of total powerstation, and with coordinate the track geometry shape is described and detect track irregularity have calculate simple, visual in image, advantage such as should be readily appreciated that.
3, the string of a musical instrument and track forces
Measurement is a kind of method that falls behind to track irregularity to adopt the string of a musical instrument and track forces, measure inefficiency, need artificial naked eyes reading, certainty of measurement is low, be not suitable for that the high ferro track is carried out irregularity and detect, the general highway sections use that only is not equipped with the mechanization checkout equipment at some.
4, the application of inertia measurement technology in orbit measurement and irregularity detection
The advantage of inertia measurement is the relative accuracy height, and Data Update is fast, and independence is strong, does not need other referential.The inertia measurement technology is widely used in orbit measurement and irregularity detect, and main application mode can be summarized as: 1) on the bogie on dynamic track checking car or the axle box installation side to coming track irregularity on detection level direction and the vertical direction with vertical accelerometer; 2) degree of will speed up meter is installed on the light-duty track detection car, in order to measure the angle of slope of dolly; 3) gyroscope is installed on the light-duty track detection car, measures the angle of track on in-plane and vertical direction and change, and carry out accordingly reckoning (Dead Reckoning, DR), the track irregularity on detection level direction and the vertical direction.
Above-mentioned measureing equipment and measuring method are all directly handled the original measurement value of inertance element:
Degree of will speed up original measurement amount obtains displacement to time twice integration, detects the relative variation of track geometry shape then according to displacement; Gyrostatic original measurement amount is carried out integration obtain the attitude measurement value, and carry out reckoning accordingly.Yet the inertia measurement technology acuracy is subjected to influence of various factors and constantly disperses, and main factor is the inertial sensor error, as accelerometer bias, gyro zero partially, accelerometer output-scale-factor error, gyro output-scale-factor error etc.The moment of inertia measurement information is done integration in time twice, and sensor error can accumulate in time, and certainty of measurement descends in time.Therefore thisly calculate that based on accelerometer or gyroscope primary signal the method major defect of track irregularity is: be difficult to effectively estimate and compensation inertial sensor error, fail to realize the optimal treatment to inertial sensor original measurement information.
The problem that runs into when solving above-mentioned independent use acceleration or gyroscope, the just progressively injection fields of measurement of measurement in a closed series technology of inertial technology and other technologies.
Abroad, Trimble Applanix company has designed that a cover track geometry detects and train location comprehensive solution POS-TG(can be referring to Chinese patent CN202124809U), the integrated numerous sensors that comprise Inertial Measurement Unit and GPS receiver in this scheme can provide track irregularity to detect service.But this product is used in the detection of dynamic car, is installed on the non-power truck wheel shaft of detection of dynamic car, belongs to the detection of dynamic scheme, still has complicated operation, detects defectives such as cost height.
Domestic, doctor Han Yunfei of Xi'an numeral science and technology Co., Ltd difficult to understand logical has proposed a kind of GPS track irregularity detection system and detection method (can referring to Chinese patent CN102337710A), belong to light-duty track detection car scheme, adopt the measurement in a closed series mode of inertia measurement technology and GPS double antenna, and formulated the new track assessment mode of a cover.This scheme has used the GPS double antenna to measure synchronous deflection and the angle of pitch is assisted INS course and angle of pitch measured value, to solve inertial navigation system (Inertial Navigation System, precision divergence problem INS).The GPS double antenna is a kind of effective supplementary means of inertia measurement, but this scheme also still has the following disadvantages: 1) measurement project is incomplete, this method is measured separately two one steel rails respectively, lose contiguity between the measured value of two one steel rails, can't detect and assess superelevation irregularity and the gauge irregularity of track; 2) there is the problem of distortion in the measurement of shortwave irregularity; 3) the track irregularity assessment is difficult to set up contact with existing assessment mode; 4) the data processing is very complicated, needs more manual intervention, in setting up the process of ideal curve, has the artificial possibility of judging by accident when dividing the classification of track section;
By above analysis, existing track irregularity measuring method can be summarized as follows:
Owing to many-sided reason, still be difficult to instruct the track accurate adjustment based on the detection of dynamic of dynamic track checking car; Actual track measure to be badly in need of a kind of certainty of measurement height, easy and simple to handle, portable, lightweight track detection car that operating efficiency is high, and existing track detection car based on the inertia measurement technology remains further research and perfect, does not still have matured product.At present, only the accurate track detection car based on high precision total station can satisfy the requirement of high ferro track irregularity certainty of measurement in precision, this method can directly provide the absolute location coordinates sequence of tested track, detect track irregularity according to position coordinates, assessment mode is easy, directly perceived, should be readily appreciated that, but this scheme is needed badly in its data acquisition efficiency and coordinate system and made improvement to adapt to the detection demand of high ferro track irregularity aspect first-class.
Summary of the invention
At existing light-duty accurate track detection car and the existing defective of irregularity detection technique thereof, the present invention proposes a kind of track irregularity detection method and system that combines with Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurement in a closed series technology, innovation measurement means and conventional rails irregularity appraisal procedure based on inertial navigation system (INS).
In order to solve the problems of the technologies described above, the present invention adopts following technical scheme:
One, a kind of track irregularity detection system based on INS/GNSS comprises measuring unit, and measuring unit comprises measureing equipment and light-duty portable traversing carriage; Measureing equipment is installed on the light-duty portable traversing carriage, comprises INS/GNSS combination metering system, odometer and displacement transducer, in order to obtain the orbit measurement value.
The present invention is based on the track irregularity detection system of INS/GNSS, also comprise data processing unit, data processing unit is handled described orbit measurement value, obtains the orbit space geometry, assesses track irregularity to detect, and the generator orbital amount of alloting.Data processing unit can obtain the orbit measurement value by modes such as copies data or information transmission modulars.
Above-mentioned light-duty portable traversing carriage is that light-duty portable railway is measured dolly.Light-duty portable railway is measured dolly and is placed on the orbital plane, comprises vehicle body frame and wheel, and vehicle body frame is rigid structures, can reflect truly that the attitude of track changes; Wheel keeps rigidity to contact with track, can truly reflect the deformation quantity of track all directions.
Above-mentioned INS/GNSS combination metering system comprise Inertial Measurement Unit (Inertial Measurement Unit, IMU), GNSS receiver and GNSS antenna.Inertial Measurement Unit comprises three axis accelerometer and three-axis gyroscope, is used for measuring three-dimensional acceleration and the three dimensional angular speed of light-duty portable traversing carriage; Odometer is used for measuring the range ability of light-duty portable traversing carriage direction along ng a path; Displacement transducer is used for measuring in real time complete track gauge.
Two, a kind of track irregularity detection method based on INS/GNSS according to three-dimensional location coordinates sequence and the attitude angle sequence of INS/GNSS combination metering system and odometer measured value acquisition track, is obtained the track gauge according to the displacement sensor value; Based on three-dimensional location coordinates, attitude angle sequence and the track gauge of track, in conjunction with track design curve parameter analysis and evaluation track irregularity.
Above-mentioned three-dimensional location coordinates sequence and attitude angle sequence according to INS/GNSS combination metering system and odometer measured value acquisition track further comprise substep:
Described three-dimensional location coordinates sequence and attitude angle sequence according to INS/GNSS combination metering system and odometer measured value acquisition track further comprise substep:
Positioning calculation GNSS measured value obtains comprising the GNSS tracks positioned result of three-dimensional absolute position and speed;
Time synchronized GNSS tracks positioned result, Inertial Measurement Unit measured value, odometer measured value and displacement sensor value, the non-integrity constraint of track to light-duty portable traversing carriage motion state upgraded as measuring, and with described GNSS tracks positioned result, Inertial Measurement Unit measured value with the odometer measured value merges and integrated positioning resolves, target track three-dimensional location coordinates sequence and attitude angle sequence when obtaining having GNSS.
Adopt Kalman filtering algorithm that GNSS tracks positioned result, Inertial Measurement Unit measured value and odometer measured value are carried out integrated positioning and resolve, and with the non-integrity constraint adding Kalman filtering algorithm of track to light-duty portable traversing carriage motion state.
Above-mentioned assessment track irregularity adopts the track irregularity computational methods based on coordinate method, is specially:
Obtain track irregularity information by the design rise difference of calculating two mileage points of selecting step interval and the deviation of surveying between the rise difference.
Above-mentioned assessment track irregularity comprises assessment track superelevation irregularity and/or gauge irregularity.
Described assessment track superelevation irregularity is obtained by same mileage place left side rail and right rail depth displacement, or adopts following method to obtain:
Three-dimensional location coordinates sequence and attitude angle sequence according to track, in conjunction with relative position and the relative attitude between geometric parameter, measureing equipment and the light-duty portable traversing carriage of the light-duty portable traversing carriage of demarcating in advance, calculate interorbital true attitude angle sequence;
Displacement sensor value and the true attitude angle sequence of track are converted to spatial synchronization by time synchronized;
Actual measurement track superelevation according to displacement sensor value and the true attitude angle sequence acquisition of track survey mark;
Design the superelevation irregularity sequence that superelevation can obtain track according to actual measurement track superelevation and track.
Described assessment track gauge irregularity adopts following method to obtain:
Three-dimensional location coordinates sequence and attitude angle sequence according to track, in conjunction with relative position and the relative attitude between geometric parameter, measureing equipment and the light-duty portable traversing carriage of the light-duty portable traversing carriage of demarcating in advance, calculate interorbital true attitude angle sequence;
Displacement sensor value and interorbital true attitude angle sequence are converted to spatial synchronization by time synchronized;
Displacement sensor value and gauge design load are compared, obtain the gauge deviation at corresponding mileage place, i.e. the gauge irregularity.
Compare with prior art, the present invention has following beneficial effect:
1, the present invention utilizes the long-time stability that the outstanding relative measurement ability of inertia measurement technology and GNSS locate, test the speed, and do not rely on any track control point and other auxiliary base points, thereby can realize quick, comprehensive, continuous, the high-precision independent measurement of track irregularity.
2, the present invention is easy to use, can realize the portable operation of " plug and play ", greatly reduces the professional requirement to survey crew; And also can operate as normal under abominable test environment.
3, the present invention can obtain three-dimensional location coordinates and the attitude sequence of track fast, measures the efficient height, can be used for having the line track irregularity of skylight time restriction to measure.
4, the present invention adopts coordinate method to describe the track geometry shape and detects track irregularity, and in the mode that metering system adopts relative measurement to combine with absolute measurement, efficient is far above total powerstation; Consistent, visual in image with the existing accurate track detection car appraisal procedure based on high precision total station on the track irregularity evaluation profile, should be readily appreciated that.
5, the present invention does not rely on any ground control point, can work alone fully; The absolute position error of Centimeter Level is much smaller than support rail interstation distance, thus the accurate position that takes place of positioning track irregularity.Carry out the track irregularity location with existing dependence kilometer stone and circuit odometer and compare, there are not the problems such as the accumulation of error on the mileage location in the present invention, provides new possibility for reducing railway construction from now on and keeping in repair input cost.
6, track irregularity of the present invention is measured the wavelength covering comprehensively: track three-dimensional location coordinates measured value all is positioned under the same coordinate system, does not exist and total powerstation similar " edge fit error ", thereby is conducive to the detection of long wave irregularity; The present invention simultaneously can detect ultrashort track irregularity, this be based on total powerstation accurate track detection car can't realize.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is system of the present invention vertical view;
Fig. 2 is system of the present invention elevation;
Fig. 3 is the roll angle repeatability comparison diagram that the present invention measures;
Fig. 4 is that 30 meters rails of the present invention and existing accurate track detection car based on total powerstation are to irregularity measurement result comparison diagram.
Among the figure, 1-wheel; 2-GNSS antenna; 3-IMU; 4-displacement transducer; 5-car body body framework; 6-track; 7-odometer.
The specific embodiment
The present invention, is fixedly installed on the traversing carriage and with traversing carriage and moves in orbit as the core measureing equipment with the INS/GNSS combination metering system, measures the three-dimensional location coordinates sequence and the attitude angle sequence that obtain track.According to three-dimensional location coordinates, attitude angle and the gauge measured value of track, and in conjunction with track design curve parameter, adopt the rail that calculates track based on the track irregularity appraisal procedure of coordinate method to, gauge, just, track irregularity information such as superelevation.
Because track has stronger constraint (namely to measuring the moving of car state, non-integrity constraint), therefore, can set up the internal association between two one steel rails according to track profile angle (comprising roll angle, the angle of pitch and course angle), extrapolate the three-dimensional location coordinates sequence of single rail accordingly, detect the irregularity of single track on level and elevation direction, and the longitudinal section of left and right sides rail and orbit parameter etc. detect data.
The INS/GNSS coordinate sequence that obtains based on the INS/GNSS combination metering system has high accuracy relative measurement and Centimeter Level absolute measurement double grading concurrently, and high accuracy relative position characteristic detects track irregularity in order to describe the track geometry shape; Centimeter Level absolute position characteristic provides orbital maintenance suggestion and the concrete track amount of alloting accordingly in order to locate the position that irregularity takes place.
Further specify the specific embodiment of the present invention below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and example.Following examples in order to the explanation but do not limit the present invention.
The track irregularity detection system of this specific embodiment, comprise measuring unit and data processing unit, wherein, measuring unit comprises light-duty portable railway measurement dolly and measureing equipment, and measureing equipment is by data acquisition unit or information transmission modular and data processing unit swap data; Measureing equipment is installed on light-duty portable railway and measures on the dolly, comprises INS/GNSS combination metering system, odometer and displacement transducer.Data processing unit is used for the original measurement value of off-line or on-line analysis measureing equipment, obtaining the orbit space geometry information, and the analysis and evaluation track irregularity, the generator orbital amount of alloting.
See Fig. 1~2, measuring unit of the present invention comprises INS/GNSS combination metering system, odometer 7, displacement transducer 4 and light-duty portable railway measurement dolly.Light-duty portable railway is measured dolly and is comprised vehicle body frame 5 and wheel 1, and vehicle body frame 5 is "T"-shaped rigidity vehicle body frame, and "T"-shaped rigidity vehicle body frame and three wheels 1 constitute the rigid unitary structure, and vehicle body frame 5 keeps fixed vertical with orbital plane.Light-duty portable railway is measured dolly can be by artificial promotion or the traction of other power-equipments, direction along ng a path motion on track 6; In the motion process, wheel 1 remains rigidity with orbital plane and contacts, and follows the tracks of the track true strain of different directions constantly; The rigidity vehicle body frame guarantees that the attitude that truly reflects track changes, thereby sets up two inner links between the track.The light-duty portable railway of the present invention is measured dolly and is not limited to "T"-shaped light-duty track detection car, and the light-duty track detection car of " H " shape or other shapes all can.
The INS/GNSS combination metering system comprises Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) 3, GNSS receiver and GNSS antenna 2.GNSS receiver integrated circuit board is built in Inertial Measurement Unit 3 housings, Inertial Measurement Unit 3 is fixed on the vehicle body frame 5, GNSS antenna 2 is fixed on the vehicle body frame 5 by the antenna mounting rod, and the relative position between the relative position between Inertial Measurement Unit 3 and the GNSS antenna 2 and Inertial Measurement Unit 3 and light-duty track detection car and relative attitude are all demarcated in advance.INS/GNSS combination metering system of the present invention comprises but is not limited only to Inertial Measurement Unit, GNSS receiver and GNSS antenna, also comprises with INS/GNSS being core but having merged in odometer, magnetometer, the air pressure altimeter sensor any one or multiple integrated form integrated navigation system." integral type " INS/GNSS system that this specific embodiment that is not limited to INS/GNSS combination metering system of the present invention adopts can not be integrated in " split type " integrated navigation system in the same housing for GNSS receiver and INS yet.
Inertial Measurement Unit IMU3 is made of three-axis gyroscope and three axis accelerometer, and three-axis gyroscope is used for measuring the three dimensional angular speed of light-duty track detection car, and three axis accelerometer is used for measuring the three-dimensional acceleration of light-duty track detection car.The GNSS receiver is measured three-dimensional absolute location coordinates and the speed of GNSS antenna under global coordinates system.Odometer is used for measuring the range ability of light-duty track detection car direction along ng a path, and displacement transducer is used for measuring in real time complete track gauge.The original measurement value of IMU, GNSS receiver, odometer and displacement transducer is with GNSS pulse per second (PPS) (Pulses Per Second, PPS) carry out time synchronized for reference, stamp unified GNSS time tag, in chronological sequence order is arranged and unified being recorded in the data acquisition unit.Data processing unit adopts the orbit measurement data that record in the Kalman filtering algorithm fused data collecting unit, resolves through integrated positioning, obtains track three-dimensional location coordinates and attitude, in conjunction with all kinds of track irregularities of track design curve parameter detecting.
Data processing unit is according to the track raw measurement data in the steps of processing data acquisition unit:
(1) data read
Read the track raw measurement data in the data acquisition unit.
(2) GNSS positioning calculation
Adopting PPK to resolve algorithm carries out precision positioning to the GNSS original measurement value in the orbit measurement data that read and resolves, obtain comprising the GNSS tracks positioned result of the following three-dimensional absolute location coordinates of global coordinates system and speed, described three-dimensional absolute location coordinates and speed have unified GNSS markers.
The GNSS tracks positioned is resolved specifically can adopt afterwards dynamic difference location (PPK), real time dynamic differential location (RTK), Static Precise Point Positioning (PPP) or single-point location (SPP) to wait to resolve pattern and is resolved the GNSS original measurement value, preferably adopts afterwards dynamic difference to locate (PPK) and resolves pattern.
(3) INS/GNSS integrated navigation positioning calculation
GNSS tracks positioned result, IMU original measurement value, odometer original measurement value are carried out time synchronized, the IMU original measurement value comprises three-dimensional acceleration and the three dimensional angular speed of light-duty portable railway measurement dolly, and the odometer original measurement value comprises that light-duty portable railway measurement dolly is along the range ability of track; The non-integrity constraint of track being measured the moving of car state to light-duty portable railway upgrades as measuring simultaneously, according to the Inertial Measurement Unit of demarcating and the relative position between the GNSS antenna, utilize Kalman filtering algorithm that GNSS tracks positioned result, IMU original measurement value and odometer original measurement value are merged and integrated positioning resolves, target three-dimensional location coordinates sequence and attitude angle sequence when obtaining IMU measuring center place and having GNSS.Odometer measured value and non-integrity constraint are the important measurement lastest imformations of inertial reference calculation, and especially when the GNSS signal was blocked or interrupts, the inertial navigation certainty of measurement was significant for keeping.
Non-integrity constraint refers to that light-duty portable railway measures dolly in orbit during orbital motion, speed on side direction and the vertical direction is almost nil, therefore this non-integrity constraint can be regarded as a kind of virtual survey data, in Kalman filtering algorithm as a kind of metrical information, to improve integrated navigation calculation accuracy, the inherent correlation between strengthened rail position and the attitude angle.
INS/GNSS integrated navigation calculation method can be for pattern is resolved in the pine combination, pattern is resolved in tight combination or pattern is resolved in the tight combination of PPK, wherein, pine combination is resolved GNSS calculation method under the pattern and is comprised that pattern is resolved in dynamic difference location (PPK), real time dynamic differential location (RTK), Static Precise Point Positioning (PPP), single-point location (SPP) etc. afterwards.Preferred dynamic difference location (PPK) calculation method afterwards in this concrete enforcement.
(4) the three-dimensional location coordinates sequence at the IMU measuring center place that step (3) is obtained (for example is converted to local horizontal coordinates, sky, northeast coordinate system), and the three-dimensional location coordinates sequence under the local horizontal coordinates and attitude angle sequence carried out the match interpolation by selected step-length, obtain having fixedly mileage track three-dimensional location coordinates sequence and attitude angle sequence at interval.
(5) measure the geometric parameter of dolly and IMU and light-duty portable railway according to the prior strict light-duty portable railway of demarcating and measure relative position relation and relative attitude between the dolly, have fixedly three-dimensional location coordinates sequence and the reckoning of attitude angle sequence track centre, left rail and the true attitude angle sequence of right rail between the three-dimensional location coordinates sequence on plane and the elevation direction and two rails at mileage IMU measuring center place at interval by what step (4) obtained.
(6) the track centre three-dimensional location coordinates sequence that obtains according to step (5) to irregularity be uneven suitablely, obtains the track amount of alloting in conjunction with the track centre rail of track design curve calculation of parameter different chord lengths.For wall scroll rail (that is, left rail or right rail), according to east to the north to coordinate sequence calculate track irregularity in the horizontal direction, can calculate irregularity on the track elevation direction according to vertical coordinate sequence.
Track design curve parameter is not limited only to original design curve and the orbital elements of track, also can be the optimal trajectory curve that obtains according to match after the INS/GNSS coordinate sequence inverse orbit parameter.As, when match obtains the optimal trajectory curve according to the track centre three-dimensional location coordinates, can adopt whole least-square fitting approach, carry out fitting a straight line at straightway; Carry out circular fitting at circular curve segment; Carry out repeatedly curve match in the easement curve section.Above-mentioned orbital elements comprise orbital curve type and length, easement curve segment length, circular curve radius and steering direction, the longitudinal gradient gradient and design superelevation etc.
Track irregularity computational methods of the present invention comprise but are not limited only to calculate the design rise difference of two mileage points of selecting step interval and the deviation between the actual measurement rise difference.The track irregularity computational methods are seen " the provisional technical condition of Line for Passenger Transportation track geometry status measuring instrument ".
(7) the track three-dimensional coordinate sequence that the displacement transducer original measurement value in the track raw measurement data and step (5) are obtained and true attitude angle sequence are converted to spatial synchronization by time synchronized, for example, align in the trackage alignment or according to absolute location coordinates; Complete gauge measured value and gauge design load that displacement sensor is obtained compare, and obtain the gauge deviation at corresponding mileage place, i.e. the gauge irregularity.
(8) the complete gauge measured value that obtains according to displacement sensor and the roll angle in the true attitude angle sequence of track calculate the actual measurement track superelevation δ of each survey mark h=l * sin φ, wherein, l is complete gauge measured value, i.e. displacement transducer measured value; φ is the true roll angle measured value of track after established angle corrects.Actual measurement track superelevation deducts the superelevation irregularity value sequence that track design superelevation can obtain track; The actual measurement superelevation also can be directly calculated by the difference of the elevation of left rail, right rail on the same mileage points.
The present invention adopts the measureing equipment that is fixed on the traversing carriage to obtain three-dimensional location coordinates sequence, attitude angle sequence and the gauge measured value of track fast, detects all kinds of track irregularities in conjunction with the track design load.The three-dimensional location coordinates sequence of track can but be not limited only to describe under global coordinates system and the local horizontal coordinates, can also in officely what explain under its orbit measurement coordinate system.
INS/GNSS combination metering system of the present invention can be the combination metering system of loose integrated mode, tight integrated mode or dark integrated mode.Inertial Measurement Unit of the present invention (IMU) comprises but is not limited only to tactics level and navigation level IMU.GNSS receiver and GNSS antenna comprise but are not limited only to receive receiver and the positioning antenna of global system (GPS of America/Russian GLONASS/Galileo/ of European Union China BDS), district system (Japanese QZSS/ India IRNSS) and WAAS navigation positioning system signals such as (WAAS/EGNOS/SDCM/MSAS/GA GAN/NiSatCom-1).
For investigating accuracy of detection of the present invention and reliability, we have carried out orbit measurement experiment on the spot at the newly-built intercity high speed passenger dedicated railway of wide pearl; From precision of inner coincidence and two aspects of precision of exterior coincidence test result is carried out analysis and assessment, the result is as follows:
Be the precision of inner coincidence of assessment measurement result of the present invention, in the experiment same section track carried out four times and measured that namely two come and go measurement.The track length of being measured by native system is 1.2km, and repeatedly retest shows, measurement result has good repeatability.The roll angle sequence comparison diagram of Fig. 3 for same section track measured for four times.As can be seen from the figure, the curve of roll angle on mileage that four measurements obtain is almost consistent, in order to distinguish the curve of each measurement, has artificially added different normal value skews on every curve during mapping.Statistics shows, the roll angle mutual deviation that measures for four times is less than 0.01 degree.
Be the precision of exterior coincidence of assessment measurement result of the present invention, measurement result of the present invention and accurate track detection car measured value based on high precision total station are compared.Because total station survey efficient is low, the measurement track length of frame of reference is 300m; Fig. 4 for the present invention and existing 30 meters rails measuring based on the accurate track detection car of total powerstation to irregularity measurement result comparison diagram, clear readable for making comparison diagram, only provided preceding 160 meters result among the figure and be analyzed.As can be seen from Figure 4: the present invention is almost consistent with the accurate track detection car measurement result based on total powerstation of existing full accuracy, but the two result at part details place (as in relative mileage interval [10,15] in) there is certain deviation, but deviation is all less than the allowable error 2mm of the detection of 30m track irregularity.

Claims (10)

1. the track irregularity detection system based on INS/GNSS is characterized in that, comprises measuring unit, and measuring unit comprises measureing equipment and light-duty portable traversing carriage; Measureing equipment is installed on the light-duty portable traversing carriage, comprises INS/GNSS combination metering system, odometer and displacement transducer, in order to obtain the orbit measurement value.
2. the track irregularity detection system based on INS/GNSS as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that:
Also comprise data processing unit, data processing unit is handled described orbit measurement value, obtains the orbit space geometry, assesses track irregularity to detect, and the generator orbital amount of alloting.
3. the track irregularity detection system based on INS/GNSS as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that:
Described light-duty portable traversing carriage is that light-duty portable railway is measured dolly.
4. track irregularity detection method based on INS/GNSS is characterized in that:
According to three-dimensional location coordinates sequence and the attitude angle sequence of INS/GNSS combination metering system and odometer measured value acquisition track, obtain the track gauge according to the displacement sensor value; Based on three-dimensional location coordinates, attitude angle sequence and the track gauge of track, in conjunction with track design curve parameter analysis and evaluation track irregularity.
5. the track irregularity detection method based on INS/GNSS as claimed in claim 4 is characterized in that:
Described three-dimensional location coordinates sequence and attitude angle sequence according to INS/GNSS combination metering system and odometer measured value acquisition track further comprise substep:
Positioning calculation GNSS measured value obtains comprising the GNSS tracks positioned result of three-dimensional absolute position and speed;
Time synchronized GNSS tracks positioned result, Inertial Measurement Unit measured value, odometer measured value and displacement sensor value, the non-integrity constraint of track to light-duty portable traversing carriage motion state upgraded as measuring, and with described GNSS tracks positioned result, Inertial Measurement Unit measured value with the odometer measured value merges and integrated positioning resolves, target track three-dimensional location coordinates sequence and attitude angle sequence when obtaining having GNSS.
6. the track irregularity detection method based on INS/GNSS as claimed in claim 5 is characterized in that:
Adopt Kalman filtering algorithm that GNSS tracks positioned result, Inertial Measurement Unit measured value and odometer measured value are carried out integrated positioning and resolve, and with the non-integrity constraint adding Kalman filtering algorithm of track to light-duty portable traversing carriage motion state.
7. the track irregularity detection method based on INS/GNSS as claimed in claim 5 is characterized in that:
Described assessment track irregularity adopts the track irregularity computational methods based on coordinate method, is specially:
Obtain track irregularity information by the design rise difference of calculating two mileage points of selecting step interval and the deviation of surveying between the rise difference.
8. the track irregularity detection method based on INS/GNSS as claimed in claim 5 is characterized in that:
Described assessment track irregularity comprises assessment track superelevation irregularity and/or gauge irregularity.
9. the track irregularity detection method based on INS/GNSS as claimed in claim 8 is characterized in that:
Described assessment track superelevation irregularity obtains actual measurement track superelevation by same mileage place left side rail and right rail depth displacement, or adopts following method to obtain:
Three-dimensional location coordinates sequence and attitude angle sequence according to track, in conjunction with relative position and the relative attitude between geometric parameter, measureing equipment and the light-duty portable traversing carriage of the light-duty portable traversing carriage of demarcating in advance, calculate interorbital true attitude angle sequence;
Displacement sensor value and interorbital true attitude angle sequence are converted to spatial synchronization by time synchronized;
Actual measurement track superelevation according to displacement sensor value and the true attitude angle sequence acquisition of track survey mark;
Design the superelevation irregularity sequence that superelevation can obtain track according to actual measurement track superelevation and track.
10. the track irregularity detection method based on INS/GNSS as claimed in claim 8 is characterized in that:
Described assessment track gauge irregularity adopts following method to obtain:
Three-dimensional location coordinates sequence and attitude angle sequence according to track, in conjunction with relative position and the relative attitude between geometric parameter, measureing equipment and the light-duty portable traversing carriage of the light-duty portable traversing carriage of demarcating in advance, calculate interorbital true attitude angle sequence;
Displacement sensor value and interorbital true attitude angle sequence are converted to spatial synchronization by time synchronized;
Displacement sensor value and gauge design load are compared, obtain the gauge deviation at corresponding mileage place, i.e. the gauge irregularity.
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